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PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



NOVEMBER, 1889, 



JUNE, 1890. 



VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION. 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 
11, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1890. 



HARRISON AND SONS, 

PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, 

ST. MARTIN'S LANE, LONDON. 



COUNCIL, 1889-90. 



President. 
P. le Page Renouf. 



Vice-Presidents. 



Lord Halsbury, The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Ven. J. A. Ilessey, D.C.L., D.D., Archdeacon of Middlesex. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

The Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, G.C.B., &c. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles T. Newton, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c, &c. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c, &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, G.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 



Council. 



W. A. Tyssen Amherst, M.P.. &c. 

Rev. Charles James Ball. 

Rev. Canon Beechey, M.A. 

Prof, R. L. Bensly. 

E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. 

Arthur Cates. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 

Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 



Rev. Albert Lowy. 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.D. 

Rev. James Marshall. 

Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 

J. Pollard. 

F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A. 

E. Towry Whyte, M.A. 

Rev. W. Wright, D.D. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



CONTENTS. 



Secretary's Report for 1889 ... 129-134 

List of Council, &c, for 1890 ... ... ... ... 136 

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year ending 

31st December, 1889 ... ... ... ... ... 135 

Donations to Library > 

3 [ ••• h 5!> I2 7, i55> 22 5> 353, 3 Sl 

Purchases for Library) 

Nomination of Candidates... 3, 52, 128, 156, 226, 354, 382 

Election of Members ... ... 52, 128, 155, 226, 354,382 

Errata ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 262 

November 5, 1889. No. lxxxvi. 

Rev. C. J. Ball. The New Accadian. Parti 4-41 

Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S. The Tree and Fruit 

represented by the Tapuakh of the Hebrew Scriptures 42-48 

P. J. de Horrack. Note on the D'Orbiney Papyrus ... 49-50 

December 3, 1889. No. lxxxvii. 

Rev. C. J. Ball. The New Accadian. Part II 53-S0 

Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S. Was the Camel 

known to the Ancient Egyptians? ... ... ... 81-84 

F. L. Griffith. Notes on Egyptian Inscriptions of the 

Middle Kingdom S5-88 

F. L. Griffith. Notes on a Tour to Upper Egypt. 

(Continued from Vol. XI, p. 234.) ... ... ... S9-IT3 

Professor Karl Piehl. Notes sur Philologie Egyptienne 

{Continued from Vol. XI, p. 226.) ... ... ... 114-125 

P. G. Pinches. Letter ... 126 



CONTENTS. A 

January 14th, 1890. (Anniversary.) No. lxxxviii. 

I'AOE 

Secretary's Report for the year 1889 ... ... ... 129-134 

Statement of Accounts for the year ending 31 Dec, 1889 135 

Council and Officers, 1890 ... ... ... ... 136 

Robert Brown, Jun., F.S.A. Remarks on the Tablet of 

Thirty Stars. Part I. (Two illustrations.) ... ... 137-15- 

February 4, 1890. No. lxxxix. 

E. de Bunsen. The Pharaohs of Moses according to 
Hebrew and Egyptian Chronology ... ... ... 157-166 

A. L. Lewis. Some suggestions respecting the Exodus 167-179 

Robert Brown, Jun., F.S.A. Remarks on the Tablet of 

Thirty Stars. Part II. (Illustrated.) ... ... 180-206 

Rev. C. J. Ball. The New Accadian. Part III ... 207-222 

March 4, 1890. No. xc. 

J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. On Copper and Bronze 

of Ancient Egypt and Assyria ... ... ... ... 227-234 

Professor G. Maspero. Sur le Sens des Mots Nouit et 

Hait 235-257 

Dr. A. Wiedemann. A forgotten Prince ... ... 258-261 

Professor Karl Piehl. Errata ... ... ... ... 262 

F. L. Griffith. Notes on Egyptian Texts of the Middle 
Kingdom. Part II 

Rev. C. J. Ball. The New Accadian. Part IV 



263-268 
269-287 



April. (No. Meeting.) No. xci. 

Rev. C. A. de Cara. (Letter.) The Hittites 289-291 

Dr. Mse. Schwab. Les Coupes Magiques et l'Hydro- 

mancie dans l'antiquite orientale. (5 plates.) ... ... 292-342 

P. le Page Renouf (President.) The Names of Isis 

and Osiris 343~34^ 

P. le Page Renouf (President.) JNleith of Sais ... ... 347-352 



VI CONTENTS. 

May 6, 1890. No. xcn. 

PAGE 

P. le Page Renouf (President). The Priestly Character 

of the Earliest Egyptian Civilization ... ... ... 355-362 

P. le P. Renouf (President). Seb or Queb ; Sechet and 

Sechmet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 363-367 

Professor Karl Piehl. Notes de Philologie Egyptienne. 

( Continued from p. 125.) ... ... ... ... 368-380 

June 3, 1890. No. xcin. 

Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S. The Winged Figures 
of the Assyrian and other Ancient Monuments 3^3 _ 393 

Rev. C. J. Ball. The New Accadian. Part V 394-418 

Prof. Maspero. Sur les Dynasties Divines de l'Ancienne 
Egypte 4I9-43 2 

Prof. Karl Piehl. Notes de Philologie Egyptienne. (Con- 
tinued from p. 380.) ... ... ... ... ... 433-438 

Prof. E. Lefebure. Sur differents noras Egyptiens ... 439-456 

G. A. Simcox. Tyre ... ... ... ... ... 457-459 

P. le Page Renouf (President). The Sunstroke in 
Egyptian ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 460-461 

Hyde Clarke. Cypriote and Khita ... ... ... 462-470 



CONTEXTS. 



VI 1 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Capricorn (from a Babylonian Uranographic Stone) 

Capricorn (from a Euphratcan Boundary Stone) 

The Ptolemaic Taurus 

Lunar Bull. Symbol from Hamath Stone 

Egyptian Fortress (plan) ... 

Egyptian Chateau (plan) 

Inscribed Bowl A ... 

Ditto B 

Ditto C 

Ditto D 

Ditto E 

Winged Figures. Plate I ... 

Ditto ,, II 

Ditto „ III 

Ditto ,. IV J 



PACE 

'5° 

T 5° 
iSf, 

18O 

247 
2 54 
299 
306 
310 

3i3 
322 



583- 



393 



VOL. XII. Part i. 

=f 

PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



-*£- 



VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION. 

First Meeting, November 5, 1889. 



■m- 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Rev. C. J. Ball. — The New Accadian 4-41 

Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L. S. — The Tree and Fruit 

represented by the Tapuakh of the Hebrew Scriptures 4-4^ 

P. J. de Horrack. — Note on the D'Orbiney Papyrus 49-50 



-#£- 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

ii, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

188 9. 



[No. LXXXVI.] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 

ii, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



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I: 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTIETH SESSION, 1889-90. 



First Meeting, $tk November, 1889. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq., President, 

IN THE CHAIR. 



-*£><&$- 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, F. L. Griffith :— The Inscriptions of Siut and 
Der Rifeh. London. Fol., 1889. 

From the Author, Rev. P. Cesare A. De Cara, D.C.D.G. :— Gli 
Hyksos o Re Pastori di Egitto. 8vo. Roma, 18S9. 

From the Author, D. Simonson, Rabbin : — Sculptures et Inscrip- 
tions de Palmyre a la Glyptotheque de Ny Carlsberg. 8vo. 
Copenhagen, 1889. 

From the Author, Dr. A. Wiedemann : — Aegyptologische Studien. 

Die Praeposition x e &- Die Augenschminke mestem. 8vo. 
Bonn, 1S89. 

From the Author, Dr. A. Wiedemann : — Wm. Flinders Petrie, 
Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoe. 
Review of (Reprint). 
[No. lxxxvi.] 1 b 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1889. 

From the Author, Rev. I. N. Fradenburgh, Ph.D., D.D. :— Old 
Heroes, the Hittites of the Bible. New York. 8vo. 1889. 

From the Author, Dr. F. E. Peiser : — Die Zugehorigkeit der 
unter Nr. 84. 2-1 1 im British Museum registrirten Thon- 
tafelsammlung zu den Thontafelsammlungen des Koniglichen 
Museums zu Berlin. 8vo. 

Sitz. der K. Pruss. Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 
1889. xxxviii. 
From the Author, Dr. C. P. Tiele : — Over de spijkerschrift- 
tafels onlanges te Tell-el-Amarna gevonden. 8vo. Amsterdam. 
1889. 

Koninklijke Akad. van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling, Letter- 
kunde 3de. Reeks, Deel VI. 

From the Author, W. G. Hird : — Monumental Records, or the 
Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia, and their bearing on 
Bible History, &c. London, 1889. 

From the Author, Dr. O. V. Lemm : — Sahidische Bibelfrag- 
mente. 8vo. 1889, St. Pe'tersbourg. 
Melanges Asiatiques, T. X, Livr. 1. 

From the Author, Rev. A. J. Delattre, S.J. : — Les Chaldeens 
jusqu'a la formation de l'Empire de Nabuchodonosor, precede 
de considerations sur un recent livre de M. Hugo Winckler. 
(Two editions.) Louvain, 1889. 

From the Author, Dr. Hugo Winckler. Plagiat? — Antwort 
auf die von A. J. Delattre, S.J., gegen mich erhobenen 
beschuldigungen. 8vo. Leipzig, 1889. 

From the Author, Prof. Robert W. Rogers : — Two Texts of 
Esarhaddon (King of Assyria 681-668 B.C.). 8vo. 
Haverford College Studies, No. 2. 

From the Author, Rev. J. A. Paine : The Pharaoh of the 
Exodus, and his Son, in the light of their Monuments. 

Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine. Sept., 1889. Vol. 
XXXVIII, No. 5. 

From the Editor : — The Pharaoh and Date of the Exodus, a 
Study in Comparative Chronology. By Jacob Schwartz. 
The Theological Monthly. 8vo. No. 3. March, 1889, 
London. 

2 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

From the Author, Robt. Brown, Jr., F.S.A., &c. : — The Etruscan 
Numerals. 

The Archaeological Review, Vol. Ill, Nos. 5 and 6. July, 
1889. 
From A. Karoly : — L'homme prehistorique : L'origine du Lan- 
gage ; par Zaborowski. L'Asie Occidentale et 1'Egypte ; par 
A. Ott. 8vo. Paris. 

Bibliotheque Utile, Vols. XV, L, and XXXIII. 

The following were nominated for election at the next 
Meeting on 3rd December, 1889: — 

Dr. Martin Jager, Keilstrasse, 18 11 , Leipzig. 

Rev. Thomas Robson Pickering, Harrington, West Cumberland. 

Jos. C. Green, M.D., Buffalo, New York, U.S.A. 

John T. D. Llewelyn, Penllergare, Swansea. 

Dr. Leon de Lantsheere, 210, Rue du Trone, Bruxelles. 

Prof. R. L. Bensly, Professor of Arabic, Caius College, Cambridge. 

Monsieur l'Abbe Martin, Paris. 

Prof. O. Donner, Helsingfors University, Finland. 

Alexander Payne, F.R.I. , B.A., F.S.I., A.I.C E., 4, Storeys Gate, 
St. James's Park, S.W. 

Rev. Edward George King, D.D., Vicar of Madingley, Cambridge. 

Mrs. Voile, 10, Museum Mansion, Great Russel Street, W.C. 

The Ven. James Augustus Hersly, D.C.L., LL.D., &rc, Arch- 
deacon of Middlesex, 41, Leinster Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 



A Paper was read by Rev. C. J. Ball, entitled, "Notes 
on the Accadian Laneuaee." 



A Paper by Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S., entitled, 
" The Tree and Fruit represented by the Tappuakh of the 
Hebrew Scriptures," was read by the Rev. A. Lowy. 



b 2 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

THE NEW ACCADIAN. 
By the Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A., Oxon., 

CHAPLAIN OF LINCOLN'S INN ; FORMERLY CENSOR AND LECTURER IN 
KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 

Some time ago I began to study Chinese, not so much with a 
view to mastering the literature of that remarkable language, as for 
purposes of philological comparison. I had not gone far before I 
was struck by an apparent parallelism of sound between a series of 
terms with which I was already familiar in the Babylonian syllabaries, 
and a Chinese series of similar import. The Accadian terms were 
these : 

A-A (or AI), " father." 
A-A (or AI), "moon." 

A "hand," "side." 

A "son." 

and the Chinese : 

ye, " father " (Amoy id). 
yueh, " moon." 
yu, " hand." 
yu, " young." 

These coincidences appeared to me so curious, that I thought 
it might be worth while to make further investigation in order to 
determine, if possible, whether there might not be something more 
in them than mere accident. I could not help remembering that 
in Accadian the moon is a goddess, and the consort of the sun, just 
as she is in Chinese, whereas in the Semitic languages generally, the 
term for " moon " is of the masculine gender ; so that a Babylonian 
or an Assyrian uninfluenced by non-Semitic ideas, would have 
naturally spoken of the moon-god. Then, again, the Turkish ai, 
" moon," was present to my mind, as also the Coptic Ioh (a de- 
scendant of the old Egyptian cta/i), and even the Greek Io, which 
Pausanias tells us was a title of the moon-goddess at Argos. It 
seemed noteworthy that all these names contained the^-sound, which 
Assyrian scholars consider to be either expressed or suppressed in 
the sign ]] ^ a-a or a-i. 

4 



Nov. s] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

Now it was plain that if I wished to trace a possible connection 
between two languages so remote from each other in time and place 
as the old non-Semitic idiom of Babylonia and the Mandarin dialect 
of Chinese, it would not do to be satisfied with mere similarities of 
sound, even when the inference of identity might seem to be con- 
firmed by similarity of meaning. Scientific philology is not a hotch- 
potch of isolated resemblances. The proper course appeared to be 
to try to establish uniformities in the permutation of sounds between 
the two languages. 

I had chanced to begin with words presenting an initial y in 
Chinese, so I proceeded to look for other instances of correspon- 
dence involving this letter. The advanced stage of phonetic decay 
presented by the Mandarin dialect, and the fact, familiar in philology, 
of initial G wearing down in course of time to a Y sound, at once 
suggested that the numerous cases of initial Y in the common 
language of modern China might exemplify this change. If this 
idea were correct, and Chinese were really cognate with Accadian, 
I expected to find that the substitution of an initial G for a Y in 
Chinese words would yield forms recognisably related to corres- 
ponding Accadian terms. Accordingly, I wrote the Chinese ye, 
" night," with a g, and got the Accadian gk, " night " (Assyrian 
tniisu). It was an isolated fact, but it encouraged me to pursue 
what might, after all, turn out to be a will-o'-the-wisp. The result 
was the following list : 

Accadian. Chinese, 

ge, gea, "night." ye, "night." 

gig (salmu), "shadow," "dark," yt'ng, " a shadow "; yu, "dark." 

"image," "likeness." yin, "shady," "a shade." 

(eqlitu), "darkness." 

GU (sas/i, qibii, apalu, etc.), "to yu, " to speak "; yen, "word.'' 

speak." 

gig (tnarsu, fnursu), "sick," yang, "sickness." 

"sickness." 

gana (ginu), "garden." yuen, "garden." 

{eqlu), "field." 

gis, gi {edu), " one." yih, " one." 

ges (jr; gas), Sikaru, "new wine," yu, " new wine." 

or "strong drink" of any kind. 

gin (alaku), "to walk," "march." yin, "to journey," "move on." 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

Gi, gin (qatw), "a reed." yih, "a dart"; yoh, "a musical 

reed"; yin, "a long spear, or 
pointed weapon." 

(gis)kan-na (ganag? gana? yin," a. seal." 
kunukku), "a seal." 

6u (iss/iru), "a bird," "winged yii, " wings "; yV, " wings." 

thing," VOlucris, to Tre-reivov. 

GA (uii/iu), "a fish." yii, "fish." 

6u, ge (i^ basii), "to be." yu, "to be." 

Having obtained similar results from the comparison of eight 
other initial consonants, b, d, k, p, t, 1, m, n, s, s, I thought I might 
venture to lay the whole before Professor R. K. Douglas, of the 
British Museum. I was especially anxious to know where to find the 
older forms of the Chinese language, as it was obvious that, if my 
theory of an earlier g in place of the Mandarin y could be supported 
by the history of the language, the above comparisons would be all 
the more secure. Professor Douglas gave me every possible en- 
couragement to continue my researches, and advised the use of 
Dr. Samuel Wells Williams' great Syllabic Dictionary (Shanghai, 
1874).* 

To recur now to the list of apparently common terms which I 
have already indicated ; there would be little difficulty in extending 
the list to almost indefinite dimensions, especially if we have regard 
to the older forms of the Chinese words as recorded in the native 
dictionaries, and as preserved in the actual usage of the so-called 
Chinese dialects, or rather cognate languages of Amoy, Canton, 
Swatow, Fuhchau, Shanghai, and Chifu, of which the first two appear 
to have undergone least phonetic change. For instance, gud, gu 
(alj>u, siiru,), is Accadian for "ox," "cow." This corresponds to 

* Afterwards I procured a dictionary of the Amoy vernacular, by the Rev. 
Carstairs Douglas (London, Triibner, 1873) > a grammar and reading-book of the 
( lanton dialect by the Rev. \V. Lobscheid (Hong Kong, 1864) ; Du Ponceau on 
Chinese Writing (Philadelphia, 1838), which includes a lexicon of the Cochin 
Chinese; Stephan Endlicher's Anfangsgriinde der Chinesischen Grammatik ( Wien, 
1845); Bayer's Museum Sinicum (Petropoli, 1730), and other works. When this 
paper was already at press, Professor Douglas kindly lent me I >r. Edkins 1 monograph 
'The Evolution of the Chinese Language' (Triibners, 1888), in which I find 
many remarkable facts that tell in favour of the views expressed in the text. 
The ' Chinese Manual ' of Professor Douglas has also been of the greatest service 
to me, owing to the clear and handy form in which it presents a multitude of 
facts (London, 1889). 

6 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

the Chinese niu, " ox," " cow," " cattle," of which one of the old 
sounds was ngu, and which appears in Cantonese as ngau, in Swatow 
as gu, in Amoy as giu, in Fuhchau as ngiu, as well as under the 
forms nu, nuk, nau, liu. Niu is nyit = ngu. Now it is an interesting 
fact, upon which Dr. Jensen has laid special emphasis, that initial 
g is often nasalized in Accadian, e.g., galu, "man" is, strictly 
speaking, ngalu. This seems to prove the identity of Accadian 
gu (ngu) with Chinese niu {nyu). gid, gidda, again, is the Accadian 
for Ass. arku, "long," nasdhu, "to remove," elipu, "to last long," etc. 
This seems to answer to the Chinese yii, "vague," "vast," "distant," 
which, like the Accadian and Assyrian terms, is used of both time 
and place (yii kiu, "a very long time"), gab (patdru), "to loose," 
" free," answers to yii, " loose," " free." Chinese regularly drops 
the final consonants k, p, t (=g, b, d) ; but among the old sounds of 
the words just mentioned, Dr. Williams gives ngop, ngot, which 
might represent the Accadian gab (ngab) and gid (ngid). The 
Accadian has another gab, meaning irtu, "breast." The Chinese 
yi\ " breast," is placed under a root YIH, with the old forms yik, yit, 
yip, ngik, etc. Thus gib (= gab) would seem to have been the 
original Chinese term for "breast." Under the same root we find 
yV, "strong," "tall," which may be the counterpart of git, GID, 
"long." It is to be borne in mind that the Accadian signs for gap, 
git, would be the same as for gab, gid. Under the same heading YU, 
we find yii, "to speak," "say"; yii "to talk with," "tell," "inform,*' 
"words," which are clearly doubles of the Accadian gu, "to speak," 
and_)Vi, " sick," " weak " ; yii, " to be cured," " disease " ; yii, " a cry 
of pain " ;yii, " sorrowful," "grieved at," answering again to Accadian 
gig, "sick," "sorrowful" (cf. yok, i.e., gug, one of the old sounds 
o( yii). 

We have not yet done with the Chinese yii. It is a curious fact 
that, just as in Accadian, we find two similar vocables gul (li>/i?u() 
and gul (hadu), with the opposite meanings of "bad" and "glad." 
so in Chinese we find yii, "sorrowful," and yii, "joyful," "happy." 
Yii, " fat," " rich," " fertile " (of soil), and yii', " rich (in clothes 
and chattels)," "plenty," "to enrich," remind one of the Accadian 
g'&, "abundance" (cp. nam-g'k, duhdu, g'e-gal, hegallu, cl-nun, 
nuhsii); and I think that g'al, "to flow," g'al-g'al (gardru Sa mi), 
"to run," said of water, may be connected with these words; 
compare the Chinese yii, "to rain." The Chinese yii, "to walk, 
rapidly," may answer to g'al g'al, gardru, though iti s perhaps rather 

7 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

related to gin, "to walk." There is also gur, "to rush," "flow," 
"run," "hasten," and gur, "ocean," which answer very well to 
yii ; for (1) Chinese has lost the letter r, and (2) Accadian itself 
often omits it as a final consonant ; cp. ga = gar, " to make" ; 
tu = tur, " to enter " ; ga = gur, " to lift." 

The Chinese roots YU, YIH, appear to be ultimately one. 
Thus it is that we find yi\ " to pour out," and yi', "damp," "wet," 
and yi', "very large," "great," "abundant," and yi\ "happy," "jovial," 
"to like," "rejoice in," arranged under the latter, showing that it is 
in many respects synonymous with the former. The old sounds 
yik, yit, yip, ngik, point to the same fact, and the Accadian g'e, 
" abundance," g'al, " to flow," may be as well explained by these 
terms as by the derivatives of YU. And not only so ; under the 
heading YIH -we find also yi', "the throat," "organs of eating and 
speaking," in Cantonese "to call after," " scold," yi\ "to explain," 
" interpret between parties," plainly answering to the Accadian gu 
(kisddu), "the neck," gu, "to speak" and "interpret" (ragdmu, 
cp. targumannu, "interpreter," "dragoman"). Then, too, we have 
yi', "black," yi\ "mists and vapours," answering to Accadian ge, 
"night," gig, "darkness," "shadow," and yi', "plague," "epidemic 
sickness," yi\ "disquieted," "sorrowful," answering to the Accadian 
gig, "sick," "sickness." The ideas of dark (tristis, ater, "Hp, etc.), 
sick, sorrowful, are naturally expressed by similar sounds. Now, as 
in Accadian we meet with synonymous forms like Gi and gin, ti and 
tin, so in Chinese we find the root YIN (old sounds yin, yim, ngin) 
with various meanings akin to those of YU and YIH. Thus we 
have yin, "a shadow," "dark," "sombre," i.e., gin, cp. Accadian 
GE, gig ; yin, "mournful," "sorry," cp. Accadian gig; yin, "full," 
"flourishing," "abundant," "many,"^. Accadian G't;yin, "rising of 
waters," "to soak," "to drench," "extraordinary," "excessive," and 
yin, "a long and drenching rain," cp. Accadian g'al and g'e. Further, 
we have yin, "news," "a reply," "an intimation or order," corres- 
ponding to the Accadian gin (gen), sctparn, "to send," taru, "to 
return," gi, gigi, "to return," apalu, "to answer," kin (gin), sipru, 
"a message," "order," "commission." The Accadian gam, "to 
bend," " bow " (beugen, biegen), may be compared with gin, " to 
bow, bend, turn, return," which is written with the ideogram of 
reed or bulrush, and the Chinese 'yin, "to draw a bow," "to lead 
on," which is homophonous with 'yin (Ace. gin), " to journey," 
may be compared with both. The Accadian has several words with 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

an initial g {k, g), meaning "bright," "clear," " pure" ; viz., ku (gu ? 
c.p. £j£ JEJ = dumugu, " the brilliant son," i.e., Sin), ellu, " bright," 
of which Haupt supposes an original form kus, cus, kun (gun), "to 
shine," gar, " to glitter," " splendour," gub, " bright," " pure," and 
g'ud "to shine." Of these the first, ku or gu, "bright," is involved 
in the compound ku-babbar, "silver," which thus seems to mean 
" bright white (metal)."* The Chinese word yin, Amoy gun, Chang- 
chew gin, preserves the first part of the term, which is clearly a near 
relative of kun (gun), "to shine." gu- in this word and in gus-kin, 
"gold," may further be compared with the Chinese yii, "pure, hard 
gold," "precious," "valuable"; yii', "the full glory of the sun," "the 
bright light"; yii, "the bright blaze of fire," "glorious," "shining." 
The older sounds are yok, ngok, yik ; the Cantonese has also wat, 
wik, the Swatow gek, id, the Amoy id, lid, etc. Looking at all this, 
I am inclined to believe that the Accadian uda, "day," udu, the "sun," 
were originally gud, gudu; compare the name of Merodach, gudibir 
(for the ending, see zimbir, kibir, zabar). The fact that gud is 
the term for " bull," is suggestive in this connection, considering the 
widespread association between the sun-god and the bull.t ZAGIN, 
ibbn, ellu, seems to be a compound of za, which we see also in 
za-bar, namru, "shining," siparru, "copper," and gin, gi, "bright," 
"glistening," which occurs in gi-bil (older bil-gi), "the fire-god." 
bil or pil is qahi, " to burn," and isatu, " fire." gi (dialectic di or 
de) means namdru, "to shine," and qalu, "to burn." In regard to 
na zagin = uknu, it is curious that yii, "beautiful," "precious," is 
also an old name of "clear white jade," and ordinarily means "gem," 
while yii is defined as "a beautiful stone like jasper," and another 
yii as "a pebble with stripes and colouring, which make it almost 
as valuable as a gem." Seals were sometimes made of na ZAGIN, 
and yiri is a seal. (See also below, p. 30.) The Accadian gi, "a 

* babbar (= bar-bar) is defined by />isu, "white." Poh kin, "white gold," 
is a Chinese designation of silver. 

t In Gudibir bir = bar, as in Zimbir (for Zubar) from zabar ; the change 
being due to vowel-harmony. As bar may mean " bright," gudibir is perhaps 
" brightness of the sun." The names of the metals involve the sound »Y- " liar." 
»->-Y >Y-, "iron," is, perhaps, "metal of the sky," being named from the 
meteoric iron, which probably gave men their first knowledge of this metal. 
YI Jf-, "lead," is called "water-metal," because it melts so easily. ^ *^~> 
"copper," is "fire-metal," because of its red, fiery glow. Bar, in this connec- 
tion, is apparently " bright substance," and then " metal.' 

9 



Nov. 5J SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. L1889. 

king," may represent Chinese yin, "to grasp in the hand," "govern," 
"rule" ("true," "earnest"; cp. gina = kinu), which is also "an old 
term for chief, principal, first" (old sounds yin, ngin). Yu\ "to 
drive (i.e., grasp the reins), "manage," "rule"; "imperial," "royal" 
(old sounds ngo, ngop, etc.), seems to be cognate. 

With gun, "to shine," gun-ni, "an oven" or "furnace," the 
Chinese yang, " to roast," a term used of cooking, and also of 
melting metals, is seen to be related when we notice that the old 
sound was yung, which points to an original gun {cp. Amoy j'ong, 
giong, Fuhchau ngibng). From the same root springs yang, " the 
rising sun," yang, " lofty," " clear," "sunny light," yang, "the male 
of animals," "virility," corresponding to Ace. gi-s, gi, zikaru, "male," 
and gis, idlu, "hero" (?). ' Gis, "heaven," and gir-ra (gira), "heaven," 
are akin to gus and gar, "to shine," and may be connected with 
the same Chinese roots. One of the meanings of yil is " the canopy 
of heaven." ga, gur, "to lift," gu, "lifted up," seem to find 
analogues in yin (old sound ngin), " lofty and mountainous," yin, 
"high cliffs," yin, "rising of waters," "excessive," " great," yin, "to 
raise a bank," etc. I have already pointed out that gis, " one," 
answers to yih, "one," and that gis (gSs), "strong drink," answers to 
yii. Finally, Gis, isu, " wood," which has the dialectic forms mis and 
mu, corresponds to the Chinese muh, " wood," older i/utk. The 
same apparent exception to the rule seems to exist in the case of a 
word for " eye," which in Chinese is also muh, but in the Accadian 
igi, with a dialectic form ide. The Chinese yen or yien, "the eye," 
old sound yin, ngin, in Cantonese ngan, Amoy gan, Shanghai ngi-", 
exactly corresponds to the Accadian igi (igin). The Accadian 
im-ma (ima, im) silmu, "thirst," appears to correspond with 'yin, "to 
drink," Cantonese yam, Amoy im. The original form was probably 
gim. The goddess Zirpanitu was called gas-mu in Accadian, which 
perhaps means the same thing as her Assyrian title ; cp. Cochin 
Chinese giou, semen, genus, gieo, seminare ; mou, germen ; mo 
(Mandarin mu), amare. (In Mandarin, jv/' is " to long for," " desire," 
and also " to bear and bring up children.")* The word gukkal, 
from which is borrowed the Assyrian gukkallu, is supposed to mean 
"sheep." In that case, it may be compared with yang (old form 
yung, implying gun or gug), a "sheep" or "goat." Dingira, 
"god," with its Assyrianized form digirft, may be a compound of 
Di namaru, " to shine," and gira, " heaven " (di-hgira ; cp. KINGIRA = 

* As Accadian mu = naddnu, "to give," gasMU may be "seed-giver." 

10 



Nov. s] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

ana-kia = same u irsitum. kingira is plainly ki + ngira). The 
Accadian for "god," therefore, is "shining one of heaven," which 
explains why the ideogram is a star (>->-], orig. ^-). Both roots 
exist in Chinese, gingira, a title of Istar, may = gi + ngira, and 
so be a dialectic form of the same term. 

Tabulating these results for the sake of reference, we have : 
Accadian. Chinese. 

gud, gu (hgud, hgu), " ox." niu (nyu), ngu. 

gid, " long." yii, " long " ; yi\ " tall." 

gab, "breast." yi\ "breast." 

g'ul, "bad." yu, "sorrowful." 

g'ul, "glad." yii, "joyful"; yi\ "happy." 

g'u, g'e, "plenty," "overflow." yii, "fat," "rich," "fertile"; yi\ 

" abundant." 

g'al, "to flow." yii', "plenty"; yin, "full," "abun- 

dant." 

gur, "to rush," "to flow," "run." yii, " to rain," " rain "; yin, " rising 

of waters," "to drench." 

Gur, "the ocean." yii, "to walk rapidly"; yP, "to 

pour out." 

gu, "the neck." yi', "the throat." 

gu, "to interpret" {ragamii). yi ', "to interpret between two 

parties," "to translate." 

gin, "to send," "message," yin, "a reply," "news," "an or- 
" order." der." 

Gi, GIGI, "toreturn," "to answer." 

gam, gin, "to bend," "bow," yin, "to bend a bow" (Bogen) 
beugen, biegen. {cp. Cantonese Ham, " to lean 

over.") 

gu, GU-s, "bright," "glittering." yin (gun, gin), "silver." 

gus-kin, "gold." yii\ "pure gold," "precious"; 

gin, gi, za-gin, "gleaming." yii, "jasper-like stone," etc. 

gun, "to shine," " be bright." yii', "blaze of the sun," "bright 

gub, "bright," "pure." light"; yang, "the rising sun." 

gar, "glitter," "glisten." yii', "sheen of fire," "glorious," 

g'ud, "to become bright." "shining." 

(g)ud, "the sun," "day." 

gudibir, Merodach. 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

gi, "a king." yin, "to rule"; yi'i, "to rule," 

"royal." 
gun-ni, "furnace." yang, "to roast." 

Gis, "male," "hero," or "strong." yang, "male," "virility."] 
gis, gir, "heaven," di-ngir, vid. gus, gar, "to shine"; yu, 

" god." " canopy of heaven." 

(g)im, imma, "thirst." yin, "to drink" (yam, ini). 

guk-kal, " sheep" (?), "lamb." yang, "sheep," "goat"; kao, "a 

lamb." 
ga, gur, "to lift up." yin, "lofty," etc.; yu, "to raise, 

gu, "lifted up." lift," "bring," "bear"; ho (older 

ga), "to bear," "carry on the 

back." 
g'ad, "stylus." yii', "a thingto write with," "stylus," 

"pen" {ngok, wat, lit, etc.). 

Here are some more remarkable — coincidences. In the syllabary 
we are all familiar with the equations : 

LAL = mahi, "to be full," "fill." 

lal = sapaku, "to pour out." 

lal = saqdtu, "to weigh," "measure money," "pay." 

lal = via til, "to be weak"; cp. lal, ensu, "weak." 

[lal] = tarasu, "to lay on in order," "lay straight" (beams 

of a roof, etc.). 

[lal] = rakdsn, " to bind." 

[lal] = samadu, "to yoke," "harness," horses, etc. 

ka-lal = kaiii Sa mc, "restraining," "damming up," said of 
water (2 R 21). 

lal = amaru, " to see." 

lal = aru, " to be bright." 

lal = site 11, " to look, search for." 

lal = nasii, "to carry," " carry off." 

lal = sabatu, " to seize." 

(gis) lal = kamaru, " a net." 

(gis) lal = tuquntu, " battle." 

lal-lal = zananu, " to rain." 

lal = adthu, " to fear." 

lal = kamu, "to pile up." 

lal = ubburu sa amati, " to overstep, of a command." 

12 



Nov. 5 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



Is it quite presumptuous on the part of a mere believer in 
Accadian, to set over against these the Chinese equations : 

liao = "to finish," "vollenden," "fulfil." 
liu = "to flow"; 'lao, "heavy rain," "overflow produced 
thereby"; lao', "a torrent," "floods." 
liao = "to measure." 
'lao = "old;" lei, "feeble," "infirm." 
lei = "to join in a series"; " to place on," "add to"; "to 
bind." 
lo', le = "a bridle," "the reins," "whatever binds the head 
by which to lead the animal," "to rein in," 
"restrain," "tie up," "bind." 
lieh' = "a sewer obstructed, and its waters forcing a passage." 
lao = "to know certainly"; lai, "to glance at"; lan, "to 
inspect," "behold from a distance"; lo (la), "to 
look about." 
li = " bright "= lan ; LAN, " fire "= lang. 
lao = "to search or drag" (for a body); lao yu, "to scoop 

out fish, with a dredging net." 
lai = "to bring," "to get"; lan, "to carry"; leu, "a loft." 
la =. "toseize"; lai, "toget"; lan, "to grasp"; lo, " to 
take." 
lan = "a two-leaved clasping-net, for fish"; lo (old sound 

la), "a spring-net for birds." 
lei = " to mutually destroy, as in fighting"; li, "to oppose." 
lao = "a great rain." 
lao = " confused," "perturbed." 
lei == "to pile up"; "aheap." 
lan = " to overstep," "pass over." 

As R and L interchange, ra = rahasit, "to flood," may also be 
compared with 'lao, "heavy rain" (= ri/jsu), and ir, "to weep," 
"a tear," with lei, "tears," "to weep." But I will venture further 
with these comparisons. In Accadian we have a word labar, "old," 
from which is derived the Assyrian labaru, "to be old." There is 
also another labar defined ardu, " servant " (dialectic lagar). Now- 
whatever may be the force of bar in these two terms, I cannot help 
seeing a likeness between them and the Chinese lao, "old," and 
lao, "to toil," "to labour." Accadian dissyllables appear generally 
as monosyllables in Chinese. 

x 3 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

It is evident that all these various meanings of lal admit of 
reduction to a few general heads ; but that is a process which may 
be left to the reader to carry out, if he pleases. I regard lal as an 
instance of the extension of a root by reduplication = la + la, 
whence the Assyrian lalu, lulu, "abundance." In both Accadian 
and Chinese the root is preserved in its simplest form la, which in 
Accadian means " fullness " or " abundance," and in Chinese " un- 
even," "piled up," as a heap. The development of the root in 
Accadian is, as usual, far more restricted than in Chinese. 

If now we look back upon the terms with which we started, we 
shall perhaps see that the Chinese and Accadian words which 
happened first to excite my curiosity, are really connected in their 
original forms. The word a-a or ai, "father," appeared to bear 
some relation to the Chinese ye. The term is honorific, and is 
used in addressing divinities, officers, noblemen, princes, and gentle- 
men. Tien lao ye is "the highest god, whoever he may be, the 
Ruler of the sky" (heaven + old man + father). The old sounds of 
ye in its various senses are ya, yap, yat, yak. In four of the dialects 
ya is still spoken ; a vocalization which brings the Chinese and 
Accadian terms closer together. I think it probable that ga was the 
original term. Now ga (dial, ma) means " to make " (cp. Assyrian 
banuya, " my maker " = my father), and }], a, is defined by ban/}. 
As regards a-a or ai, " the moon," Chinese yue/i, the old sounds 
given for the Chinese character are nget and yet. I had decided that 
Mandarin y stands in place of an ancient g (tig) before ever seeing 
William's Dictionary, which so strikingly corroborates that opinion. 
The other dialects support an initial g in this instance, e.g., Swatow 
gue, Amoy goat. Now if gud were the ancient word, we are 
reminded of the Accadian g'ud, "to be bright"; cp. Cantonese id. 
The spirant g' of Accadian points back to an older surd G, which 
brings us to gud, gu, " cow " ; about the relation of which animal to 
the moon in mythology I need say nothing. 

Our next pair of terms was a, "hand," "side," andyz/, "hand." 
Wells Williams gives the Chinese word as yiu' (Shanghai yii). A 
homophone is yiu\ "the right hand," "on the right." The old 
sounds of YIU include ot and at. The Accadian word is written 
with a character whose syllabic value is it, id. Possibly, therefore, 
the original word was gad, which gives us the other value of ^f, 
SIT, viz., kat (gad), from which springs the Assyrian qatu, "hand." 
The last pair were the Accadian a, "son," and yiu, "young," 

14 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

"tender." With these we may conveniently take a = w// = " water." 
The Chinese for water is shui; but under the same heading YIU, 
we find i'///', "hand,";'///', "young," and yiu, "to go on the water," 
yiu as part of the name of several rivers, yiu, "water flowing along 
rapidly," .yiu, "oil," ^yiu, "to float," "to swim," "to drift," and . yiu 
as the name of several plants growing in the water. This seems to 
show that yiu as well as shui once meant simply " liquid " or " water." 
Thus we get fair parallels to the Accadian A="hand," A = "son," 
and A. = " water." What may we suppose were the original forms of 
A (son) and a (water)? The Chinese for river is ho; and under 
this heading the old sounds ha, ka, ga, are given. In the dialects 
we find ho and 0, hu and u. The Chifu hwoct suggests an original G. 
I believe the primitive form to have been ga(d), in the sense of "to 
flow"; cp. Accadian g'al, "to flow," and gur, "to flow," "to run," 
and ga, "milk" ("that which flows from the breast," gab; as Assy- 
rian sispu), and id (g'id ?), " a river" ; cp. Hid-deqel. "Water" is a 
natural and not uncommon metaphor for offspring {cp. Num. xxiv, 7). 

The initial h of so many modern Chinese words appears as k in 
the age of the ancient poetry, as is remarked by Dr. Edkins ; and 
this k often corresponds to an Accadian G. 

The syllabary presents us with yet another Accadian (|^) a, in 
the sense of "dress," "clothing" (lubsu). The common Chinese 
term for clothes is /', which is found in all the dialects, and may 
represent an original a. 

Let us now look at the dental t, d. The Accadian for "to 
hear," "listen," is gis-tug (dialectic mus-tug), Shnu, magdru. The 
Chinese fing, "to hear," "listen" (old sounds, t'ing and ding\ 
answers to this as kin, "gold," answers to gus-kin, and as tsiit, 
"wine," to ges-tin (din). The nasalisation of the final G is not 
remarkable, and may have been heard in the Accadian itself. 

In the case of shut syllables, the initial consonant is generally 
indeterminate in Accadian (tin-din, kar-gar tab-dib). The GiS in 
gistug means " ear " ; cp. the dialectic ^ = ge = uznu, " ear," = 
"TT-^ GI = GU (*M^) > an d as TUK (tug) is " to have and hold," 
gistug =2 "to have or hold ear." 

Til, dialectic tin, and ti, are familiar Accadian terms, denoting 
balatu, "to live." I did not at once succeed in my endeavour to 
identify them in Chinese. But when I remembered that TU was 
Accadian for " the wind " (saru), and that in most languages terms 
denoting "wind," "breath," and "life" or "spirit," were akin to 

IS 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

each other, I had no difficulty in recognising the Accadian tin in 
the Chinese fun, "the breath"; cp. fun, "to swallow" (old sound 
t'un ; Amoy tun, t'ui); t'ien, "the sky," "the air" (old sound t'in, 
t'im, din, dim). With tu, "the wind," cp. fui, "a rapid gust of 
wind," "a whirlwind." Dub in Accadian is a tablet for writing 
upon, or a written document (= Assyrian duppu, a loan-word, of 
course), and dub-sar is the scribe who writes such tablets (Assyrian 
dupsarru, IDGIS)- The word reveals itself at once in Chinese as 
tie, " tablets for writing on " ; " records of families " ; " official 
despatches," etc. ; old sound, dip ; the Cantonese tip. With Swatow 
and Amoy tiap, cp. Tal. Ty\. (Sar, satdru, to write " = Chinese sie, 
"to write.") 

In the syllabary the sign J^Hf! , with the sound dub, is repeated 
six times, with the Assyyian meanings tuppu, " tablet " (the / is 
interesting in the light of the Chinese tie, tip) ; sapaku, " to pour 
out," " heap up earth," used of raising mounds and earthworks ; 
tabaku, " to pour a libation," " saraqu, "to empty," sibu, "to dip," 
and lamu, " to surround " (a city with a wall, or an investing force). 
It is surely very remarkable that in Chinese we have tie (tip), 
"a high hillock," tieh, "jutting," "anything above the surface," tie, 
"to surround with a parapet or breastwork," and, as sapaku is 
also used of buildings falling into heaps of ruin (issapik tilanis I) ; 
tie, "to fall down." All these Chinese terms are grouped under 
tieh (old sounds, dit, dip, and tip), along with tie, "tablets 
for writing on." {Cp. Ezek. xxvi, 8; TjQtl? aggessit aggerem, 
aufschiitten ; Isa. lvii, 6, effudit libamen ; Psalm lxxiii, 2, effusus = 
lapsus est.) Finally, we have Hen, "to sink into," "overwhelmed 
in," answering to dub = sibu, " to dip," and lien, " to offer libations," 
" pour out (a libation "), as equivalent of tabaku, and saraqu (old 
sounds tin, ti'm, dien). For the remaining ^Jlfff, pronounced dig' 
(di-ih) = abnu, I will account presently. 

I have spoken of tin, "to live," "life." The well known name 
of Babylon, tin-tir-ki, " Living + seat + place " = abode of life ; 
contains also the element tir. This is not "wood," gis-tir, but is 
defined subtu (subat balati) ; and we may compare tien, " a palace," 
or if the literal idea of "seat" be insisted upon, tien, a cushion" 
(for sitting on), tien "a fine bamboo mat"; tun, "a heap," "a block 
of stone or wood"; "low," "squat," e.g., "low cushions, to sit on." 
Cp. also fun, "to dwell" (old sound, tun). 

16 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

Di = rfenu or dim/, "judgment," is one of the numerous instances 
in which it has been supposed to be quite obvious that the Assyrian 
syllabic value of the ideogram was determined by the Assyrian word. 
If so, what of the Chinese //', to judge," "to decide between," which 
is found in all the dialects, and to which the old sounds te, de, etc., 
are assigned ? In this, as in former instances, cognate roots supply 
abundant comparisons. Thus we have Hen (old sounds, tin, tim, dien), 
pronounced at Shanghai tin, din, meaning "a canon," "standard," 
or "ritual"; a "statute," or "code"; "a law"; "ordinances," etc. ; 
ting, "to decide," "adjust fully, "determine," "arrange," etc. (old 
sounds, ting, ding). It would seem that the Accadian form was din 
originally, unless we prefer to see in these variants the growth of new 
stems from the simplest form of the root. Then there is twan (old 
sounds, twan, dwan), pronounced tiin at Canton, and in Chifu tan, "to 
cut asunder," "divide," "settle," "give a judicial opinion," "a de- 
cision." Cp. also fo, to " split wood " (old sounds, t'a, t'ap, da, dip) ; 
to, " to mince," " carve," " cut in two " (old sounds, ta, tap, etc.). That 
verbs of cutting are used of giving legal decisions needs no illus- 
tration. It is evident in the term ^f^f= »\r, di-kud, dan?/, "a 
judge " (? da? ami). The second sign in this group, »v-, KUD, is 
denned by dan//, "to judge," and dinu, "judgment," by ta/u/i, "to 
speak," " pronounce " (a sentence, formula of incantation, or exor- 
cism, etc.), and by parasu, "to divide," "break," "decide." Read 
as tar, it is explained by taraku — the Assyrian scribes were naturally 
fond of selecting, where possible, an Assyrian term that, by its 
assonance with the Accadian, would serve to assist the memory, — 
taraku, " to leave off," "cease," and by samu, "to fix," "appoint," 
"settle," "determine." kud is literally "to cut off," and answers to 
Chinese ko (old sound, kat), "to cut in two," and ko, "to examine," 
"sift thoroughly"; "a law"; cp. Cantonese kot, Amoy gut. AV 
(old sound, k'ak, k'at) "to subdue," overcome"; "exorcise" (demons), 
"prevail over," etc., and ko, to carve, "cut out," complete our 
Chinese parallels. Kb' "to stop," "leave off," and k% "to strike" 
and "smash," prove, if proof were wanted, that kud and TAR wire 
really synonyms in the Accadian language. Tar, taraku, corre- 
sponds to Chinese t'ien, "to terminate," "make to cease," "finish " 
(old sounds, t'in, t'im, din, dim), t'ing, "to rest," "stop," "hold up"; 
while tar, samu, "to appoint," "fix," etc., may be compared with 
tien, "to rule or manage," "to be directed to," "bent on"; /ten, 
" to preserve," "establish," "fixed;" tic'//, "fixed and settled," as the 

17 c 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [18S9. 

hills and streams; "to set up," "to consolidate" (e.g., an empire). 
The root thus appears to be the same ultimately as that of ni=d&nii 
(Hen, old sounds, tin, tim, dien ; vid. supr.); cp. also ting (old sounds, 
ting, ding) " to order," "firm," "settled"; "to secure"; "to esta- 
blish; to decide, adjust finally"; "to stop," "to fix," "deter- 
mine," etc. 

The sign >^- occurs nine successive times in Haupt's Syllabary. 
We have dealt with six ; now for the remaining three. Pronounced 
SILA, it is explained to denote sfiqu, "street"; salatu, "to subdue," 
"overcome," "rule," "act as ruler," e.g., "judge"; and nakasu, "to 
cut off." Sila, "to cut off," has its counterparts in sin, "to cut wood" 
(old sound, sin), si (old sound, sik), "to split wood"; while sila, 
salatu answers to sin, sun, " to investigate," " inquire," h'iin, " to 
inquire into judicially"; "to direct"; "announce to"; and si, 
" to distinguish," "discriminate." I suppose a "street" was called 
sila, as cutting a town into sections, or dividing the houses. That 
said?" meant "to judge," among other things, appears from the rule 
saltis ul itame ; "(On the 7th, 14th, 19th, 21st, and 28th days of 
the month) let not (the king) pronounce a decision as judge"! 
Thus an ideogram with three distinct Accadian sounds and nine 
Assyrian definitions has been accounted for by help of the Chinese 
Dictionary. If this be chance, then chance is another name for 
order and method and design. 

In the Assyrian syllabary we find the character »-£^- tim, dim, 
occurring four times, and defined by dimmu "pillar," riksu, "bond," 
"cord," markasu, "bond" (metaph.), and rikisqanc, "bond or band 
of reed." If dim be a genuine vocable, and not an arbitrary sign, 
dimmu will probably be a loanword. Now dim, "prop," "pillar," 
may be compared at once with Hen (old sound, tim), "to steady a 
thing by patting bricks or other things under it; to shore up; to 
prop"; "to buttress;" fieri, "the plinth or base of a pillar"; ting, 
" to sustain," " secure," " establish " ; fing, " (door)-posts " ; fing, 
"a portico," "open roof supported on pillars"; tun (old sounds ton, 
don), "a square pillar" ; "a plinth or base"; tung, "the ridge-pole" ; 
"a main support in a building"; "a leading man in a state, a pillar." 
But what of dim, "a bond"? It corresponds to fan (old sounds 
dan, dam), "a rattan cord or string for binding" ; t'ang (old sounds, 
t'eng, deng), "to bind," "fasten," as with ropes; "cords"; tao (old 
sounds, t'o, t'op, t'ok, do, dot, dok), "a plaited sash"; "a band or 
cord"; tao, "to bind up"; "a cord." I shall have occasion to 

iS 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

return to this term presently, when I have finished discussing those 
words in which an Accadian t or d is preserved in Chinese. 

We have accounted for tu, "the wind"; but Accadian also 
presents tu or tu tu, eribu, "to go in," "to set" (of the sun); tu, 
summatu, a kind of bird; and tu, "a garment," "dress" (JEJ). 
With tu, "to go in," te, "to approach," " nearness," may be con- 
nected ; for Accadian u and e are closely related vowels, and we 
find te=" dress," and T¥.=sumuiatu, as well asTU. Tu, "to go in," 
appears also in the fuller form tur (tur). The Chinese tieh (old 
sounds, dit, dip, tip), pronounced at Canton tit, tip, in Swatow tint. 
etc., in Amoy tiat, tiit, etc., furnishes tie, "to fall down," tie, "the sun 
beginning to decline towards the west " ; tie, " to fall, as a hawk from 
the sky." The Amoy tut almost preserves the old Accadian tutu 
intact; cp. also t'au, " to enter " (old sounds dan, dam) ; ti, " to bend, 
incline" (old sounds, te, de). 

As to the tu bird or summatu, it is probably not a swallow, but 
the Chinese tu, the cuckoo, but also the goatsucker or nightjar 
(see tv, old sounds, to, tot, etc.). The goatsucker, also called chiien, 
bears another name, indicating the mournful cry which it is fabled 
to sing all night, till blood comes into its eyes, singing for its mate 
to hasten home. (Its song in the daytime indicates the time 
for sowing.) Cp. the phrase of the Accadian penitential hymns: 
kima tu.g'u (summati) adammum, " like the Tu bird I mourn." 
Tu, "clothes," which also appears in the earlier form tuk, is of 
the same origin as tuk, "to take," "to have" (tuku = />"//, ahazu). 
It is defined by the Assyrian subatu, "clothes," which springs 
from sabatu, "to take." Cp. Chinese "teu, "to lift up," "get hold 
of," "seize" (old sounds, tu, du, duk). There is also ti, "to 
take," an abbreviation of tig (dialetic tim) ; cp. tum, "to carry 
off." Now under the heading TOH (o\o\ sounds, tat, dak, dat), the 
Chinese lexicon ranges to, "to take up with both hands," to, "to take 
by force," "get by striving, or anyhow," to, "to carry off," toh, "to 
seize," " rob " ; to, " to mend clothes " ; to, " to let down, drop," e.g., a 
line into a well ; to, a small bird whose cry is ti-ti ; to, "a species of 
water-bird like the rail." The Chinese TAO (old sounds, to, do, tot, 
dok), gives tao, " to arrive at," " reach " ; cp. Accadian te = dahu\ 
aggredi, which also recalls ti (te), "to butt," "to push," "to reach," 
"arrive at." With tu, "clothes," we may further compare fa, ";i 
wrapper" (for the person), (old sounds, tat, tap, etc.), ta, "to cover," 

19 c 2 



Nov. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. 



[H 



fa, "a coat of skin or fur" ; fa, "a kind of coarse woollen serge" ; 
iai (old sounds, ta,da, tat, dat, talc, dak), "to wear"; "to cover"; tat, 
"a sash," "girdle," "belt"; tan, "a shirt" (old sounds, tan, dam, 
tarn); fan, "rugs"; "serge"; tao, "the canopy of heaven"; 
"curtain," "vail "(old sound, dok) ; teu (old sound tu), "a helmet"; 
fun, Araoy tun, "to disrobe," "undress"; fo, "to undress"; "a 
suit," of clothes (old sounds, t'ak, t'at), Cantonese, fok and fiit. 



Accadian. 

(gis-) tug, "to hear." 

til, tin, ti, "to live," "life.' 

tu, " the wind." 

dub, "tablet," "document." 



dub, "to pour out," "heap up" 

(earth) 
dub, "to pour libations." 
dub, " to dip." 
dub, "to surround." 

di, "judgment." 



tim, "to cut." 

tar, "to leave off." 

tar, " to appoint," " fix," etc. 



Chinese. 

fing, " to hear." 

fun, " the breath." 

fien, " the air." 

fui, " a gust," " whirlwind." 

tie (old sounds, tip, dip), "tablet," 
" records," etc. 

tu (old sounds, tot, tok, dot, dok), 
" boards or tablets anciently 
used for writing on"; "docu- 
ments," "archives," etc. 

tie, " a hillock." 

fien, " to pour libations." 

fien, " to sink into." 

tie, " to surround " (with a para- 
pet, etc.). 

ti, " to judge." 

fien, " a law." 

ting; "to decide." 

iwan, " to cut asunder," " a 
decision." 

to, " to cut in twain." 

fo, "to split wood." 

fien, " to terminate," " finish." 

fing, " to rest," "stop." 

tien, " to establish," " fixed 
and settled." 

ting, " to order, establish, deter- 
mine," etc. 



Nov. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[18S9. 



Accadian. Chinese. 

dim, "prop," "pillar." tun, "a square pillar." 

tung, "the ridge-pole," "a pillar 

(of state)." 
tien (old sound, tim), "to prop," 

" buttress." 
fien, u base of a pillar." 
ting, " to sustain." 
Ping, " doorposts." 
fing, " a pillared porch." 

dim, "a bond," "band," "cord." fan, "a rattan cord." 

fang, " to bind," " cords." 

tao, " a band," " cord." 

fao, "to bind up," " a cord." 

fien, " field (din). 

tit, "to fall," " the setting sun." 

fan, "to enter"; ti, "to bend," 

"incline." 
///, "the cuckoo," and "nightjar." 
ta, " wrapper " ; fa, " to cover." 
fa, " coat of skin or fur." 
fa, " serge." 
tan, "shirt." 
fun, fa, "to undress." 
ten, " a helmet." 

tuk, "to take," "to have," "to ten (old sound, diik), "lift up," 
seize." "seize." 

ti, tig (tim), "to take." to, "take by force, "carry of." 

tum, " to carry off." toh, " to seize." 

te, " to approach" (da/ju), Jini. ti (old sound, te), "to butt," 

" reach," " arrive at." 



edin, " plain," " field." 
tu, " to go in," " to set 



tu, (a bird). 

tu, tuk, " clothes." 



tab, "two," "companion, 

"fellow." 
dir, " dark," " bluish " (?) 
dar, "dark-coloured." 
tur, " small." 



fa (old sound, t'ap), "that," 

"the other," "another," alter. 
tien, " indigo," or any blue dye. 
tien, "a black spot." 
tih (///•), "a little," "diminutive." 
//, " a very little " (a drop). 
tun, "a speck," "mite," "a little." 



21 



Nov. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[18S9. 



ACCADIAN. 

til, "to kill," "to finish," 
" complete." 



tag, "destroy," "ruin." 



tur, "sick," "ill." 

tab, "to add to" {vid. supr.). 



duk, "a cup," "vessel." 

(Also lut, id.). 

S^Y^ determinative of vessels. 



Chinese. 

fien, "to finish," "to make to 
cease," " exterminate," " des- 
troy." 

tien, "to fall," "to die." 

tien, "to fill up," "complete," 
"full," "ample." 

to (old sound, tap), "to fall into 
ruin." 

tien, "to knock a thing to pieces." 

ting, "to smash," "throw down." 

tien, " crazed," " deranged." 

to (old sounds, ta, tap), "more," 
" to add." 

fien (old sounds, t'um, dim), "to 
add," "increase." 

teu (old sound, duk), " wooden 
trencher," " sacrificial dish " ; 
ten, "sacrificial vessel that 
holds the meat." 

tin (old sounds, kit, lok), "a 
beggar's clapdish." 

hi (old sounds, lu, lut), " a 
vessel " (fire-pan, censer, bra- 
zier, jar, jug). 



D, Z, S. 

It is well known that in Accadian there is a dialectic change 
from G to d, as in gis, di§, "one," gim and dam, "like"; and, again, 
between d and z, as dug = zib (tsib?), "good." Further, we have 
the change exemplified in zi (tsi ?) = shi = napistum, "life." It is 
natural, therefore, to expect to find similar relations between these 
various sounds in the Chinese. So far, we have seen an Accadian 
t or d preserved in a Chinese /, /', with an older /, or d. But this 
is by no means invariable, though many more instances might be 
added to those I have already given. An Accadian d (t) reappears 
in modern Chinese sometimes as ch, sometimes as ts, sometimes 
apparently as softy (French sound); which last may also repre- 
sent an Accadian z, although it has usually replaced a G (vid. 
infra). As to the interchange of these letters within Chinese itself, 

22 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

Dr. Wells Williams observes that initial ch, ch', and ts, ts', "are 
interchanged so much and so irregularly all over the country, that 
it is impossible to follow their variations. As one goes north, 
they mingle in a greater or less degree, and many natives cannot 
tell them apart. At Swatow and Amoy ts is heard doubtfully 
only before a, 0, and u ; but on reaching Fuhchau it is altogether 
merged in ch." 

Owing to the great differentiation of the root-stuff in modern 
Chinese, it will be found that many of the words beginning with 
/ or d, already considered, have doubles with initial ch. Thus 
the Accadian dim, "pillar," for which we have pointed out a number 
of Chinese cognates such as tun, tien, etc., also corresponds to chu 
"a pillar " "post," "joist"; "a statesman" (metaph.). Under chu, 
as usual, the Chinese lexicon groups a great number of vocables with 
the most diverse and apparently unconnected meanings. The old 
sounds given are te, tu, tot, de, du, djot, So, and fot. In Shanghai the 
sounds are tso, tsii, dzo, tssu, etc. Now chu, "a trunk,"' "bole" of 
trees, is used as a general determinative of trees and similar objects; 
thus answering to Accadian gi-s (dialectic di-s), which is the de- 
terminative of trees and wooden objects. (One seems to see a 
reason why | gis = zikaru, "male." It recalls the straight branchless 
pole or trunk which symbolized the Asherah.) I have already 
mentioned that iiiuh (muk), "wood" answers to the dialectic 
Accadian iiu (mug?), "wood." Accadian udu, "lamb," is like chu, 
"a lamb five months old " (du) ; cp. ta (old sounds, tat, dat), " a new- 
born lamb." Chu, "to make judicial inquiry," "to punish capitally," 
and chu, "to discriminate," "distinguish," answer to Accadian in, 
"to judge." 

Then we have chu, "a stone tablet," cp. t'i, "an inscription " (dai, 
dat); tie (dip), "tablets, records"; t'ie (t'ip), "written scrolls," cha 
(old sounds, tat, tap, dap), "a thin wooden tablet," "writings." 
"documents." Chih (old sounds, tip, tit, tik, dip, and cli't ), "to 
apprehend, seize," "lay hold of," etc., answers to Accadian dib, "to 
seize," "take"; Amoy chip. DiB is also "to take the road," "to 
come," and chih is "to proceed," "to go up," and "to go on." 
Chili is also "to record events"; cp. dub; ami chih means "to tie 
up or tether"; "a cord"; cp. dim. Chih is a book-wrapper, 
and a bag used like an envelope ; cp. DIM in dimmenna = thnennu. 
In Accadian we have du, asdbu, "to dwell," du, suhtu. '•dwelling." 
du, tilu, "a mound," dul, katamu, "to cover," "hide," all written 

23 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

^fHf, and dur, "to dwell"; in Chinese, c/iu, "to dwell," "to live 
in"; c/iu, "to stop," "sojourn," "a halting-place," "hostelry" (old 
sounds, te, tu, de, du) ; /'//;/, "to hide" (old sound, tun); ///, 
" to close," " shut " ; tui, " a mound " (old sounds, tui, tut, dui, 
dut) ; tien (old sound, tin), " top," " summit " ; f'ien, " heaven " 
(heave). The Accadian tum (dum), du, "to go," " walk," answer 
to /•//, " a footman " ; pedes ; " to go afoot " (old sound, do) ; in 
Shanghai, tu and du ; but also to cfro (old sound, t'ok), " to walk 
fast"; ch l o, "to stamp"; chih, "to proceed"; c/ii/i, "the sole of 
the foot"; chih, "to tread"; chu, "to walk sedately (dok); chui, 
"to follow" (old sounds, ti, tui, tut, etc.). The Accadian gir, 
"foot" and "step," may be related, through the known interchange 
of g and d in that language. Du, "to make, build," and du, "to 
make bricks," may be compared with chu (old sounds, tok, dok), in 
Shanghai tsbk and dzbk, Swatow tek, etc., Fuhchau titiik, tiik, " to 
build"; dim, "to beget," "to make" {Ixtnu, H2D, "to build"), and 
du, dumu, "child," are cognate; cp. ch l u "to spring from," and "to 
beget" (old sounds, t'ot, t'uk, implying dug) ; chUi, "to rear," "to 
breed"; ch'an, "to produce," "breed," "bear" (old sounds, dam, 
shan, tsim) ; chan (old sounds, tin, tim, dim), "to mould," "fashion," 
" make like." With 1% " to approach," attack," cp. chu, ch'u, " to 
butt," "run against," "oppose" (tut, tuk). Dug, "a command," 
and "to speak," is chu, "to bid," "order" (old sounds, tok, dok); 
chui, " talk " (tui, tut, dut) ; chan, " to talk and gabble " (old sounds, 
tam, dam). Tu, "the wind," answers to ch'ut, "to blow," "puff," 
"a puff," "blast," "gust" (old sounds, t'i, t'ui, t'ut, di, etc.). 

Dugud (dialectic gid, gidda), "heavy," is chung (old sounds, 
tong, dong, presupposing dug) ; in Amoy, tibng, Shanghai, tsung. 
Chung is also "rectitude," "sincerity," "goodness," and dug is 
"good." With dugud, in the sense of " mighty," cp. ch l ung (dong, 
dzong), "high," "noble," "to reverence." Chung, "a cup," goes 
back to Accadian duk, "vessel," "cup"; chwang (old sound, 
dung), "strong," to Accadian dun, dan. Di, dim (d£, d£m), "to 
irrigate," "irrigation," answer to ch'ih, "to drink"; chan (old 
sounds, tam, dam), Chifu, Isan, "to immerse," "to steep," "to 
moisten"; chan, "to dip" {cp. dub); chan (dim), "to pour," "empty 
out." (The term also means "to deliberate," "adjust" — Accadian 
di, and "to twist a cord around," "to bind " = Accadian dim.) 
Chan, "a likeness" or "portrait," and chan, "to make like," recall 
Accadian dim, "like," "as," which is related to dim, banu. The 

24 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

Accadian di (din), "judgment," may further be compared with 
ch l an (old sound, din), "to arrange," "set in regular order." DAGAL 
(dialectic damal), "broad," " wide," "to extend," etc., is a compound 
of da, "broad," and gal (mal),/////, "to open." We see da in cha 
(old sounds, ta, da), "to open out," "stretch open"; cha, "to widen 
out, " expand," and other terms. With gal cp. yao, "extensive," as 
a plain ; yao, " boundless," like the ocean. 

So far Accadian d = Chinese ch. Let us now look at z. The 
syllabary gives six occurences of *-fyV% z *d, zi, with the definitions 
imnu, "right hand," "right," "straight"; kcitu, "right," "fixed," 
"lawful," "just," etc.; zigga, tebii, "to come on," "approach," 
"attack"; 71asa.hu, "to pluck up," "rend away," "depart" (nD3)j 
napistu, "life," and nissu, "spirit." The term zi, "life," was 
pronounced shi in the other dialect of the Accadian ; and this 
being the fact, what could be more striking than that shi means 
" life " in Chinese ? Nothing, except perhaps the fact that another 
shi is "to go to," "approach " ; another is "to depart"; another 
means "direct," "straight"; another "right," "proper." Yet 
another shi means "to swear," "adjure," which recalls the well- 
known formula of the magical tablets, z\ anna ge-pad-es, zi kia 
ge-pad-es. We also have zi, saqu, "leader," and zi, nasii, "to lift 
up." These terms have their fellows in s/ii, "a leader," "a general," 
shi, "an officer," and shi, "to set up" (poles or trees, a flagstaff, etc.), 
"erect," "lofty." In the same place we have tig, with the definition 
ilu sa naphari, "God of the universe," cp. Chinese //, "a god," and 
perhaps Shang-ti, " the Supreme ruler." This Chinese shi had the 
old sounds shai, shi, zhi (Accadian zi), shik. shit, zhit (cp. Accadian 
zit, zid), and zhik {cp, Accadian zigga). In the dialects ch'i is 
heard as well as shi. But, further, under the heading shi, the first 
two Chinese terms are shi, "a corpse," and shi, "a carcase." Does 
anything correspond in the Accadian ? It would seem so, for we 
have su-zi = salummatum^ "body," "corpse" (su means "body," 
"skin," and "flesh "). May not dumuzi, "Tammuz," be "the slain 
or dead son," rather than "son of life"? The Chinese sz\ or as 
Professor Douglas writes it, ssu, "to die," "death" (old sounds, si, 
sei, sai, zi, etc.), is similar. The contrary meanings of shi, "life," 
and "a corpse," may remind us that in ancient Egypt the dead were 
par excellence "the living." (Cp. also sha/i, old sounds, shim, shin, 
zhim, "the trunk," "body"; shan, "the powers above," "the gods." 
"a spirit," " the human spirit," "ancestral spirits.") In Accadian we 

25 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

have also shum, tabd.hu, "to slaughter"; cp. Chinese s/iu, "to kill" 
(old sounds, sho, zho, shiu), and shai:, "to cut off"; cp. Chinese 
s/ia/i, " to slay" (old sounds, shat, shap). The Accadian shu = 
kissatu, "multitude" = Chinese shu, "a multitude," "all," "the 
whole," "a great number" (shud?) Under the same head we have 
shit, "open," "wide apart"; "distant in space or time," etc. = 
Accadian shud, "distant"; shu, "to overturn " = Accadian, shu, 
"to throw to the ground" (cp. shu, "to slaughter," "exterminate); 
shu, "to pour out " = Accadian shub, "to pour out," "sprinkle" 
(= Accadian shib) ; shu, "millet" == Accadian she, "grain"; shu, 
"bright," "the light of the rising sun," "clear" = sha, shaga, 
"pure," "purified"; and shu, "benevolent," u benignant " = sha, 
shaga, "favour," "grace." 

The Accadian shur (dialectic shir, sher), "to cry aloud," "an 
outcry," recalls shang (old sound, shing, i.e., shig?), "a sound," "a 
cry," "a wail." 

Shit, "a number," "to count" — sho, "to count" (given under 
sheh, old sounds, shet, zhet, ship, and shak), used of divination 
by straws. 

Sheg, "to rain," "rain"; cp. shah (old sound, shap), "a slight 
shower," "a passing rain"; sha, sa (old sound, shak), "to sprinkle," 
"wet" with rain, "rain"; shan, "a slight rain"; shao (shok), 
"water driven by the wind," "to sprinkle." Shib, shub, "to 
sprinkle," are clearly related words. 

Sheu (old sounds, shu, shut, zhu, and shuk), gives us sheu, "to 
receive," and sheu, "the arm," "the hand"; cp. Accadian shu, "the 
hand," "might"; also sheu, "the head," "a chief, a leader"; cp. 
si-lig, "leader" (////, old sound, lik, Cantonese lik, means "strength"; 
cp. Accadian lig, "strong"). With sheu, "the head," cp. also zag, 
resu, "head." Shan, "mountain," "height" (old sound, shan), seems 
to answer to g'ar-sag, " mountain " ; cp. Amoy, sail, Fuhchau, sang, 
Chifu, sau. Shaug, "top," "above," "heaven "(old sound, zhung), 
may be compared with zag, sag, " head " ; cp. the Swatow, siang, 
Amoy, sioug. Shi'/i, "a stone," "hard" (old sound, ship, shek, etc.), 
Recalls sheg and sheb, "brick," which sometimes has "stone" as 
a determinative before it, and za, "stone," and dig (ahuii), "a stone." 
One of the commonest of Accadian roots is zu, "to know," "know- 
ledge," " wisdom," of which an older form is za. Zu is explained by 
idu and lamadu, "to see" (mentally), "to know" (in pael, uddu, "to 
let see," "show"), and "to learn." It corresponds to shi, "to 

26 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1SS9. 

see," "inspect," "observe," "to cause to be seen." "display"; and 
shi, "to show," make known the will of heaven," "to proclaim," "a 
revelation," "prognostic," "sign," etc. (cp. {^— shi (?), "eye," 
"eye-witness"), shi, "to teach," and shi, "to learn." We have 
already found words answering to Accadian zi, " life," etc., under 
the same head. The common Chinese term for " to know," " to 
perceive" (also "to tell," "inform") is chi (old sounds, tai dai, ti), 
pronounced in Swatow as ti, but at Shanghai as tsz\ This implies 
a dialectic Accadian term related to zu, as dug to zib. Now we 
actually have dug, "to speak," answering to chi, "to tell." The 
term ab-zu, older form zu-ab, Assyrianized as apsu, and meaning 
" ocean," is probably not " house of wisdom," but " house of water," * 
Chinese shui " water " (old sound, zhui) ; cp. shun, cfrun, (old sounds, 
zhon, shon, don, zhun, dun), "to cleanse," "wash," "sprinkle"; 
Accadian shun, "to wash";| shwan, old sound, shon, "to wash," 
" rinse " ; shwan, " to scour and wash out " ; and ses, " to purify." 
sukkal, " high servant," "messenger," maybe compared with shi, 
"to command," "to send," "service"; shi, "following," as an 
attendant (old sound, shik). Kal is " exalted," " mighty," Chinese 
kao, "high." 

The sign £^£zf, which is the ideogram for "fire," has the 
values ne, de, pi, pit, kum, zah, izi, gibil. Of these izi is elsewhere 
denned by isatit, " fire," and pentu, " fire of charcoal " ; cp. shdn 
(old sounds, shin, shim, zhim) " a brazier " ; shao " to burn," " ignite," 
"light," "to roast" (= shal — zal = nnmaru, "to be bright'"); 
shan, "to make a blaze," "ablaze" (old sounds, shen, zhen) ; 
shan, "glittering," "flashing,"; shan, "to blow a fire and make it 
burn brighter," "to blaze up," "bright," "clear"; shang, "the 
brightness of the sun," "light" (old sounds, shing, zhing) ; shang, 
"wise, holy, sacred" = shig, damqu, nummuru, "bright," "pure." 
" holy," " to make bright " «|^) ; sho (old sound, shak) " bright,"' 
"to shine," to " embellish " (shig = munammir) ; sho, "to melt a 
metal" (cp. dug-dugga-bi =. nutballilsunit, "their melter"); shun 
(zhon, shon, don, zhun, dun), "bright, fiery," "blazing," "the colour 

* Like a-aba, "water-house," another Accadian designation of the ocean. 
Aba, " grandfather," " old man" is identical with old Chinese ba (modem fit), 
and ama, "mother," with old Chinese ma (modern nut). The old sounds of the 
Chinese are given here and everywhere on the authority of I)r Edkins. 

t The Chinese shung is "to rush on," in battle; </. Accadian shin. 
"to fight." 

27 



Nov. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.LOLOGY. 



[iJ 



or glory of fire " ; shwang (shung), " to admit the light," " sunny." 
All these terms appear to be cognates of izi, z\ in zabar, " bright," 
zal, zag' (?), on the one hand, and of shig (sheg), and dug, "to 
melt," on the other. De, " fire " (cp. Di, namaru, " to shine " ; 
DI-NIG = ktiru, "a furnace"), seems to be a dialectic form of gi, 
which we see in gibil or bilgi, "the fire-god," and in gi = qalu, 
"to burn," "roast." Pil or bil corresponds to the Chinese series 
pao (old sounds, po, bo), "to heat," " boil" ; pao, "a scorching 
heat"; pao, "to burn," "scorch," "hot," "crackling" (of fire); 
p'ao, "to roast," " fry" ; p'ao, "to bake in the ashes "; pacing (old 
sounds, p'eng, bang), "to boil"; p'ei (in some dialects pi), "to dry 
over a fire " ; ping, "bright like fire"; "to burn." With di, de, 
ch l a ug (old sounds, t'ung, dung), "the light of the sun,"; "bright," 
" prosperous," is distantly connected. (Ne is, I think, a weakened 
sound of gi, ge (ngi), and kum, an Assyrian value.) 



Accadian. 
dim, "pillar." 
di-s (?), "wood." 

UDU, "lamb." 
di, "to judge." 

dub, " a tablet." 

dib, "to seize." 

dib, "take the road," "come." 

dub, "record." 

dim, "a cord," "to bind." 

dim, "to compress," "confine," 

"distress." 
du, "to dwell." 

DIM (= GIN), DU, "to go," "to 

walk." 
dum, du, "to go," "to walk." 



du, "to make," "build." 
DU, "to make bricks." 



Chinese. 

chu, " pillar." 

chu, determinative of wooden 

objects. 
chu, "a lamb." 

chu, "to make judicial inquiry." 
chu, "to discriminate." 
chu, " stone tablet." 
chih (chip), "to seize." 
chili, "proceed." 
chih, " to record events." 
chih, "to tie up," "a cord." 
chHu, "to urge," "constrain" 

(see tsiu). 
chu, " to dwell." 
ch'o "to walk fast." 

chih, " to proceed." 
ch'o, "to stamp." 
chih, "sole." 
chih, "to tread." 
chu, " to walk sedately." 
chui, " to follow." 
chu, "to build." 



28 



Nov. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



ACCADIAN. 

dim, "to beget," "to make." 
du, dumu, "child." 
dim, "like." 

te, "to approach," "attack." 

dug, "a command," "to speak. 



tu, "the wind." 
du-gud, "heavy." 

DUG, "good." 

duk, "a cup." 
dun, dan, "strong." 
dim, di, "to water land." 
"give to drink." 
dub, "to dip." 

di, "to judge." 
dim, "to bind." 
dim, "like." 

d(in), "judgment." 

da. gal, "broad," "wide." 

(gal, pitfi). 

dug, " to melt " (metals). 

mu-tin, "bird." 

zi (dial., shi) "life." 

zig, "approach," "attack." 

zig, " remove," " depart." 

zid, "right." 

zid, "fixed," "righteous." 

ZI, "a spirit." 

ZI, "a leader." 

zi, "to lift up." 

(su)zi, "body." 

zag, sag, "head." 

(g'ar) sag, " mountain." 

za, "a stone" (dig). 



Chinese. 

ch% "to beget, "rear," "breed." 

ch'an, "to produce," "bear." 

chan (dim) "to mould," 
" fashion," " make like " 

chu, ch'u, "to butt," "run 
against," " oppose." 

chu, "to bid," "order." 

chui, " to talk." 

c/iau, " gabble." 

ch'ui, " to blow," " a blast." 

chung, " heavy." 

chung, " goodness." 

chung, " a cup." 

chwang, " strong." 

ch l ih, "to drink." 

chart) " to immerse." 

chan, "to dip." 

chan (dim), " to pour out." 

chan, "to deliberate." 

chan, "to bind." 

chan, "to make like," "a like- 
ness." 

ch'an (din), "to arrange." 

cha, "open out," "expand." 

(yao, "extensive," "boundless"). 

chu, "to cast, fuse metal." 

chui (old sound, tin), " birds." 

shi, " life." 

shi, "approach." 

shi, "depart." 

shi, "direct," "straight." 

shi, "right," "proper." 

she, "local gods." 

shi, "a leader." 

shi, "to set up," "lofty." 

shi, "corpse," "carcase." 

shcu, "head." 

shau, " mountain.'' 

shih, " a stone." 



Nov. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. 



[1889. 



ACCADIAN. 
za, zu, "to see," "know." 

"to learn," "knowledge.' 
zu-ab, "water-house," "ocean." 
izr, " fire," zag', " fire " (?). 
za-bar, " bright." 
zal, "to shine," "glitter." 



Chinese. 
shi, "to see," "make known." 
shi, " to teach," " to learn." 
shut, " water." 
shan (shin), "a brazier." 
s/ian, "a blaze," etc. 
s/iao, " to burn," " kindle." 



sh (s) appears to be original in the following : — 



shu, " to kill." 

shah, "to slay." 

shu, "a multitude"; "the whole"; 

shi, "the people"; "multitudes"; 

"a legion"; "troops." 
shu, " distant." 
shu, "to overturn"; shu, "to 

exterminate." 
shu, " to pour out." 

shu, "millet." 

shur(sh[r) "cry aloud," "outcry." slicing (shing), "a cry," "a wail." 
shiti, "a number"; "to count." sheh (shet), "to count." 



shum, "to slaughter." 
shab, " to cut off." 
shu, "a multitude." 



shud, "distant." 
shu, " to throw down." 

shub, "to pour out." 
shib, " to sprinkle." 
she, "grain." 



sheg, "to rain"; "rain." 



^a(shak), "to sprinkle"; "wet"; 

" rain." 
shao (shok), " to sprinkle." 
shah (shap), "a shower." 
shan, "a slight rain." 
shu, "the hand," "might." sheu, "hand," "strength of hand." 

shag, "head." sheu, "the head." 

shun, " to wash." shun, " to wash " ; shwan, " wash." 

shun, "to fight." shung, "to rush on"; "batter." 

SHIG, "bright," "pure," "holy," sko (shak), "bright," "to shine," 
"to brighten." and "make shine." 

shdng (shing), "brightness of the 
sun," " wise and holy." 
shuk(kal), "high messenger," shi (shik), "follower." 

or "servant." shi, "to command," "send," 

"service." 
3° 



Nov. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 
T, D, = TS, TS'. 



[1889. 



du, "child." 

da, "side." 

du, "seat," "to sit." 

as-te or ti, " chair," " throne " ; 

te, " to rest." 
dub (?) = gub, " left-hand." 
dub, "destroy." 
dam, " wife," " consort." 



Accadian. Chinese. 

tsz' (tsi?), anciently "child," now 

" son " (tzu). 
tsa (tsap), "side"; Swatow, chap, 

Fuhchau, chak. 
tso, "to sit," "a seat" (old 
sounds, tsa. dza). Swatow, clio, 
Shanghai, tsu, zu. 
tso, " left-hand " (tsap). 
tsien, "to destroy." 
ts% " a wife, consort " (Swatow, 
chH, Amoy, c/i'e). 
dul, "to cover" (e.g., the head, ts% "sad," "grieved." 

in grief). 
ada, " father." tsu (old sound, tso = tsa), " a 

grandfather," " progenitor." 
tum, " walk," " go." tsu, " to advance," " go to," 

" travel " ; ts'ao, " reach," " go 
to"; fsu, " to run," "walk 
quickly." 
(GE§)-DiN,"wine,"GAs-DiN(^ <Y<). tsiu, "wine" (old sounds, tsiu, 
din, "wine." dziu) ; Swatow, etc., chiu. 

Tsiu is really fermented or distilled liquor, chiefly the latter, and 
includes spirits, beer, and other drinks. It is always written with 
the determinative yu, "new wine," "strong drink," a term equivalent 
to the Accadian ge§, gas, " strong drink " (the dropping of the s is 
normal in Accadian). In Accadian din, " wine," sometimes appears 
without the generic prefix ges. The identification of both words in 
Chinese proves that gestin (gesdin) does not mean "tree of life" 
nor "drink of life," as has been supposed by many, and confirms 
Jensen's conjecture that gks- is only a " Klassenpraefix." 



dub, "tablet." 



dub, umgeben, "to surround." 



tsai (tsap), "to record," "re- 
corded"; tsien, "a tablet or 
slip " ; tsi (tsip), " record 
book." 

tsa (tsap). "to go round"; ts'iert, 
" fence," " moat." 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [18S9. 

Accadian. Chinese. 

t.\b, "a companion," "to add." fso, "second to," "an assistant," 

tab, "two," "second." "to assist." 

dag', "to add," hinzufugen. tsang (tseng), "to add to," "to 

double." 

dim, "like." tsu, "to do like." 

dim, du, da, die, " to make," tsao, "to make, build, create" 
"build," "create." (tso, tsok, tsop). 

dim, "a cord," "band." tsu, "a band, fillet," "cord." 

dug, "good." tsang, "good," "generous," "dex- 

terous" (tsong); Swatow, chang. 

duk, "a vessel." tsu, "a basin or bowl" (sacri- 

ficial), "cup." 

dul, "to cover." ts'ang, "to hide away," "con- 

ceal " (tsong). 

dib, "to seize"; ti, tim, "to ts'ii (old sounds, ts'u, ts'ut), "to 
take." lay hold on," "seize"; Swatow, 

c/i'u ; cp. chih : ts'ao, "to 
take " (tsop), tsi'e (tsi'p), " to 
take." 

dam, "a wife"; cp. dib, "to take." ts% "to take a wife." 

dim, einengen, bedrangen. ts'an, "to injure," "oppress" 

(old sounds, ts'am, dzam), 
tseh, " to oppress," ts'iatig, id. 
tsiu, "to clutch, grasp, gripe." 

duk, "a cup," "jug." tsioh and chut, "a 'cup for 

libations," " a wine bottle " ; 
dialects, chlak, chiok, etc. (old 
sound, tsiak). 

mu-tin (== mu-sen), "a bird." ts l ioh, tsiao, "a bird," "small 

birds" (see chut). 

di, "to shine," de, "fire," dal, tsao, "a furnace," "place For 
"to be bright." cooking"; tsiao, " scorched," 

"burnt," "to scorch," "char"; 
tsien (tsfn), " to fry " ; tsin, 
"embers"; tsiin, "a fire 
burning." 

dar, "black." tsao, "a black or very dark grey 

colour." 
32 



Nov. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



On the other hand, ts, ts\ sometimes represent Accadian z : 



Accadian. 
(gis) gu-za, "a throne." 

za, zi, " stone " {cp. dig). 



Chinese. 
tso, "a raised seat," "a throne," 

" dais." 
ts'o (old sounds, ts'a, ts'ap), 
" broken stones," " rubbish of 
rocks " ; tsii, " rocks thinly 
covered with earth " ; tsi (tsik, 
tsip), "rocks under water." 
(na) zagin, a white stone of ts'o, "a stone of a brilliant white 



some kind. * 



/agin, ibbu, "bright white." 



zal, "to shine," udda-zalla, 

" day-dawn." 
zi, "a spirit." 
azag, "bright," "to glitter," 

" silver." 



azaz, "sickness." 
uzu, "flesh." 



colour, like fine milky quartz"; 

" white," candidus (of teeth ; 

a state robe). 
tsioh, "a pure white" (old sound, 

tsiak); Canton, tseuk ; Shang- 
hai, tsiek, ziek. 
tsing, "brightness," "clear," 

" pure " ; " semi-transparent 

stones, quartz, fluor spar," etc. 
tsao, " a stone like a gem " ; "a 

whitish colour" (tso, tsok). 
tsao, "the early morning" {cp. 

chao). 
tsing, "a wraith." 
ts'/tig, "pure," "clear"; tsang, 

id., "to purify," "wash " 
tsu (tsok), "pure, as unalloyed 

silver." 
tsi, (tsik) "sickness." 
ts'eu (dzu) " flesh." 



(gis) gu-za, literally "splendid seat." Gu is "bright"; cp. 
£j£ Jgf = dumu-gu. But za = "bright," in zal, ZABAR, AZAG, 
[ZI, "fire," seems to point to an older aza, and za, zu, "to see," 
"to know," may be offshoots of the same root {cp. ai/iani, "to see," 
with nama.ru, "to shine"). The Chinese pao tso = BAL + ZA = 
"royal seat," "the throne." 

* Stones like opal, cornelian, agate, onyx, jasper, etc., distinguished from 
similar quartzose minerals by their veinings and colours, are called nao (old 
sound no). 

33 d 



Nov. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1SS9. 



B, P. 

The Mandarin dialect has dispensed with the ancient B altogether, 
replacing it by P at the beginning of words. Initial B is, however, 
preserved in certain cases enumerated by the old lexicographers as 
ancient sounds of the characters ; as also in the dialects, to a certain 
extent. 

One of the first words that meet us in the Accadian syllabary is 
•-i^y^, bal. This term has a great variety of meanings assigned to 
it by the Assyrian scribes ; and it struck me that it might very well 
be taken as a test-term for my theory of the relation of the language 
to the Chinese. 

The following list comprises most of the definitions {see 
Briinnow, s. v.) : 

Accadian. Chinese. 

1. bal, napalkutum, "to rebel," pei, "the back," "turn the back 



" disobey," 
orders." 



transgress 



2. bal, etequ, "to move on, ad- 

vance, march." 

3. bal, ebiru, "to cross," "go 

from one side to the other." 



bal, supilu sa zinnisli, pars 
infima feminae, vulva ; 
sapiltitm = bal - ki, " low 
ground." 



on," "be proved false," "to 
resist," "contumacious," "dis- 
card" (treaty obligations) ; pei, 
"to rebel," "oppose authority," 
"perverse"; pan, "to resist"; 
p'an, "to rebel," "revolt." 

p'ao, "to travel," "to go or walk," 
"journey " ; pa, " to journey." 

p'o, "a bank," "a side" (of river, 
or road) ; j±£- ; cp. abarti, 
"bank"; pin, "bank of a 
stream " ; p'in, " urgent, like 
one waiting at a ford." See 
note ;* pun, " to remove from 
one place to another," "trans- 
port." 

pao, "placenta," "uterine";/'/, 
vagina, vulva ; p'in, vulva of 
animals; "a royal concubine"; 
ph\ "low" in stature, or 
height (of buildings), "base," 
"low";/'///, "base," "mean"; 
p'in, "poor." 



The Chinese character includes the sign for ford. 
34 



Nov. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



ACCADIAN. 

5. bal, nakdru, " to be other, 
different, alien, altered, 
alienated," " hostile "; pael, 
"to alter"; ki-bal, "the 
enemy's country." 



6. bal, enu, it to change," "alter," 

for the worse ; cp. nakdru. 
Perhaps rather "to throw 
down"; and metaph. "cast 
off," "reject," or "dis- 
honour" (cp, 4). 

7. bal, paid, "reign." 



bal, dabdbu, " to spread 
an evil report," " speak 
against." 

bal, tamfe, " to speak," " to 
swear" (cp. pad, pa). 



bal, turgumannu, "an inter- 
preter." 



1 1. p.al, hiru, "to dig" (a trench, 

canal, etc.). 

12. bal, naqdru, "to dig out," 

"grub up" pp2), "destroy" 
(walls and buildings). 



Chinese. 

pao puh p l ing, " ready for a 
quarrel " ; pao, " to revenge 
oneself on an enemy " ; pao, 
"passionate ";P'ao, "to strike," 
"chastise"; p'iao, "to strike, 
pierce, stab," "cut off"; pien, 
"dispute," "quarrel about"; 
ping, " soldier," " troops," 
"weapons," "to fight." 

P l ao, "throw down," "reject"; 
pei, "discard"; pien, "to trans- 
form," " to change." 



pao tso, "the throne"; tang ta 
pao, "to ascend the throne"; 
P'ai, "rank," "place," "appoint 
to a post"; pai, "to honour," 
"kneel to," "appoint to an 
office ; " pa, " to elevate." 

pao, "to state," "inform," "tell," 
"report," "reporter" ; p'ao, "to 
cry out" for pain, "to bawl." 

piao, "to speak of," "discuss" 
(in narrative); po, "to pro- 
claim abroad," "tell foolish 
rumours." 

pao, "to bring to light," "dis- 
cover"; p'o, "to lay bare," 
"solve," "explain" the sense 
of a passage ; pan, " to make 
known." 

pao, "to dig" (a trench). 

pao, "to grub up "; p'iao, "knock 
down," "fall"; pa, "pull up," 
"eradicate," "take by storm"; 
/>'/', "destroyed," "tumbled 
down, as a ruined wall"; pai, 
"to subvert," "destroy." 
35 d 2 



Nov. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1SS9. 



ACCADIAN. 

13. bal, dalu, "to draw water." 



Chinese. 

p'ao, "a calabash, or gourd (as 
a drinking cup)"; a vessel so 
shaped ; p'ao, " a bubble," 
" rushing water," " to soak, 
rinse, dip"; pao, "a waterfall" 
(see 18, 19); p'eu, "to take up 
in both hands, as when drink- 
ing water from them." 

piao, "water flowing"; po, "a 
stream"; p'ei, "to irrigate, dam 
up water for irrigation," "to 
run, to flow." 

pao, "a plane"; p'ao, "to cut"; 
pei, "handle of an ax"; p% 
"to split"; "to trim with an 
ax"; p'o, "a sickle"; pan, 
"an adze." 

p'ao, "to throw the shuttle." 

pao, "to feel, have in the heart"; 
pa', "grief," "sadness." 

p'o/i, " to throw water down," 
"bespatter," "to drip"; po, 
"to flow along," "a stream." 

piao, "water flowing";////, "to 
strain off," " pour out " ; pih, 
pick, "empty," "dried up." 

It is to be understood that not all the Chinese cognates are 
given in each case. With bal, "to rebel," we might also compare 
poh, " to mislead by fair speeches," " to stir up rebellion by seducing 
talk," "obstinate," disorderly," "perverse"; and so in other in- 
stances. The truth is that the development of the root in Chinese 
is far more elaborate than in Accadian, as will be seen from the 
following, which presents at a glance all the secondary roots or 
outgrowths springing from the primary pa : — 



14. bal, Saqfi, "to irrigate." 



15. bal, pilakku, "an ax. 



16. bal, pilakku, " a spindle." 

17. bal, ussatu, "trouble," 

" vexation " (ussat libbisu). 

18. bal, naqu, "to pour a liba- 

tion." 

19. bal, tabaku, "to pour out." 



pa (old sounds, pa, pak, pat). 
p'a (p'a pat, p'ak, ba, bat). 
pah (old sounds, pat, bat). 
pai (pa, pat, ba, bat). 
p'ai (ba, bat, p'a, p'at). 



pan (pan and ban). 
p'an, (p'an, ban). 
pan (pen, ben). 
p'an (ben p'en). 
pang (pong, bong). 



36 



Nov. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[18S9. 



p'ang (p'ong, bong, p'an). 
pang (pang, pang, beng, bang). 
p'ang (p'eng, p'ang, bang, bam). 
pao (po, p'o, pok, bo, bok, p'ot). 
p'ao (p'o, p'ot, p'ok, bo, bot, bok). 
pei and pi often run into each 

other (pei, pai, pit, pat, bat). 
p'ei (p'ei, bei p'ai, p'it, bit, pat). 
p'eu (pu, p'u, bu, put, p'ut, but). 
pi — some characters are read pei 

— (pi, pai, pei, bai, pit, pat, bat). 
p'i (p'i, p'ai, p'ei, p'it, p'ik, bit, 

bat). 
piao (pio, pot). 
p'iao (p'io, p'ot, bio, bot). 
pieh (pit, bit). 
p'ieh (pit). 



pi en (pien, bien, pin, bin). 

p'ien (p'in, bin). 

pih (pit, pik, bit, bik). 

p'ih, (p'ik, p'it, bik, bit). 

pin (pin, bin). 

p'in (bin, p'im). 

ping (pang, ping, bang). 

p'ing (p'ing, p'ang, bing, bang). 

piu (bio). 

po (pa, pat). 

p'o (p'a, ba, p'at). 

poh (pak, pat, bak, bat). 

p'oh (p'at, p'ak, bak). 

pu (po, bo, pok, bok, pot, bot). 

p'u (p'o, bo, pok, bok, bot). 

puh (pot, pet, bot, bok, bet). 

p'uh (p'ok). 



The above are all the sounds grouped under the letter P in the 
Chinese dictionary. The forms given in brackets as old sounds do 
not carry us farther back than J200 years. It will be noticed that 
they all terminate either in a vowel, or in one of the tenues, k, t, p, or 
in one of the liquids m, n, or, finally, in the nasal ng. Neither r nor / 
appears in this position. In Accadian, on the other hand, both 
appear as finals. Corresponding to the above sounds, in Accadian 
we have the following list : ba, bi, bu, bad, bal, bil (pil), bulug', 
'bam, ban, bar, bur, bis (pes) \ that is about a third of the Chinese 
number of sounds. (It happens that none of these roots ends in 
B, like gab.) Thus we see that the Accadian series answeis to the 
Chinese, in so far as it has for final sounds either vowels or the 
medials b, g, d, or the liquids m, n. Final l, r, s, have dis- 
appeared from Chinese ; while Accadian has no special mode of 
marking a nasalized final letter. 

Under each of the Chinese sounds, pa, p'a, pah, etc., we find a 
number of different characters, with diverse meanings. All or nearly 
all under pa are sounded pa, but a distinction is made by means of 
the accents or tones, which play so important a part in the language. 
Considering the great number of meanings which we find grouped 
together under some Accadian signs, we may think it probable that 
a similar device obtained in that language also, at the time when it 
was still spoken, although no diacritic marks indicative of tonal 

37 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY [1S89. 

differences existed or were put on record by the Assyrian scribes. 
But Accadian availed itself freely of another expedient which is 
foreign to the Chinese. The same character was used to signify 
quite different sounds (>~< = bat, be, til, mid, etc.), whereas in 
Chinese every distinct sound has a character all to itself. And some- 
times we find the same Accadian syllable represented by different 
characters, e.g. >~< and >J^<y are both bad. 

As regards meanings, the same or similar notions are repeated 
under each sound of the Chinese series ; throughout the whole, the 
changes are rung, as it were, upon one or two leading ideas. Over 
and over again we encounter variations of the ideas of splitting, 
opening, striking, bursting forth, rushing, running, shining, which are 
all plainly reducible to one or two principal notions. The same 
thing is observable in the Accadian series. If ba is " the opening 
of the mouth," bi is " to speak," and so is pad, and so is bal ; if bad 
is " to open," so is bar. This correspondence in mechanism is surely 
remarkable ; and would probably be more so, if we had the com- 
plete series of Accadian sounds, instead of only a part of it. Let 
us now proceed to compare the two series, so far as possible. 

Ba has the meanings qasu, "to give"; azazu, "to be angry," 
"enraged"; nas&ru, "to tremble, shake, fall" ()Aj), "to throw 
down," "overthrow"; and/////, "opening of the mouth." In 
Chinese, // and pei are "to give," and ping is "to invite with 
a present," and pan is "to confer rewards (on soldiers)." Pi 
is "great and robust," "angry"; p'ie/i, "to be soon angry"; p'a 
is " to fall to the ground," po, " to shake," p'a, " to fear," p% 
"frightened," pien, "alarmed," pu, "afraid"; while ka-ba is repre- 
sented by pa, "the mouth open," pa, "large mouthed,"/rt, "crying 
and wrangling of infants," " hubbub." Ba as a verbal prefix answers 
to pa as " a sign of the optative." Ba is also a pronoun, suatu, su, 
" that," " he, him," and// is " that," a demonstrative. 

Bi ^ qibu, tamu, " to speak, say, order, adjure," may be com- 
pared with, piao, "to make known," pan, "to publish abroad," po, 
"to sow, scatter, promulgate,"///, " publish," /'/>?/, "discuss, argue, 
describe." Bi, ina, "in, with," is pa, "with." For the pronoun bi 
( = su, suatu, sasu sunu), see ba. As bi is both singular and plural, 
so the Chinese// is "that " and "those." So na, "he, his, him," 
= Chinese na, "that." Bi, "and," as in itu-bi ud-mu-bi, arhit ih/iu 
u sattu, "month, day and year," coincides with pa, "over," "up- 
wards," " more," "besides," as in shihpa, "a thousand and more." Bi, 

33 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

simanii, a term which properly means "signal" {cp. Nj-fi^p IBfft), 
answers to piao, "a signal, flag"; p'l'ao, " to rise swiftly like fire ; 
" to make a signal with fire " ; cp. bi, napdhu, " to flame up, blaze 
up," and "to kindle," and pao, "to burn," and bil (pil), " fire," "to 
burn," which we have already considered. Bad (»-«) is defined adaru, 
"to fear," nisii, "to break up camp, depart, remove," pitii, "to 
open," matu, " to die," and pagru, " a body, or corpse." The other 
sign fcfc^J, bad, is defined diiru, "wall," "fortress," etii, "high,'' 
matu, "to die." For bad, " to fear," see ba ; bad, nisii, answers to 
pu, "to walk, march," pa, "a sacrifice offered at starting on a 
journey," /'//*, "to retire," pan, " to transport," etc., see bar. For 
bad, pita, see ba; and cp. p'eu, "to rip open," pHh, "to open," see bar ; 
and for bad, "to die," cp.pi, "to fall down dead," "to kill." Bad, 
" wall," and " high," answers to//, " a stockade round a camp";/tf#, 
"a citadel," etc. ; pih, "high," see bar. Bu is napahu, see bi; and 
paqamu, "to bridle"; cp. p'ci, "reins," "to harness," etc. (bar). Bur, 
"to remove, transplant," and bur, "to loose, set free," and bar, " to 
free," have their cognates in pa, pH, "to open," pien, "to dismiss," 
"to put at ease," and other words already cited. With bal and i;ii. 
we dealt above ; >|-, bar, deserves to be treated at length, for some 
fifty Assyrian definitions of this term actually find their doubles in 
the Chinese lexicon. With ban, bam, qasin, mitpanu, "bow, "quiver," 
compare the Chinese pang, "a stiff bow," pang, " to pull the bow- 
string"; pang, " a target ;' ; ping, "a quiver." Babi.mr (bar-bar), 
"white," answers to p'-iao, "to bleach," p'iao, clear, pure, of 
colour"; poh, "white"; cp. p'iao-po/i, "a clear white." As regards 
initial P, pak or pag, " to fowl or catch birds," answers to pih (pik), 
"a bird-net"; pHeii, "a hunting falcon"; cp. pa, "to grasp, seize, 
catch." Pa and pad, "to speak, declare, adjure" (^-^JU) —piao, 
"to make known," pu, "to publish," pa, "the mouth open," ////, 
" to talk." Par, " spread out," has numerous analogues, among 
which arep'an, "to spread abroad," pan, "a board, slab," pai, "to 
spread out," p'u, "large," "extensive." With pis (pes), "pregnant," 
"to bear," cp. p'ei, "an embryo"; p'eu, "swollen, tumid"; pao, 
" to wrap up, contain " (the character represents the foetus inwrapt 
in the womb); pao, placenta; p'ei, " pregnant "; p^an, placenta 
Cantonese; in Pekinese, a falling womb); ////, "full"; pi, "stomach. ") 
etc. Pes is also napasu, "to breathe," "blow" ; cp. Chinese//, "the 
nose." Pisan, from which the Assyrians derived their pisannu, 

39 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

" reservoir," " cistern," is a compound term ; cp. pi, " to store, lay up " ; 
pi, "a jar;" p'ing, "a pitcher," pei, "a dam," "a pool"; p l an, 
"deep dish or vessel to contain liquids or grain"; etc., etc., and san, 
"a wine vessel, an amphora"; si, sien, "to wash, bathe," "a bathing 
vessel"; etc., etc. 

Pa = dru, "to shine," and elatit, "height," "zenith," and kamu, 
" to collect," and fiakdsu, " to cut off," and Nabu, Nebo, " the pro- 
claiming or prophet-god." 

With pa, "to shine," cp. po, " shining, as the glare from water," 
pih, " fiery," p'an, "brilliant" (see bar and bil); with pa, <>latu, 
"height, "/'a, "to climb,"////, "high," piao, "the topmost branch"; 
with pa, kamu, pa, "to gather, collect"; with pa, "to cut off," pa, 
" to leave off, finish " ; and with pa, " Nebo," pa, " sound," " the 
mouth open," po, " to proclaim abroad," piao, " to make known," 
pu, " to publish." 

An, anna, " heaven," means, I think, the canopy or covering 
extended over the earth, and is to be compared with Chinese an, 
"to cover," "to hide"; an, "the sun obscured by clouds"; an, 
"dark"; an, "evening," "eclipsed" (see NGAN; old sounds, an, 
ngan, am, ngam). Perhaps we may also compare ai, " the sun 
hidden by clouds," " clouded " ; ai, " hidden " (NGAJ) ; and ai, " the 
heavens covered and adorned with clouds," "a cloudy but bright 
sky" ; ai, " cloudy," " the sky covered with clouds " (AI). Under the 
same head we have ai, " beautiful and luxuriant vegetation ; " much 
as in Accadian, ana means also " ear of corn," and " twig or branch " 
(sissintiu = D^D-D)- Cp. also ang (old sounds, ngung, yung), " to 
rise higher and higher," as the sun; ang, "great," "high"; ang, 
"overflowing"; ang, ang, "rich and abundant, like a spring," with 
anu, subultu, J~Oi1!?, "ear of corn," and "flood"; yang (old sound, 
yung), " lofty, clear, manifest," " heaven " as opposed to " earth " ; 
yang, " to look up towards heaven " ; yen (old sounds, yin, ngin, an), 
" clouds rising and spreading"; yen, "to overflow," "the margin of a 
stream" (subultu); yen, "a high bank," "lofty," "steep"; yen, "a 
stream flowing far," " long, ample, extended " ; yen, " a serene clear 
sky " ; yen, " pitchy black, as the sky, which makes a background for 
stars"; yen, "a spacious covering or shelter"; yen, " the sun obscured 
by clouds," "indistinct," "obscure"; and yen, "to cover over, to 
hide." Yen, "sharp," "pointed," reminds one again of anu, subultu, 
"an ear of (bearded) wheat," spica. I think it probable, therefore, 
that the original term for " heaven " was gan (ngan), a view which 

40 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

is favoured by the initial c (rather than I) of !~T^, rC57 ; and that 
the term meant " the covering or canopy above the earth " (cp. the 
roots pj, "py, ~ ~~ y ~<"to cover "). The term was then used, by 
a natural transfer, to denote " high," " lofty," while Ann, the god, is 
simply heaven personified, or the zi anna, the Spirit of Heaven. 
Perhaps, as the canopy of heaven appears concave (cp. yen, " bell- 
shaped "), ears of corn got the same name from their bending and 
bowing (cp. gin, "a reed"). The Accadian gan g'e, "abundance," 
"overflow," an apparent homophone of (g)an, "sky," seems to 
connect the two meanings of corn and flood. 

Of the numerals I have already identified gis, "one," with yih 
(yit), "one"; and "two," tab, with Chinese fa (t'ap). MlN, 
min-na, "two," may be connected with erh or drh or 'rk, "two," 
which, strange as it may appear, had formerly the sound of ni. 
This ni may represent an older mi, as in Accadian itself we find 
dialectic m for n. So erh, "ear" = ni = mi = MU-s, Gi-s, "ear." 
The Chinese term for "three" is san, which seems to answer to 
Accadian e-sin, "thirty." Sin (San ; cp., Sanherib), the moongod, 
was symbolized by the number 30. The Chinese sz' or ssn (the 
root closely approximates to shi), may be akin to the Accadian san, 
sim, sib, "four." A, ia, "five," goes back to gad, "the hand"; cp. 
Chinese wu, " five " = older wot = mot = mat = gat. As, " six " = 
a + a§ = 5 + i== gad + gas = dgas = dyas = lyas = Amoy liok, 
Mandarin luh (old sound, lok.) Gispu, "ten" (gisip) = Chinese 
shih, "ten" (old sound, ship). As-tan means, I think, "one only"; 
cp. tan, " single," "alone" (old sound, tan). " His army was in three 
corps," san tan ; tan being added to the numeral as in Accadian. 

Exceptio probat regula/n. The Mandarin speech has an initial 
/ sound (zh ; the French sound, as in Juge), which, after several 
false starts, I determined to represent an Accadian G (ng). How 
was this result to be reconciled with the rule that Accadian G = 
Chinese jy? The old forms and the dialects supplied the answer. 
Strange as it may appear, the old sound of jan (pronounced zhun) 
was actually nien, that is, nyen, that is ngin, so that this term is no 
real exception to the rule (cp. Fuhchau ybng, yaig, and Chifu yen). 
Under J, the Chinese Lexicon groups sixteen principal sounds, 

Viz., JAN, JAN, JANG, JANG, JAO, JE, JEH, JEU, JOH, JU, JUH, JUI, 
JUN, JUNG, JWA, JWAN. 

( To be continued. ) 
41 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1SS9. 

THE TREE AND FRUIT REPRESENTED BY THE 

tappuakh (man) of the Hebrew scriptures. 

By the Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

Few Biblical plant-names have given rise to more discussion 
than the tappuakh, rendered "apple" in our Version; there is 
some difficulty in selecting any fruit-tree which will answer all the 
Biblical requirements. The Hebrew word occurs in Cant, ii, 3, 
" as the tappuakh among the trees of the thicket ("iy ) yd'ar, so is my 
beloved among the sons ; I rejoiced and sat down under its shadow, 
and its fruit was pleasant (piJlD) wathok to my palate;" in Cant 
ii, 5, the Shulamite says, "Sustain ye me with raisin-cakes (fntZ^ipN) 
ashishoth, refresh me with tappukhl/u, for sick with love am I;" in vii, 8, 
Solomon is represented as saying to the Shulamite, " May the smell 
of thy breath be like tappukhlmP In Cant, viii, 5, the Shulamite 
says, " under the tappuakh I aroused thee ; there thy mother was in 
travail with thee . . . and brought thee forth." The tappuakh 
is mentioned in Joel i, 12, with other trees injured by locusts; and 
in Prov. xxv, n, we read that "a word fitly spoken is like golden 
tappukhl/n in silver baskets." The Biblical requirements, I think, 
may be reduced to two only, viz. : that the fruit should be pleasant to 
the palate, and possess a sweet odour ; it is not necessary to discover 
a tree which would afford any considerable amount of shade ; the 
tappuakh was far superior to other trees, and "to sit under the 
shade " may denote nothing more than " under its branches." The 
expression of golden " apples " in silver baskets mentioned above, 
does not, I imagine, allude to the bright pale foliage of any tree con- 
trasted with its golden fruit ; but to such fruit in manufactured 
silver filigree work (iTDtft?) maskith. The citron, the quince, the 
apple, and the apricot have each been suggested as the tree denoted 
by the tappuakh. The claim of the citron cannot be supported. The 
citron {Citrus medico) was obtained by the Greeks possibly as early 
as the time of Alexander's Asiatic campaign ; but it is pretty certain 
that its original home is in Nepaul, and perhaps also in China, the 
home of the sweet orange, and the late introduction of the Citrus 

42 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

medica into Palestine at once forbids its identification with the Biblical 
tree.* The claim of the quince (Cydonia vulgaris) has been ad- 
vocated by Celsius (Hierobotanicon i, p. 254-267). This tree is a 
native of the Mediterranean basin, and is when ripe deliciously 
fragant, but according to our Western tastes, by no means pleasant 
to the taste when uncooked, but on the contrary austere and 
unpleasant. This latter fact is regarded generally as destructive 
of its pretensions ; but for my part I hesitate to throw over the 
claims of the quince to denote the tappuakh, on account of its taste. 
" De gustibus non est disputandum." The flavour and odour of 
plants or other things is simply a matter of opinion. Orientals 
set a high value on flavours and odours which to European 
senses are unpleasing ; moreover we must seek for the reason why 
such and such a fruit was regarded with approbation. Let me 
adduce the instance of the mandrake, Atropa mandragora. To 
most Europeans the smell of the whole plant is very fetid, but even 
Europeans differ ; Schulz says " they have a delightful smell and the 
taste is equally agreeable, though not to everybody." Mariti says 
" the fruit is of the size and colour of a small apple, ruddy and of a 
most agreeable odour." Tristram writes, " the perfume of the 
flower we found by no means disagreeable, though it is said by 
some to be fetid" (Land of Israel, p. 102). Again, it has a peculiar, 
but decidedly not unpleasant smell and a pleasant sweet taste " 
(Nat. Hist. Bib., p. 467, ed. 7th). When we remember the properties 
which the mandrake was and is still supposed by the natives of 
Palestine to possess, viz., its efficacy as a love-philtre to strengthen 
the affection between the sexes, we see at once the reason of their 

* Some writers have concluded that the citron was known to the early Jews 
of Palestine from the testimony of Josephus who {Auti,j. xiii, 13, § 5) states that 
King Alexander Janna?us was pelted with citrons (/cirpioit) which at the Feast of 
Tabernacles the Jews had in their hands, because "the law required that at that 
feast every one should have branches of the palm-tree and citron-tree." Josephus 
evidently had in mind the its hadar of Lev. xxiii, 40, which he considered to 
be some special tree, rather than any "goodly" or ornamental tree; but Ilehn 
has well shown that the Greek Kirpiov, the Latin citrus comes originally from 
KtSpog, the scented wood of conifera.-, and in time came to be used for the citron 
on account of its supposed property to preserve clothes, &c, from mollis, like the 
scented wood of the cedars and other conifers. As the golden Median apple was 
laid among clothes for this purpose (the custom continuing into the middle of the 
second century A.D.), and as the smell of the rind was thought to be similar to 
that of cedar-resin, the common people imagined it to be the fruit of the citrus 
tree and gave it the name citrium (Wanderings, etc., p. $33). 

43 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

fondness for it. The same arguments may, I think, be applied to 
the tappuakh. " The Song of Solomon," so called, seems to be a 
sort of pastoral love-song, partly dramatic, and it abounds with 
expressions of endearment, caresses and love. The quince among 
the ancient Greeks and Romans was a token of love ; it seems to 
have been so regarded by the Orientals. Celsius quotes Abu'l Fadli 
in illustration of Cant, ii, 5, " Comfort me with tappukhi/u, for I am 
love-sick." "Its scent," says the Arabian writer, "cheers my soul, 
renews my strength and restores my breath." 

On the expression, "its fruit was sweet to my taste" (A. V.), one 
may observe that the Hebrew word (pijlft) does not of necessity 
either imply a saccharine or a glucose sweetness ; " the bitter waters 
which were made sweet," A. V. (Ex. xv, 25), were made pleasant ; 
their bitterness was destroyed ; "the worm shall feed sweetly upon 
him " (Job xxiv, 20), must mean shall feed on him with pleasure ; 
and so in Cant. I.e., " its fruit was pleasant to my palate," pleasant 
probably not only on account of the acid juice of the fruit, but 
because of its associations with friendship and love. If a European 
may wonder at an Oriental calling the quince juice pleasant, let him 
remember that Europeans eat with much delight such (to me) 
abominable things as caviare and unripe olives steeped in brine ! 
It must not be forgotten that the seeds of quince abound in mucilage, 
and that a decoction is sometimes used amongst ourselves as a 
demulcent. "The seed of quinces," says old Gerarde {Herbal., 
p. 1453, London, 1633), "tempered with water, doth make a 
mucilage, or a thing like jelly, which being held in the mouth is 
marvellous good to take away the roughness of the tongue in hot 
burning fevers." An apparent objection to the quince being the 
tappuakh of the Canticles, is the fact that no ripe fruit would be 
found on the tree at the end of March and beginning of April, the 
season expressly mentioned of the Song ; the trees would then be in 
blossom, or in early fruit ; the only tree which could have ripe fruit 
in the Spring is the citron which may have flowers, young fruit and 
ripe fruit seen together at the same moment ; but is it necessary to 
suppose that the tree under which the Shulamite sat yielded at that 
time ripe fruit ? May not the fruit be that of the preceding year 
which would hang on the tree till quite late, provided there were no 
frost? May it not have been among the fruits concerning which the 
Shulamite says (Cant, vii, 13), "at our doors are all manner of 

44 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

precious fruits new and old, which I have laid up for thee, O my 
beloved." * 

Let us next consider the claims of the apple. Many years ago, 
Sir Joseph Hooker, with his usual kindness, wrote to me on the eve 
of his departure for Palestine to ask what special subjects I wished 
him to make enquiries about. Amongst other things I mentioned 
the apple. Dr. Thomson in his work The Land and the Book wrote, 
"The whole area (about Askelon) is especially celebrated for its 
apples, which are the largest and best I have ever seen in this 
country. When I was here in June quite a caravan started for 
Jerusalem loaded with them, and they would not have disgraced 

even an American orchard Let tappuakh therefore stand for 

apple, as our translation has it" (p. 545, Ed. i860). Sir J. Hooker 
wrote to me thus : "Three, to all appearances unexceptional English 
resident authorities, including a consul and a medical gentleman, 
assured me that the finest apples in Syria grew at Joppa and Askelon. 
The fact appeared so improbable that, though one authority had 
eaten them, I could not resist prosecuting the enquiry, and at last 
found a gentleman who had property there, and knew a little of 
horticulture, who assured me they were all Quinces ! " Tristram 
says, " though the fruit of the apple is cultivated with success in the 
higher parts of Lebanon, out of the boundaries of the Holy Land, 
yet it barely exists in the country itself. There are indeed a few 
trees in the gardens of Jaffa, but they do not thrive, and have a 
wretched woody fruit, and perhaps there may be some at Askelon " 
{Nat. Hist, of Bible, p. 334). H. Chichester Hart, quoting from an 
intelligent resident at Jerusalem, writes, " Strawberries, apples, and 
pears have all been unsuccessfully tried" (Quarterly Statement 
Pal. Expl. Fund, p. 282). When I visited Palestine in 1886 I 
neither saw nor heard anything of apples and apple trees. One 
would have supposed from the evidence of botanists and other 
authorities, that the tappuakh of the O. T. cannot possibly be the 
apple (Pyrus mains), and that Palestine is too hot for the successful 
cultivation of this fruit. A few years ago, however, a very learned 
writer, Professor W. Robertson Smith, published a few remarks in 
the Journal of Philology (vol. xiii, pp. 65, 66; for 18S5) on the 

* I do not see any objection why we should not interpret the words " comfort 
me with tappukhlm " as having reference to some preparation of the fruit as a 
sweetmeat ; " comfort me with quince jelly," like the first half of the verse, '• stay 
ye me with raisin-cakes." 

45 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [18S9. 

Tappuakh of Canticles, in which he maintains that the " apple 
appears to satisfy every condition, and that it is unnecessary to take 
the Biblical PHS] 7 ! in any other sense than the word has in later 
Hebrew and in Arabic." " The quince," the Professor writes, " has a 
distinct name not only in Arabic but in the Mishna, and the Mishnic 
(&VH5) parish is, as Low remarks, undoubtedly a Hebrew word 
{Aramiiische Pflanzennamen,~No. 109). Thus even Low's concession 
that it is just possible that in Hebrew poetry the word apple may be 
used to cover the quince is uncalled for, if the true apple is known in 
Palestine and has the qualities referred to in the Canticles. Both 
these things are easily proved." The proofs adduced are certain 
extracts from Arabic writers, who affirm that beautiful and excellent 
apples were in the time of the Caliphs exported from Syria to Persia. 
The Arabic for the apple is tuffah, a word clearly allied to the 
Hebrew tappuakh. Tha alibi writes, " One of the specialities of 
Syria is its apples, which are proverbial for their beauty and 
excellence. Thirty thousand of them were brought to the Caliphs 
every year in cases (Kirabat) ; and it is said that they smelt sweeter 
in 'Irak than in Syria." Another writer mentions apples as an 
article of export from Jerusalem. On the sweetness and fragrance 
of the apples the Caliph Ma'mun says, "the yellowness of the pearl 
is combined with the redness of gold, and the whiteness of silver ; 
the eye luxuriates in its beauty, the sense of smell in its odour, and the 
palate in its taste." Its restorative property is mentioned by Kazwlni, 
who also speaks of that of the quince. Yazld b. Mohallab being 
weakened by a fever . . . . " had an apple by him and kept smelling 
it because of his weakness." In these interesting extracts there 
seems to be no doubt the Arabic tuffah denotes the apple (Pyrus 
mains). Apples have been long cultivated with success in the higher 
parts of Lebanon, and are still so cultivated, and it is very probable 
that they formed in the time of the Caliphs an important article of 
export from Damascus, where good apples are still grown in the 
orchards. If MokaddasI is correct in stating that apples were an 
article of export from Jerusalem, then they must have been imported 
into that town from elsewhere, for apple trees will not thrive there. 
Excellent apples have long been known to be cultivated in the 
convent gardens of Mt. St. Catharine in Sinai, the high elevation 
and cooler air being favourable to their welfare. Hasselquist, writing 
from Cairo in September, 1750, speaking of ripe dates, says, "I 
confess they are good to taste once or twice .... yet I would gladly 

46 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

give two baskets of dates for half a bushel of good Swedish apples . . . 
Apples are scarce here ; they are brought hither from Mount Sinai, 
where the Grecian monks have delightful orchards full of the finest 
apple and pear trees" {Letters, p. 424). It is possible such fruit 
may have found its way from the Sinaitic peninsula or from Lebanon 
into Jerusalem. 

It seems clear that the common Hebrew and Mishnic name of 
the quince is parish (tiJ'HS), but it is not uncommon to find the 
same' object denoted by different words or the same word to stand 
for two different things. The almond-tree has two names, Ifiz and 
shaqed ; in the Jerusalem Targum the perishln are also said by Rabbi 
Jona to be " asparagus." The word parish may denote the quince, 
from the septa or cellular partitions of the fruit, while tappuakh may 
have especial reference to its odour ;* moreover, it does not follow that 
because an Arabic name of a tree or fruit in the time of the Caliphs 
had the special meaning of an apple, the corresponding Hebrew 
word should have the same definite and exclusive meaning in a 
poem written many hundred years before. But apart from etymo- 
logical considerations, it is certain from natural history a fact that the 
Pyrus mains will not thrive and produce excellent fruit near Jerusa- 
lem, the scene of the Canticles, or anywhere else in Palestine proper. 

The most recent suggestion is that of Canon Tristram, who 
thinks that the apricot alone answers all the Biblical requirements. 
" Everywhere the apricot is common. Perhaps it is, with the single 
exception of the fig, the most abundant fruit of the country " (Nat. 
Hist of Bible, p. 335.) There is something to be said in favour of 
the claim of the apricot to denote the tappuakh of Canticles ; it may 
have been introduced into Palestine in early times from Armenia, 
but it was unknown in Italy during the first century of the Roman 
Empire. " Neither Cato, Varro, Cicero, or any other author of the 
Republican period, nor any poet of the Augustan age, knew anything 
about them ; and the elder Greeks, so far as their writings are 
preserved, were just as ignorant " ( Wanderings 0/ Plants and Animals, 
Hehn and Stallybrass, p. 320). This is true, and we must allow a 
late introduction of the apricot-tree into Greece and Italy, but it may 
have been introduced into Palestine in early times. The Hebrews. 

* The root of n-ISP), however, may be !"lSn " to swell out," " to he round," 
rather than nS3 "to breathe forth," like the Aramaic "VVTn spharula, poiuuni, 
quod figurant habet rotundum ; from "Itn ci rat ire, in se redire, 

47 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [18S9. 

however, had but slight acquaintance with Armenia, which country 
is in all probability identical with the Hebrew places Togarmah and 
Minni. The Armenians (" they of the House of Togarmah," Ezek. 
xxvii, 14) carried on commerce with the Tyrians in horses, war-horses, 
and mules, and it is quite possible that apricot fruit and fruit-trees 
from the temperate parts of Central Asia, where the tree is indigenous, 
were among the commodities imported into Tyre, " the merchant of 
the peoples unto many isles ;" but when we consider the early intro- 
duction of the quince from Crete into Greece and Italy (about the 
middle of the seventh and sixth century B.C.), the estimation in 
which it has always been held as a sweetmeat in confectionery, and 
as a perfume, together with its associations with bridal gifts and love 
games, it is most probable that the quince tree was early introduced 
into Palestine, and I think that, after all said, it has the best claim 
to represent the Hebrew tappuakh. 




4-S 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

NOTE ON THE D'ORBINEY PAPYRUS. 



£!W^Jk^P=S-lJ 



Dear Mr. Rylands, 

The D'Orbiney papyrus contains on page 17, line 4, the 

following passage : — 

I 

1 

which has been variously rendered by the eminent Egyptologists 
who have translated this interesting document. 

The late M. Chabas translated: "His Majesty wearing the 
pectoral of lapis " (Sa Majeste portant k pectoral de lapis) ; 

M. Le Page Renouf: "His Majesty was wearing the collar of 
lapis-lazuli." 

Whilst an entirely different interpretation is given by the 
following scholars : — 

M. Maspero : " His Majesty went forth from the portal of lapis- 
lazuli " (Sa Majeste sortit du portail de lapis-lazuli) ; 

M. Groff: "His Majesty went forth from the portal (?) of 
xesbet " (Sa Majeste sortit du portail (?) de \esbet). 

I beg to offer below, and to support by a short analysis of 
the two questionable groups, a translation differing but slightly 
from that of M. Le Page Renouf. 

well known in the sense of 



The use of the group 



appear, come into 7 : ie7e>, as the sun or a star from below the horizon, 
bring forth in procession the sacred shrines. It has also a secondary 
meaning in the sense of adorned or invested (with the emblem of 
royalty), crowned (as king). (See Brugsch, Lexicon, vii, p. S99.) 

In our text it is connected with the group l^^x . This word 

is here written with two determinatives, the cord, c^ 3 "^:, and the 
plan of a liouse, cr~H. In this form it signifies an aperture in the 
wall of a building for admission of light and air. a window. (Sec 
Brugsch, Lexicon, vii, p. 1 135.) There can however be little doubt, 
that the determinative cr~3 is here superfluous, and thai we have 
to deal with one of those orthographic peculiarities signalled by 
M. Chabas, who, in his Melanges, i, p. 99, quotes other instances of 
a similar nature. In die present case, it seems certain that the 

49 E 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

group seshet signifies not portal but diadem, tiara, as is clearly shown 
by a passage of the Inscription of Kuban, where, line 8, nearly 
the same expression occurs. "The king," it is said, "was seated on 
his throne," S % Tl t\ (1 ^ *Q& B^flL "adorned with the 
seshet and the two feathers." In this phrase the word seshet is 
followed by the picture of a circular band with the asp in front 
and a knot with pendants behind, representing evidently a royal 
head-ornament in metal or some kind of texture. (Compare 
Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, vol. ii, p. 328, fig. 11.) Also, 
M. Brugsch has rendered it in this sense in his Lexicon (loco 
citato). 

I propose, therefore, to translate the sentence in question as 
follows : " His Majesty was adorned with the diadem of lapis-lazuli 
(or the blue diadem)." 

It will be noticed that it is only in the passage which follows, 

that the king's coming forth from the palace is indicated by the 
o U3 



} 



expression : < === 



Paris, Nov. i^th, 1889. 



Very truly yours, 

P. J. DE HoRRACK. 



■■=»g 1 .' G^- ) 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 9, 
Conduit Street, Hanover Square, W., on Tuesday, 3rd 
December, 1889, at 8 p.m., when the following Papers will 
be read : — 

Dr. M. Schwab : — " Les Coupes et l'hydromancie dans l'antiquite 

orientale." 
Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., P\L.S.: — "Was the Camel known to 

the early Egyptians ? " 

5° 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 



NOTICES. 

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Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 



THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Botta, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847- 1 850. 

Place, Ninive et l'Assyrie, 1866- 1869. 3 vols., folio. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler. Vols. 

I— III (Brugsch). 
Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publies par H. 

Brugsch et J. Diimichen. (4 vols., and the text by Diimichen 

of vols. 3 and 4. ) 
Dumichen, Historische Inschriften, &c, 1st series, 1867. 

— 2nd series, 1869. 

Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1886. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1862. 2 vols., folio. 



Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele. Folio, 1877. 

Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c, 1880. 

De Rouge, Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 

Wright, Arabic Grammar and Chrestomathy. 

Schroeder, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Haupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 

Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 

Burkhardt, Eastern Travels. 

Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1873. 

Le Calendrierdes Jours Fasteset Nefastes de l'annee Egyptienne. 8vo. 1877. 

E. Gayet, Steles de la XII dynastie au Musee du Louvre. 

Ledrain, Les Monuments Egyptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, Memoires de la Mission Archeologique Francais au Caire. 

Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

Lefebure, Les Hypogees Royaux de Thebes. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Guimet, Annales du Musee Gumiet. Memoires d'EgyptoIogie. 

Lefebure, Le Mythe Osirien. 2nd partie. "Osiris." 

LEPSIUS, Les Metaux dans les Inscriptions Egyptiennes, avec notes par W. Berend. 

1). G. Lyon, An Assyrian Manual. 

A. Amiaud and L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 

et Assyriennes. W 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer, 2 parts. 

Robiou, Croyances de l'Egypte a l'epoque dcs Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologie des Lagides. 

Pognon, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 



SOCIETY OF BIHCA1 ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 

TLhc Bvoiie ©vnaments of the 
U>alace dates from Balawat 

[Shavianeskr II, B.C. £59-^25.] 



Parts I, II, III, an<JV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance withle terms of the original prospectus, the price for 
each part is now raised X\-£i 10s. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) jQi is. 



Society of Biblical Acfleology. 



COUNCIL, 188 



President. 
P. le Page Renouf. 



Vice-Presidents. 



Lord Halsbury, The Lord High Chanoor. 
The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M , D.C.L., &c. 
The Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard,).C.B., &c. 
. The Right Rev. J. B. Lightfoot, D.D&c., Bishop of Durham. 
Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles T. Newton, K.C.B., D.L., &c, &c. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Ban., D.C.LM.D., &c, &c. 
Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canoof Canterbury. 
Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.(L., F.R.S., &c. 
Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Deaof Canterbury. 

Council. 

Rev. Charles James Ball. Ppof.w. Macalister, M.D. 

Rev. Canon Beechev, M.A. Rev. mes Marshall. 

E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. F. D. ocatta, F.S.A. 

Arthur Gates. Alex^der Peckover, F.S.A. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. T. Polard. 

Rev. R. Gwynne. F. G. ilton Price, F.S.A. 

Charles Harrison, F.S.A. V.. Tory Whyte, M.A. 

Rev. Albert LoWY. Rev. \ Wright, D.D. 

» 

Honoraiy Treasurer— Bernard T Josanquet. 

Secretary — W. HARRY Ryi.ANL F.S.A. 

Honoraiy Secretary for Foreign Correspondence- -\E\ '. R. GWYNNE, M.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Sim on, F.R.G.S. 



HARRISON AND SONS, i'Kl.NTKRS IN ORDINARY TO HER AJESTV, ST. MARTINS LANE. 



VOL. XII. Part 2. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



-3oe- 



VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION. 

Second Meeting, December $rd, 1889. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Rev. C. J. Ball. — The New Accadian ( Continuation) 53"So 

Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S.— Was the Camel known to 

the Ancient Egyptians ? 8 1-S4 

F. L. Griffith.— Notes on Egyptian Inscriptions of the Middle 

Kingdom 85- 88 

F. L. Griffith. — Notes on a Tour to Upper Egypt (continued 

from Vol. XI, page 234) 89-113 

Professor Karl Piehl. — Notes de Philologie Egyptienne (con- 
tinued from Vol. XI, page 226) 114-125 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

11, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 
188 9. 



[No. LXXXVII.] 



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Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTIETH SESSION, 1889-90. 



Second Meeting, 3rd December, 1889. 
Rev. Canon St. VINCENT BEECHEY, 

IN THE CHAIR. 

&&&& 

The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author : — L'Art antique egyptien dans le Musee de 

Leide, par W. Pleyte. Vienne. 8vo. 1888. 
Actes du VII e Congres des Orientalistes. 
Over denoudst bekenden egyptischen cilinder mededecling, van 

W. Pleyte. Amsterdam. 8vo. 1889. 
Konink. Akad. van. Wetensch. Letterkunde, 3 R, vi d. 
From the Author, Dr. Wiedemann : — Der Eroffnung der Pyramide 

von Hawara. 

Aus Jahrb. d. Ver. v. Alt. fr. im Rheinl, 87. 
From Dr. Wiedemann : — Romischer Isis cult an der Mosel. Von 

Richard Arnoldi. 

Aus Jahrb. d. Ver. v. Alt. fr. im Rheinl., 87. 
From the Author : — Die Assyriologie als Hiilfswissenschaft fur das 

Studium des Alten Testaments und des Klassischen Altertums, 

von Dr. H. Zimmern. Konigsberg, i Pr. 8vo. 18S9. 
No. lxxxvii.] 51 f 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S89. 

From the Author : — Reuben Norland : Rev. A. Lowy on Elohistic 
and Jehovistic Proper Names. 8vo. London. 1889. 
From the Jewish World, 1889. 

The following were nominated for election at the next 
Meeting on January 14th, 1890: — 

Charles F. Richardson, LL.D., B.A. (Lond.), Tranby, Colwyn Bay. 
Charles Martin, Clanmarina, Torquay. 

The following were elected Members of the Society, having 
been nominated at the last Meeting on November 5th, 1889 : — 

Dr. Martin Jager, Keilstrasse, 18 11 , Leipzig. 

Rev. Thomas Robson Pickering, Harrington, West Cumberland. 

Jos. C. Green, M.D., Buffalo, New York, U.S.A. 

John T. D. Llewelyn, Penllergare, Swansea. 

Dr. Leon de Lantsheere, 210, Rue du Trone, Bruxelles. 

Prof. R. L. Bensly, Professor of Arabic, Caius College, Cambridge. 

Prof. O. Donner, Helsingfors University, Finland. 

Alexander Payne, F.R.I.B.A., F.S.I., A.I.C.E., 4, Storeys Gate, 

St. James's Park, S.W. 
Rev. Edward George King, D.D., Vicar of Madingley, Cambridge. 
Mrs. Voile, 10, Museum Mansion, Great Russell Street, W.C. 
The Ven. James Augustus Hessey, D.C.L., D.D., &c, Archdeacon 

of Middlesex, 41, Leinster Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 



A Paper by Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S., entitled 
" Was the Camel known to the Early Egyptians ? " was read 
by the Rev. A. Lowy. 

Remarks were added by Canon Beechey, Thos. Christy, 
F.L.S., A. Peckover, F.S.A., Dr. S. Louis, and Rev. A. Lowy. 

A Paper by Dr. M. Schwab, entitled, " Les coupes ma- 
giques ct l'hydromancie dans l'antiquite orientale," was read 
by the Secretary. It will be printed, with illustrations, in a 
future number of the Proceedings. 

Remarks were added by Dr. S. Louis, Rev. A. Lowy, and 
the Chairman. 

Thanks were returned for these communications. 

52 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1SS9 



THE NEW ACCADIAN. 
By the Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A., Oxon., 

CHAPLAIN OF LINCOLN'S INK J FOKMERLY CENSOR AND LECTURER IN 
KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 

(Continued from fagc 41.) 

When I came to look at the meanings grouped under these 
heads, I found that they exhibited a remarkable correspondence 
with those of the Accadian signs >~yy^, Gi, £>ff.<^, ga, gi, t^E, 
g'a, g'e, g'u, gan, ^ , gam, ^|, ga, and the correlated forms with 
initial M (w, v) and d, z. And just as in Accadian we find a sort of 
hesitation between initial G and k, and G-forms often have double ^ 
with initial k; so Chinese words which originally had an initial G, 
often have secondary forms with initial k.* ^ff-^ ^ij, Gi- *A, 
^1^ *-JJh gi-en, ^yy^ ^^, Gi-IN, show that gin, or gen, is tl e 
primary sound of ^yy^ ; and the second character, ^y ^ had 
also the values gin, gi. Now gin, the Aaadi.n original of 
the Assyrian qanit (T\^)\ "a reed," has also the further meanings 
assigned to it in the Assyrian text : kaiui, "to be fixed, "kinu, "fixed," 
''firm," "right," "faithful," "friendly"; safaru, "to send"; i&ru, "to 
turn," "to return," "to become," "to be" ; biblu, "wish," "desire"; 
san&qu, "to press together," "confine," "shut in," " close a door," 
"join," "to hearken to," "to obey"; gimru, "all," "the whole" (com- 
plete) ; hint, "a band"; kapasu, "to draw together," "close mouth 
or hands," " draw oneself together," ad moriendum, " to die " (Hebrew 
and Arabic), or ad saliendum, "to jump" (Chaldee), in Assyrian a 
synonym of qadadu^ "to bow down," "bend or incline oneself," and 
of kandsu, "to submit," "subject oneself" (= 1^ gam qadadu); 
saddru, "to order, command"; m&tum, "country," "land" ; mah&ru, 
"to be in front," "to receive," "to encounter," "meet," "to oppose"; 
ma/u, " to be full" ; sabdtn, "to take," "to wear"; sahru, "small," 
"young" (= "Y^2, parvus, vilis, contemtus) ; Sand, "other," 
" second, " " to alter," " to repeat," " relate " ; taqdmt, a synonym of 

* The parallel Chinese series with initial y should also be compared with the 
series here discussed. 

53 f 2 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.LOLOGY. [1S89. 

kanu, "to be or become firm, stable, right," "to order, arrange, adorn, 
correct," etc. ; simtu, " ordinance," "lot," "fate" ; zikaru, " male, man." 
To ^-fy^, ga, gi, gin, belong gi, apdlit, "answer"; dahu, "to 
butt," "thrust," "approach " (Hebrew nm) \ ekimu, "to seize," "take"; 
kalu, "to close" (a door), "to stop, hinder, restrain" ; "shut in or 
out"; mahalu, "to dishonour, defile" (Chaldee and Syriac use); 
nakamu, "to heap up"; nakarii, "to be other, hostile," "to alter," 
etc.; nasu, "to lift up, bear," "take," etc.; fiasaJw, "to soothe, 
appease, calm, set at ease " ; saharu, " to go or turn round, sur- 
round "; paqddu, " to oversee," "look after," "take care of"; "to 
entrust to," "to put in charge," "appoint " ; §abu, "to be satiated, filled 
with food " ; sabdru, " to break " ; sabatu, " to strike," " smite," 
"kill"; salamn, "to be whole, unimpaired, sound"; "to repay, 
reward, prosper"; "to finish, end, complete"; sananu, "to 
contend with, rival"; tebii, "to approach, come upon, attack"; 
'uru, "to send, inform, direct"; gi-in, amtu, "a maid," "handmaid"; 
gi-gi, pitfi sa patti, " opening, i.e., uncovering, of the face " ; gi-me, 
a maid, female slave {kinatu), etc., etc. All these meanings belong 
also to the Chinese sounds enumerated above. 

I will take the Chinese terms in their order, as they are given in 
the dictionary. 

JAN (old sound nien). 

c/ian, "to burn." Accadian gi,* "fire"; ""XS gin, 

"bright"; za-gin ; mul, na- 
batu, " to shine " *^\<\, di, 
ditto; de, "fire"; izi, "fire"; 
^- NtN, "to kindle"; za, 
"bright"; zal, "to shine"; 
kili, hakkabu, " a star " = 
mul, do. 

* (Gl-BIL, BIL-GI, "fire," "the fire-god," "burning," kilutu. GI-BIL-LAL = 
reed + fire + full = dipant, "torch": vid. Jensen, Z.K. II, 52). Did not 
Prometheus bring down fire from heaven in a reed, or hollow fennel stalk? But 
the roots car, GUB, gud, gus, " to be bright," and the form ok, " fire," which 
perhaps we see in diparu = DE + BIR, cp. KI-BIR = GMUL, seem to point to a 
homophone gi, "fire." 

54 



Dec. 3] 



zhan = "yes," "certainly," "it is 
so," "thus, in this way." 

zhan, "red silk," "that which has 
been dyed a bright crimson or 
scarlet," etc. ; vid. zhan, " to 
dye," infra. 

zhan, "the whiskers," "the beard" 
zhan, "red silk," "that which has 
(2 characters), vid. zhan, "lux- 
uriant tender herbage," infra* 



zhan, "a large serpent." 

zhan, "a hem or broad band on 

a woman's dress." 
zhan, "a caterpillar." 



PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

gina, gin = ki-a-am, "thus." 



zhan, "tender," "weak." (Cha- 
racter represents hair just 
growing on the body — down.) 

zhan, "luxuriant tender herbage," 
" by turns." 



ga, J^J, sarapu, 
dye." 



to stain, 



So called as sprouting forth 
from the skin, like gin, reeds 
and rushes by the waterside. 
£^S| (g)us, muttatu, " hair " ; 
vid. infr., p. 80 ; du-b, muitit, 
"the hair." 

gi(n), kapasu, se contrahere, a 
trait of snakes and cater- 
pillars. gi(n), saharu, "to go 
round." gin, gi, biegen, 
drehen, wenden, zuriickkehren 
(Haupt). The root expresses 
the ideas of length and sinuous 
motion. mtj-s, sera, " ser- 
pent."! 

gin, "a reed"; "that which 
bends and bows like a reed." 
gin, sahru, "small," "little," 
" weak." 

gin, "reeds, rushes, bamboos," 
etc. 



gin, tara, "to turn and return." 
zhan, "to dye," "to taint or ga, ' to dye," "to stain." 
infect." 



* As we find in this Chinese series terms denoting dress, clothing, homo] ihi 
with terms denoting hair, down, etc. (considered as a covering), so in Accadian 
we have SIG defined hibu&tu, " clothing," and sartu, "hair." 

t /an, "serpent," is pronounced hn at Canton, jiam in Amoy, and 
Shanghai. With the last, cp. sie, the other value of the Accadian symbol. 

55 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1SS9. 



zhan, " to dye," " to taint or 
infect," "to soil," "to render 
vile;" "soft," "pliant." 



Gi(n), mahalu (?), " to pour in," 
"mingle," "dishonour," "de- 
file;" me, "pour out;" g'a, 
g'e, sirpetu, "dyed stuff;" 
du-b,* sibu, "to immerse in;" 
" to pour out ;" perhaps gig, 
mi, " dark." 
gin, "to bow and bend"; "the 
pliant reed or rush." 
N.B. — Zhan, "a sort of monkey," is an onomatopcea, according 
to the authorities. 

JAN (like Sanskrit inherent a). 
Old sounds, m'n and mm. Cantonesejw/,_j7ir///, ngan, etc. Chifu yin. 
zhan, "a man," "human beings"; gin, mu, me, na, ni, nu, dili, 



yih ko zhan, " one person," 
whether a nan zhan, "male," 
or nil zhan, " female." 



zhan, "humanity," "regard for 
others," "the first of the con- 
stant virtues," "fulfilling one's 
social duties." 



"paralyzed," "numb." 
zhan, "rafters or laths of the roof." 
zhan, "great," "full." 

"to flatter," "to adulate." 
zhan, "pregnant." 



zikaru, "male," "man." 
gin, ginna, amtu, "female slave." 
geme, " maid." 
(fl^, galu, gulu, " man " = 

hgdlii, ngulu , Jensen). 
gin, /&««/, "righteous," "friendly," 

etc. 
mun, tabtu, "goodness;" dug, 
du, zib, " good." 
nig-ginna, kittu, "justice," 

"equity." 
gin, kcnu, "fixed," "set fast." 
gin, kanu, " to be fixed," " firm." 
Gi(n), mal, main, " to be full " ; 

cp. gal, gul, mar, "great." 
gin, " to bend and bow before." 
gin, malii, " full ; " umme-da, 

eme-da, tarltu, "a pregnant 

woman"; lit. mother -f big. J 

^y, ga, aladii, " to bear." 

* The compound term dubbin is explained, sumbu ( = si26u), "the finger": 
fupru, "finger-nail" ; and ubdnu, " finger" or "thumb." ntiB = Chinese chi, 
old sound, tik = DiG, " a finger " ; and bin may be compared with Chinese p'i= 
hi, " the thumb." Chia (old sound, gab), is " the finger-nails." 

+ Cp. Chinese tit, "belly" ; t'ai, "the pregnant womb" (old sound, da); 
ta, " big, plump," " to grow large " ; and yiin (under yix), " pregnant " — gin. 

56 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

zhan, " a manfish or merman " Oannes = ana, gana, g'ana, 

(see No. 1). "the Fish-god." 

zhan, " fortitude," " patience," gin, kdnu, "to be fixed," "firm." 
" endurance." 
"to bear or suffer patiently." nasii, "to bear." 

"to repress." esiru, "catch"; ka/n, "to 

close"; sandqu, "to con- 
fine," "compress"; dim, 
einengen, bedrangen. 

zhan, "to allow," "give way to," gin, "to bend," "bow," "yield." 
as anger, 
"harsh," "inflexible." gin, kdnu, "to be fixed," "firm." 

zhan, " to gormandize." gi(n), sabii, " to be surfeited," 

" satiated." 
zhan, "kindhearted," "gentle," gin, "bending," "pliant." 
"flexible." 

zhan (also read ?iin), "to dwell gi(n), pasdhit, "to be at ease," 
upon with satisfaction" (char- "rest"; §ag-ginna, bibil libbi, 

acter = " heart" + " to sustain"); "the bringing, or turning of 

"to consider,"" "to think." the heart to a thing," "desire 

or design." 

gin, babalu, " to bring " (J^f). 

adv. "thus," "so," "in this gin, kiaam, "thus," "so," "in 
way." this way"; den, do. 

17 ' rlCttl I 

shan f "g ramwmc h is fully ripe." gin, qanft, "culm or stalk" (of 

grain); zi, zm, ijimu, TlCfi 

"standing corn" (=se); gin, 

" a harvest or season." sullumu, "to complete"; 

main, sabii. g'a, g'e, g'u, gan, 
"a year" (vid. infr., p. 7 4) (^^E), "to be abundant," 

"plenteous." 

"laid up," "accumulated." gi(n), tiakamu, "to lay up." 

zhan, "a weapon, strong and well- gin, "a reed," "a shaft" (long 

tempered," " edged weapons," and pointed or sharpened at 

" the edge," " a knife at the the end, for a weapon) ; cp. 

end of a spear." Isaiah xxxvi, 6, for a reed 

that pierces. 
57 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S89. 

"sharp-pointed," "to kill." gin, sullwnu, "to finish;" ga, 

sabdiu, " to kill " ; gaz, ddku, 

"to kill"; gul, ubbutu, "to 

destroy," or hipu, " to cut off." 

zhan, "a measure of eight cubits." gin, qanii, "a reed," "a common 

Babylonian measure of length" 

(cp. Ezekiel xl, 3, 5 ; xli, 8). 

" full," " to fill." gin, main, " to fill," " be full." 

zhan, "to block a wheel," "a gin, kdnu, "to fix," " secure" ; 

catch," "an impediment," "to esiru, "to catch"; ekimu, "to 

embarrass." seize," " catch " ; kalu, " to 

close," "impede." 
zhan, "to fill up," "stuff;" "cram- gin, malu, "to be full;" CKmalu. 

med full." 
zhan, " tough," " not brittle," gin, " to bend " (without break 
" strong but flexible," " tena- ing). 

cious." 
zhan, " to join fibres together, gin, "to turn and twist" (drehen). 
and make a thread"; "to sew," gin, sandqu, "to join together" 
" stitch." (shaphel). 

zhan* "slow of speech," "un- gin, "a reed," "wavering," "un- 
ready," "stammering." stable." 

" benevolent " : vid. supra. gi, ga, kalu, " to close," " shut," 

"impede." 
zhan, " to know well," " discrimi- gin, qanu, "a measure," "a 
nate between," " to recognize," standard " ; ta.ru, " to return ;" 

"know again," "a mark," "a nakaru (Heb.), "to recognize." 

criterion." di, danu, "to judge"; za, zu, 

zhan, "to weave"; cp. the various "to know." 
terms denoting cloth, clothes, in 
this series. 
zhan, "the lappel of a coat but- gin, kdnu, "to be made fast," 
toned under the arm," "a single "to fasten" (pael) ; sandqu, 

mat," "fastenings on a coffin." "to connect;" qanii, "reed" 

(mats were made of bamboo). 

* In Canton yan, in Amoy jim, in Shanghai zing ; forms which seem to 
indicate gin, dim, and zig, respectively, as their archetypes. Cp. Accadian 
dug and zib, "good." 

53 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

zhdn, "sincere," "sure," "trust- gin, kinu, "sincere," "sure," 

worthy," "trusted," "relied "trustworthy;" "trusted." 

on," "a trust," "an office," Gi-Gi,paqadu, " to put in charge," 

"that which is imposed on "entrust with an office;" paqid, 

one," "the incumbent," "acting "an officer." 
official." 

JANG (old sound, niang = nyang = ngang = ngan, can ; 
Chifu, yang=g<mg ; Fuhchau, j'6Wg-=gang). 

zhang, "culm or stalk of grain," gin, "a reed or stalk"; zi, 
"luxuriant," "abundant," "fruit- " standing corn." 

ful." g'a, "to abound;" g'a-l, "to 

flow." 

zhang, "to push to or from one ga, gin, dahii, "to push, thrust"; 
with the hand," " to appro- Gi, sabatu, " to take " ; GA, 

priate," " to seize without ekimu, " seize," " clutch " ; 

right." maharu, "to receive"; DIB, 

ti, tim, " to take." 

zhang, "an abundant, heavy dew," g'a g'e, "overflow"; g'al, "to 
" water stopped in its flow be- flow " ; ga (gin), kalu, " to 

cause of silt." close," "dam up"( = LAL, kalu). 

zhang, "urgent," "walking fast." gin, («5|), aldku, "to walk"; 

= DIM. 

Jang, " the pith of the pith-paper gin, sipnt, "a letter"; sapdru, 

plant"; jang-tzu, "a letter or "to send"; cp. the expression 

dispatch, as distinguished from qan duppe ;" kin, do. 
the envelope." 

zhang, "to make a clamour," "cry gu, "to speak and scold" 
out," " scold and bluster." (sagd/nu) ; rigmu, " outcry " ; 

ga, sananu, " to quarrel," 
apaht, "to answer"; nasu, "to 
lift up" (the voice); mk, qalu, 
"to cry out;" DUG, "to 
speak." 

zhang, "a bow bent" gin, "to bend"; cam, kriimmen, 

beugen; cp. ban, "a bow." 

59 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

zhang, "earth," "mould," "soil," gi, and ga, mdfum; kingi, 
"a place," "region," "land," kengi = ki + gi = Chinese 

"acountry," "amound,hillock." kia, "dwelling" + zhang, 

"land," "home-land"; ga, 
nakdmu, "to heap up"; ma - 
da, "land"; ma, do.; du, 
dul, "mound." 
zhang, " to cede," "yield," " give gin, ga, "biegen," "beugen," 
way to," "recede from one's "wenden," "zuriickkehren." 

rights, waive them." gam, kandsu, " to submit." * 

Under jang, old sound, ning, Cantonese ying = gin, we have 
zhang, "as, according to," "as before," "just so," "thus," "and, and 
also"; cp. gim, dialectic dam, "like, as"; gin, kia in, "thus"; zhang, 
" to drag or lead along," " to urge along," " to push "; cp. {££]) gin, 
aldhu, "to go"; babdlu, "to bring"; ga, 'urn, "to send," "urge 
on"; dahu, "to push against," "thrust"; zhang, "happiness"; "to 
approach to"; cp. gin, bibil libbi, "the desire of the heart"; gin, 
khiu, "right," "good"; GA or gi, dahu, "to approach to"; and 
zhang, "old roots," "plants cut down," "shoots"; cp. gin, "reeds," 
" stubble." 

JAO {old sounds, nio, niok, no, nok, not = nga, ngak, 
ga, gak, gat ?). 
zhao, "plenty to eat," "abundant," "satisfied," "an overplus" =g'a, g'e 
g'u, (>-*-) g'a-l; namg'e, duhdu, g'egal, nuhsu, "abundance," 
"plenty"; zhao, "crooked," "distorted," "to wrench," "pervert," 
" weak," "lithe," "flexible"; cp. gin, "to bow," "bend," "turn "; 
gam, beugen, kriimmen; Gi, sahru, "little." Zhao also means "to 
disperse," "to disturb," and "to break"; cp. ga, naharu, "to be 
hostile"; sabdru, "to break"; g'ul (^f>-T]yf), lininu, "wicked," 
"hostile"; zhao, "grass," "rushes," "stubble or thorns cut for 
fuel," = gin, qanfi, "reeds and rushes"; zhao, "covering of 
cloth wrapped round a scabbard " ; ga, sahdru, "to go round," 
and caus. " put round "; zhao, " short worms, a squirming 
motion," and zhao, "to wind around," "to go about," "to 
environ," " to compass " = ga, sahdru; zhao, "to give or bring 
trouble to"; "incommode," "embarrass"; "to infest," as 
banditti a region = ga, naharu, " to be hostile "; gi, maharu, 

* Cp. yi, " to make a bow," " cede," "give way to." 
60 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1S89. 

"to oppose"; g'ul, lamctnu, limnu; zhao, "to pacify" = gin, 
gam, "to bend" i.e., "reduce"; or ga, pasdhu, "to quiet," 
"satisfy"; zhao, "a well-trained ox," "yielding," "obliging"; 
gin, "to bend" (gu, gud is ox, bull); cp. F)7Sl, ?p?N, 
and the Syriac cognates. 

JE {old sounds, nia, niak = nya, nyak = nga, ngak = ga, gag, gal). 

zh'd, "to provoke," "irritate," "to produce," "elicit," "to induce," 
" attract," " bring on "; cp. ga, sancinu, " to rival," " quarrel," 
gal, "to make," "afford"; gal, "to open " = mal, do.; 
^yy y ga, gaga, sakanu, "to place," "make," "produce." 

JEH {old sounds, niet, nit In Cantonese it and yat ; Amoy jiat and 
jit ; Chifu i and yeh. (gid ?) 

zhd, "hot," "heat"; "to warm"= gi, "fire." 

zhih, "the sun," "a day " = udu, uda ; that is, I think, gudu 
(gudi-bir) and guda. Another word for day is cheu, old sound, 
fok = dak, the d- form of gud ; cp. dug, " to melt." 

zh'd, "to burn," "heat," "sear"; cp. gi in gi-bil, "fire," "burning"; 
gi-bil-lal = napdhu, "to blaze up." 

zhd, "to soak or dip in liquor"; cp. z/iu, "to immerse"; zhu, "to 
stain," "dye," "dip"= gi, mahasu, "to dip"; g'a, g'e, sirpetu ; 
from sarapu, " to dye " = ga ; gaga rahdsu, " to flood " = 
mama; cp. Zarephath, Sarepta, Dye-town. Dub, "to dip," implies 
a dialectic gub or gud; cp. gub, "to be fixed," dialectic dub. 

JEU (old sounds, nio, not), Cantonese yau, Amoy jiu, Chifu yiu. 

zheu, "flexible"; " pliant like twigs"; "tender, as budding plants "; 
vid. supra ; " give rest to " = ga, pasdhu ; na, utulu, " to rest " ; 
mu-na, irsu, " bed." 

zheu, "to tread out grain"; " trample over" ; GIN, alaku. So zhcu, 
"a step"; "to step." gir, meri, kabasu, "to tread, trample;" 
sepu, "the foot"; kibsu, "a path." 

zhcu, " to eat," = ku (gu), akalu, " to eat "; E]]]t, gud, u, " to eat." 

zheu, " mixed " = gi, mahalu, infudit, miscuit. 

61 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S89. 

JOH {old sound, nok = gag ?). 

zho, ''pliable," "slender," "fragile"; "weak," "feeble," "languish- 
ing " ; gin, " to bend " ; and gig, marsu, " ill," " sick," 
"weak." 

zho, " the cat-tail rush, from which mats are woven " = gin, qanii, 
"rush." 

zho, "united" = gi, sanaqu, " to connect," "join"; gi-s, di-s, "one." 

zho, "as," "like" = gim, dim : 

" This," " the one " = g'u, g'e, annu, " this." 
As a conditional particle, "if," "perhaps," "should it be ' = g'u, 
g'e (de), the optative prefix of verbs in Accadian {cp. Greek, 

e't'Oe, ei r jup) 

Name of a marine deity : cp. >-»~y t^E K^^> D.P. g'ul (?). 
zho, an old name for the cuticle of the bamboo; a slender variety of 
the bamboo (Bambusa latifolia) : cp. gin, qanu, " reed." In old 
times, people prepared the leaves for writing on ; the culms 
furnished pencil handles : cp. the expression qan duppc, " reed 
of a tablet " ; and the Chinese kan, " culm of the bamboo " ; 
" stick, rod, shaft," etc. 

JU {old sounds, no, not, niok = ga, gat, ngak ?). 
Chifu, yii — gu, gi ?. 

zhu, conjunction of comparison; "as, like," "as if," "according 
to"; "if," "perhaps"; "and," "also," etc., "to go to." A 
personal pronoun, "you." Cp. gim, "like"; tu- in tukundi 
(du-) "if"; za, zae, "you" (= g'u, g'e, "this person before 
me"); gin, alaku, "to go"; tu, eribu, "to enter"; du, "to 
go " ; gin, dahil, " to go to," " approach." 

zhu, "intertwisted as roots," "interlaced," " entangled "= gin, sanaku, 
"to connect "; gin, wenden, drehen. " To receive," "to take"= 
gi, sabatu, "to take"; "to eat much," "to gormandize " = gu, 
akalu, "to covet" =-gi, biblu, "desire" sunku, "want"; "pliant," 
"flexible" = gin, "to bend," whence, also, "dried, as vegetables," 
from the bending, curling, shrivelling effect of heat; "to die," 
"to wither away"; 2 R. 39, 42 e. gam, kapasu Xf2p, contraxit, 
clausit, os manum, Nif. contraxit se ad moriendum, mortuus est ; 
*•£• jjJis ; GI > simtu, " fate," GAZ, " to slay " ; gul, abatu, " to 
perish": "to conjecture," " deliberate " = gin, "to incline, or 
bring {babalu) the mind to a thing." 

62 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1SS9. 

zhu, " the epidermis, or scurf skin of the bamboo " ; gin, qanu. 

z/iu, "the learned, scholars," etc. ; gi, taq&nu *&T\ "to fit," "order," 
"arrange," "prepare," "establish"; pp.FI, "ornament," "ar- 
rangement," "instruction," "correction"; di, "to judge"; zu, 
older za, "to know," "to learn." 

zhu, "to immerse," "moisten," "wet," "damp," "to urinate"; dub 
(gub), "to dip;" (g)a, "water"; g'a-l, gur, "to flow"; mk, 
" water" ; de, " to irrigate " ; kas (gas), sunatu, urine. " Mild," 
" forbearing," " patient," " enduring " = gin, " bending," " bow- 
ing," " yielding," righteous," " friendly " ; gam, " submissive." 

z/iu, "chattering"; gi, nabu ? gi, gigi, apalu ? gu, gugu, sasit, 
ragamu, " to speak, cry out " ; dug and gude, " to speak." 

zhu,* "a. short coat," "soft, close-fitting spencer," "jerkin"; gi, 
sabatu, taqanu ; gad, kitu, " cloth " ; (g)a, " clothes " ; ma, 
nalbasu, "clothing"; du-l, "to cover"; tu, te, "clothes." 

zhu, "milk," "milky," "the breasts," "the nipple," "to suck," "to 
nurse"; ga, sizbu, "milk"; tuld, "the breast," mamma (fzyff^); 
umme-ga-lal, museniqtu, " nurse " = Chinese mu + zhu + liao. 

zhu, personal pronoun your, you ; GA ? = za, gu = zu ; vid. zhu, 
No. 1. dam, "thou"; ku, "thou"; me, men, do. 

zhu, "a child still at breast," "suckling"; vid. supra. 

zhu, "to stain, to dye," "dip"; gi, mahasu, "to dip"; Briinnow, 
No. 2461. Ga, g'e, sirpctu, ibid., 4066. Ga, mahalu ; cf. TTTC, 
infudit, miscuit (Talmud). "To hold up a thing, as when 
worshipping," "to raise " = GA, nasu, "to raise," "lift." 

JUH {old sounds, nip and nok = gib, dib, gag, ? 
Chifu, yii, tsii.) 
zhu, "to enter," "to go into," "to penetrate," "to recede from view," 
"to take in," "receive, as fees," "to put into," "according to," 
"an entrance." tu, tutu, "to enter"; §u + TUTU = ikimu, 

hand + enter 

" to take." But ga (gi, gin) £>>fy -^ = ikimu, mahd.ru, sabatu, 
"to take," and dahii, "to draw near," and tcbu, "to come to," 

* In Canton u, Amoy ju, Shanghai so. With it, cp. i, "clothes." So 
answers to Accadian sig, " clothes." 

Cp. further Ygf , MU = subdiu, "clress"; >^L^ > GU (or TIG = TUG?), 
nalbaSu ; T£J , read as tub, tug, lubuStu, fttb&tu. 

63 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1SS9. 

"attack"; and (J^f), gin, is "to walk, go." May not 
gib = du, " to go," — tu ? Or is the word gi, gig, " sunset " ? 
The Chifu form tsil points to du. Te = dahu, " to draw near," 
implies dialectic gi (gib) = tu; and dib, sabatu, "to take," 
implies gib (cp. dim = gim, "like"). 
zhu, "insult," "dishonour," "rail at," "defile, debauch," "shamed," 
" disgraced," " defiled " ; cp. ga, mah&lu, and syriac 'etlunchcl, 
humiliatus est ; mch'ila, imbecillis, infirmus, tenuis, humilis, 
miser. 7n?2N humiliavit, exinanivit ; gu, ragamu, sagdmu, 
"to scold, rail at"; gi = sa/iru } "little"; and gaga, "to dye, 
stain " (metaph.). 
zhu, "damp," "steaming," "hot"; gi, in gibil, "fire." 
zhu, "to pity" = GA, maharu ? gi, "to bend and relax," "incline 

towards"; gin, kcnu, "righteous, friendly." 
zhu, "adorned, beautified with colours"; cp. gi, taqanu, ornavit, and 
zhu, "to dye," supra; "gay," "pretty"; "lustrous as a gem"; 
cp. gi, *' fire," " bright " ; = za, zal. 
zhu, "a felt cover;" " mattrass," "cushion;" "coverlet" etc.; 

gad, kitd, "cloth," etc. 
zhu, "suckers," "shoots," "sprouts," "rushes"; gin, "reeds." 
zhu, " to eat much " = ga, saM, " to be satisfied, filled." 
zheu, "1 "flesh," "meat"; "pulp or edible part of fruits"; "fat," 
zhu, J "fleshy"; uzu, "flesh," and " fat." 

. ' > "twenty"; the second form resembles Accadian nis, "twenty." 

JUI (old sounds, nui, nai, nut, nap ; Chifu, ybh and tsui). 

sui, "throat-band of a cap," "to bind" (g'ar, "a chain," "to bind"; 

kur, "to bind"; dim "a cord," "bond"); sa, riksu, do. 
sui, "prolific," "luxuriant" (g'a, g'u, "to abound"); si, sig, "to 

pour out," "fill." 

zhui, "sap," "juice"; cp. ga, "milk"; lu-gud,* "blood"; g'al, "to 
flow"; gur, "to flow." 

* The term ^^| , lugud, Sarku, "clear blood " (Haupt, helles Blut, Eiter), 
is compounded of the signs >-< , (g)us, ddtnu, "blood," and -^T , BABBAR, pisA, 
candidus. May not i.u-gud = i.uggud = luc;' (lag') ibbtt, din, "white," 
" bright " + Gim, " blood " ; cp. the Chinese mieh, old sound mit, Cantonese mil, 
Amoy biat, " blood," " gore." mid and bad are also values of *~< . 

64 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1SS9. 

zhui, "plants growing thick and pendent"; gin, gi, biegen ; gub, sich 

niederlassen (dub, dial.). 
zhni, "small plants budding," "springing;" Gi, gin, qanu ; "a bank or 

brink" = GA, gu, "something lifted up, high"; kur, "mountain." 
zhui, "handle of chisel," "haft of ax or cutting tool" = gin, "reed," 

"rod"; cp. bal, bar, and perhaps gad, "hand"; g'ad, hat tit, 

" staff." 
zhui, "perspicacious," "clever," "bright and quick of perception"; 

"shrewd," "discreet," "astute;" "divine sagacity of sages," 

"profound;" zu, "to know." 
zhui, "sharp-pointed," "acute"; "peaked," "piercing," "lance-like"; 

"ardent," "valiant," "quickwitted," "subtle," "keen," "shrewd," 

"resolute," "earnest in"; gin, "a pointed reed"; gi, "fire"; 

gi, kanu, "to be fixed and firm." "Small," "insignificant," 

as a spear's point or a peccadillo = gi, sahru, "small." 
zhui, "to implicate others," "to lay blame on one"= gi, mahalu. " To 

give over one's duty to another"; "to shirk one's work"; 

" apologize and decline "= gin, " to bow and yield." " To evade 

and shove off"; "to retract," "draw back " = gi, tarn ; "to 

entrust a thing to one"=GA, gi, paqadu, "to put in charge," 

entrust with." 

JUN {old sounds, non and nien). Chifu yucn. 
Primary forms, gan, gin? 

zhun, "to move," "wriggle as a worm," "squirm," "a kind of snake"; 

gin, "to bend." 
zhun, "the intercalary moon" ; "something extra, as a sixth finger." 

Accadian zu, " to add to " ; " to increase "=su. en zu="the 

moon god." 
zhun, "to moisten," "bedew," "to enrich," "to fatten," "to benefit," 

"to increase"; cp. gin, mahalu, " infudit " ; g'ai., "to flow"; 

gur, "to flow"; g'a, g'e, gu, "abundance"; zu, "gold," 

"silver"; dag' and zu, ruddu, " to increase," "add to"; uzu, 

'flesh." 

JUNG {old sounds, nung, niung,), gun, gug? Chifu yung. 

zhung, "weapon," "arms," "soldiers," "warlike"; e| Jgf, ku, gu, 
"sword," "soldier": "brutal," "violent," "fierce"=GUR, machtig? 
" you or thou " = zu, zae : " to assist or pull out " = gat., losen. 
"a war chariot" = tf ^TT^> GI ^ MAR 5 narkabtuni, "chariot"; 

Ef ©f, GISGAR 

65 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1SS9. 

zhung, "down" (of plants, hair, or feathers), "woollen cloth," etc. ; 
gin, " soft and flexible " ; kisi, "hair"; gad, kitu, "cloth." 

zhung, "to aid," "oppose," "push away"; gi, dahU, niaharu, etc.; 

kur, "brother," "helper." zhung zhung, "thick," "abundant"; 

G'u, "abundance"; kis, "multitude"; kisi, "hair;" cp. Ps. xl, 12. 
zhung, "a war horse"; kur, kura, "horse"; kis, do. 

zhung, " fine soft fur," " down on skin," " birds," etc. ; " downy," " full 

of feathers"; vid. supr. 
zhung, "luxuriant growth of plants," "collected thick together," 

"to push," "a deer's horns"; vid. supr. 
zhung, " dishevelled hair " ; vid. supr. 
zhung, "indolent," "easy-going," " careless " = gin, "bowing and 

bending," "reclining"; kus, "to rest," "neglect." 
zhung, " thick wadded clothes," " well-clothed " ; vid. supra, tub, 

tug, " clothes." 
zhung, " gone home," as officers off duty; ga, " to return "'; " a calling 

and its duties," "affairs," "occupation," "mixed up " = ga 

paqcidu ; gi, mahalu, miscuit. 
zhung, " to push," gi, ga, dahu, " to push " ; " to beat," " to pound " = 

sabatu ; " to stuff," " to fill " = malu ; " to receive " = sabatu. 
zhung, fu, " to push a cart back and tip up the body " ; dahu, " to 

push " ; " thrust," ' crowd," = sanaqu, 

JWA {old sound, na = ga ; Cantonese ya ; Amoy j'u). 

zhwa, in Shensi, "to push," "crowd on one" = ga, dahu ; Peking, 
"rumpled," "wrinkled"; gin, "to turn," "twist," etc. 

JW AN {old sounds, nwan and nioan = ngan. Chifu yung. 

Primitive gan?). 

zhwan, "to rumple," "rub between hands in washing," "push back"; 

gin, ga. 
zhwan, " seam of a garment," " selvedge or binding in border of 

skirt," "coarse cloth," "to plait or braid"; gi, ga, saharu, etc., 

vid. suf>ra. 
zhtvan, "land near a river's bank," "the vacant space inside wall of 

a city," "an interval between a high enclosing wall, and next to 

an inner fence or lower wall," "the space between a temple and 

its enclosing wall" ; cp. ^f^, in gi-ak, gan tahazi ; E. I. H. 

vi, 22; viii, 42; and yin (gin), "a mound," "a wall." 

66 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

zhivan, "to increase from small beginnings, as growing hair," "soft," 
"weak," "to withdraw and then increase"; vid supra. 

zhwan, "timidly," "fearful," "cowardly"; gan, tarn, "to turn back;" 
gam, " to submit." 

zhwan, "soft," "delicate," "weak," "tender," "ductile," "pliable," 
"yielding," "limber," "lithe," "no fixed principles," "infirm of 
purpose," " to stretch " ; vid. supra. 

zhwan, " the crawling or wriggling of worms " : vid. supra. 

s/ncan, "a variety of opaque, whitish quartz, like massive chalce- 
dony, with pieces of carnelian interspersed in it." (na)za-GIN, 
uknil, a similar valued stone; gin, sa ukni elli, "of bright uk/u't 
stone." Cp. also za, na, and dig', " stone." 

I have thought it worth while to follow this particular sound 
right through the Chinese lexicon, in order to give an example of the 
highly artificial uniformity to which the old language has been 
reduced in the Mandarin dialect ; as well as to make it clear to all 
who will have the patience to look through these dry lists, that 
Chinese vocables in their modern disguise are still susceptible, and 
in most instances without forcing, of comparison with the non- 
Semitic terms which we find in the Assyrian syllabaries. It looks 
very much as if " the pretended language of Accad " were the 
forerunner of the genuine language of Peking. 

The lexicon, as we have seen, invariably refers the modern 
Mandarin J to an older N. A comparison of the Chinese dialects, 
however, suggests that the forms with initial N are rather by-forms 
which co-existed side by side with the J (G) forms. Take, for 
instance, the term ya, "tooth," which presupposes a primitive GA, 
and accordingly appears in the dialects of Canton, Amoy, and 
Shanghai, as nga, ga, ?iga, respectively. It is natural to com] are 
this term with t, ni, " to cut teeth in old age " ; a character which 
in those dialects is pronounced ngei, ge, and ni. If we find it 
hard to believe in this case that the Mandarin i or ni is older 
than the stronger forms of the more conservative dialects, why 
should we suppose that nin is older than jan 1 Prof. Douglas 
informs me that nin is Japanese for jan, "man"; but the Accadian 
ni, nin, "man," "lord," which existed side by side with GIN, 
"man," show that we cannot safely pronounce offhand that the 
one form is older than the other. This is one of those facts 
which rather incline me to suppose that the Accadian language. 

67 g 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1SS9. 

like the Chinese, comprised a number of dialects, and was spread 
over a wider area than is generally imagined. 

To return : the form which has undergone the greatest possible 
abrasion, viz., t, recalls the fact that the Accadian gi-gim, a sort 
of demon, becomes i-kimmu, on passing into the Assyrian tongue ; 
and in Accadian itself, it is probable that en, "lord," is worn 
down from an original gen, just as as, "one," = gis (gas), "one." 
Under / the Mandarin lexicon gives some hundred and fifty homo- 
phones, most of which may be reduced to older forms with initial 
G or m. Thus the Mandarin /or ni, "little," "feeble," "the young 
and delicate," "to benefit," "to distinguish," "to glance at"; 
which is pronounced ngei, ge, ni, in the cited dialects, presupposes 
a form with initial G on the one hand, and a form with initial 
m (n) on the other. Now this is what we actually find in the 
Accadian gi, sahru, " little," " young," of which the weak form 
would be mi (ma, mu) ; cp. the Mandarin mi, " fine," " small " ; 
mi, "small," "delicate;" and, with n = m, mm, "small."* The 
Mandarin yu, "young," "delicate," which also presupposes an 
initial G (gu = Accadian gi, " little," " young,"), is thus ultimately 
a double of i, ni, "little," "young." We may further compare 
ya or a, "second," "inferior," "junior," and the Accadian a, mani, 
" young," " son." The diversity which marks the Chinese vocabu- 
lary is greatly diminished when the words are reduced to their 
oldest accessible forms, which are given, ex hypothesi, in the 
Accadian. The modification of originally identical forms, and 
a consequent multiplication of synonymous expressions ; in other 
words, the continual evolution of new terms from the somewhat 
straitened stock of primitive language, is precisely what we expect, 
and what we find, in Chinese as compared with its Accadian 
archetype. 

The other meanings assigned to the character i, ni, confirm 
these views. "To benefit," surely answers very well to ga (gi), 
sullumu, ga, pasahu, and mu, "to give," mun, "benefit" (see p. 75 
infrX and gar, mar, sar&ku, "to give"; while "to distinguish," 

* I have already mentioned that forms like KINGI, "the country" or 
"homeland," imply an Accadian nasalisation of initial g, exactly corresponding 
to what we see in the Chinese nga, ngei, etc. We may thus explain the 
Accadian nanga, Assyrian nagu, "district," "country." na = ma = ga, m&tu, 
"land"; so that nanga = NA (or ni) + GA {nga) ; cp. Chinese ni, "earth,' 
"soil." 

68 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

"to glance at," recall igi, "the eye," dial, ide, and g'un, "to lift up 
the eyes," and di, "to judge," i.e., discern between causes. The 
Accadian sign for " eye," ^\*~, has the syllabic value si, which, as an 
Accadian word, means "life" (= zi). Now, as ^f>- also means 
" to see " (amaru, naplusu), and living and seeing are associated 
ideas, it is probable that si was also the pronunciation of the 
ideogram in the sense of " to see" (cp. za, zu, "to know"). The 
Mandarin and Cantonese i, "black and shining," may be referred to 
gi, gig, " black." Mandarin i, " fit and right," is gin, kinu. I, ni, 
"coloured clouds," i.e., "the rainbow"; "coloured," "variegated"; 
answers to ga, sarapu, "to dye"; g'a, g'e, sirpetu. I, "long," may 
be compared with gid, "long"; i, "according to," "as," "like," 
with GIM, "like"; i, "dirt," with GI, "earth"; /, "arrack," "to 
drink," with ga-s, ge-s, "strong drink," and (g)ima, "thirst"; i, "to 
move," "transmit," " despatch," with gin, gi, "to go," "to send"; 
i, "great," with gi-s, ga-l, "great"; /, "to give," with ga-r, "to 
give"; gun, "tribute"; mu, "to give"; i, "to induce," "cause," 
with ga and ma, "to make," "produce"; gar and gal, do.; /, "joy- 
ful," " satisfied," with ga, pasd.hu, sab/7 ; i, " sweets," " to feed," with 
ku, matqu, " sweetness "; 'ku, "to eat"; t, "to kill," "destroy"; 
"to push out, as a shoot comes up"; "distant," "remote," with gi, 
sabdtu, "to kill"; ga-z, "to kill"; gu-l, "to destroy"; I, asu, "to 
shoot forth"; gid, "distant"; i, "to retire," with gi, tarn; "to 
raise," with I, nadu, "to exalt," and ga, nasu, "to raise." /, "the 
glancing of the eye" recalls igi; /, "right," "equity," gin, kniu 
kettu ; i, "thought," "inclination," "will," "motive," gin, bibil libbi ; 
and so also i, ni, " to consider," " intend." 7, in the three dialects 
i, gi, ni, "right," "friendly"; /, "easy," "at ease," "pleased"; 
i, "to change"; i, "to arrange"; i, "different," "foreign," "to 
oppose"; i, "to prostrate," "overthrow"; /, "toil," "afiliction" (gi, 
gig, mursii); i, "loquacious" (gu, "to speak); /', "to talk in one's 
sleep " = ngei, gi, ni, in the three dialects ; *, " to govern," " reduce 
to order"; i, dial, ngei, ge, ni, "to reach a place," "go to" (ga, gi, 
dahu); and others of the characters pronounced i in Mandarin, will 
all be found to correspond to the Accadian terms with initial G with 
which we started (p. 53). The Accadian I, kamu, "to bind," 
"lead captive," is like Chinese i, "to drag away," "lead a tied 
animal"; and I -\,paraku, answers to /, "to seclude," "keep close," 
I, "to separate," "divide." In fact, almost every term in this 
Chinese series of homophones is clearly reducible to an Accadian 

69 g 2 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

original with initial G. In dealing with the letters y and /, I have 
already shown that Chinese terms with these sounds as initials cor- 
respond to Accadian terms with an initial G (M, N, D, Z). In what 
follows, it will become abundantly evident that, just as in Accadian 
we find cognates with initial M answering to the G- forms ; so in 
Chinese we have whole series of M- terms corresponding to those 
which once had initial G (nG). 

The letter W is not originally independent of M in Chinese. In 
Accadian there appears to have been a fluctuation between the two 
sounds, and the transition from one to the other was easy. In 
Assyrian, an Accadian M may become first W, and then a mere 
breathing : e.g., Domu-zi = Duwuzi = Du'uzu, Duzu, Tammuz. In 
Chinese we find duplicates of the M-words under W ; thus, ma, 
" frog," and wa, " frog " ; min, " frogs." In the Cantonese wa (ma) 
and nga (ga), which answer to the Mandarin wa, we see an evident 
trace of that transition from the guttural to the labial which is so 
marked a feature of Accadian phonology. 

1. The Accadian ma, nabU, "to name, call"; mu, zakaru, "to 
speak"; ma, mu, sumu, zikru, "name"; me, qalu, "to cry out"; qulu, 
" cry," answer not only to Chinese ma, "to rail at, scold" (old sound, 
ma, mak); ma/, "to brag, speak angrily" (mai, ma, mat) ; mang(mur\g), 
"a jargon of dialects and sounds "( = Ace. gugu, "to speak"); 
muh (mot, mok), "to designate," "to name" (Fuhchau muk, Chifu 
mu) ; mingy (mang, ming) Swatow meng, mia, " a name," " to name " ; 
mi (mil), "to repeat"; mi, "to speak quietly in a low tone"; wu 
(under Mil), "the parrot, as a talking bird"; mu (mu, mot, mok), 
" to call upon the people to do," " to invite " ; ming, " the cry of a 
bird or animal," "to sound"; miu (miu, mok), "extravagant words 
of a madman" (Chifu 7z/«=nyu=:ngu = GU, "to speak"); men, "to 
low," "to bellow "( = gu) ; moh, "to speak erroneously"; mu, mo, 
"consultation." These Accadian terms also represent wa (=ma), 
" wanton, enticing sounds," " to wheedle, coax " ; wa, " the prattle 
of children " ; watt, " verbose " (wan, ngwan, man) ; wan, " to tell to," 
"a noise" (wen, men, mun, won); wan, "the lips"; "speech," 
" talk " ; wa?ig, (wung mung), " to scoff at," " accuse falsely " ; zvang, 
" incoherent words " ; " to talk without regard to facts " ; wdng (wung 
yung mug gug), "lowing of cattle"; wci, "to say," "to declare" 
(wei, ngwei, ngek, nget, mi, mit) ; wci, " to answer smartly," " an 
answer"; wh', "the yelp of a terrified dog"; wei, "to address, 
inform," "to speak to or report," "to say, to speak of," "to call," 

70 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

" to denominate " ; wH, " to talk in one's sleep " ; wei, " to ex- 
aggerate " ; wu, "a sigh," "a groan" (ngo, wo, wok, wot, mo, mot) ; 
wu, " to calumniate " ; wu, " to talk loud," " to bawl," " to brag " ; 
" wu, " a sound in singing " ; wu, " a large parrot that can talk " ; 
wu, "to flatter"; and uh (under WUH, old sounds wok, wot, ok, 
ot, mot), " crowing or cackling of fowls." 

Here also may be added the Accadian mu, siptu, " spell, charm, 
exorcism"; cp. Chinese mi, "to bewitch"; wu, " a sorceress," "to 
perform incantations," "magic"; mi, "occult," "mysterious"; mi, 
"to whisper"; mo, "a demon." en, also defined siptu, is probably 
softened from gen (gan). inim-inim, another synonym, may be 
compared with nan, "to mutter, perform incantations" (old sound 
nam) ; nan, " incessant talk, gabble." 

2. The Accadian mu, isu, " wood," " tree," which is a dialectic 
form of gi-s, is thus developed in Mandarin : mu (old sounds mot, 
mok), Cantonese mbk, mitt, the generic term for " wood," " a tree," 
" wooden " ; men (mu, miit), an old name for the quince tree ; 
men, " a lance," " spear," Chifu mu ; ma, " head-board (of a bed) " ; 
man, a species of thorny tree ; man (mun), Cantonese mun, a species 
of fir ; the heart-wood of the fir ; mao (mo, mok), a species of low 
palm like a Thrinax ; mci (mi, mai, mik, mit, met), in Cantonese 
mui and mi, in Shanghai me, "the flowering almond " ; m'ei, "a small 
tree," "a shrub," "stalk," "stick"; mich (mit, met), Cantonese mit, 
" lath-like rods " ; mu mien, " the cotton tree " (min) ; mi (mit, mik), 
"the eagle-wood" {Aquilaria or Aloexylori) of Eastern India ; ming, 
" the heart-wood of a tree," " name of a tree " ; mo (mak, mat), Chifu 
mu, "end of a branch," "outmost twigs" mu (mu, mot, mok), Chitu 
mu, a tree that grew on Duke Cheu's grave, probably a beech; mang 
(mong), a tree like the locust (Sophora), Cantonese mung, presup- 
posing mug. To these add uh, "a stump or trunk without leaves or 
branches " (see WUH) ; wu, " a wood suitable for arrows " ; wu, 
" several species of trees " ; wei, " a tree that furnishes a yellow dye," 
"mast of a vessel," "a short spear"; wan, "a timber like pine." 
The dialectic forms of the Chinese seem to indicate mug (=mig) 
or mud (=mid) for the primitive form of Accadian mu. 

3. In Accadian we find the following terms for night, darkness, 
sunset, shadow, eclipse: ge, miisu, "night"; gig, GIGGA, ditto, also 
salmu, "dark," "black," "shadow," "image," and eribu, "to go in, 
set (of the sun)," gig-ga, eribu sa samsi, " setting of the sun"; ana 
gig, (or mi?), atalii, "eclipse"; gis-gig (mi?), sii/u, "shadow," 

7i 



Dec. 3] SIOCETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1889. 

"shade;" and all these terms are represented by {t-t-, ga, ge, gig, 
or, with a phonetic complement, ^Jz£ t^ff^, gig-ga. Besides these, 
we have /£:£ (t-Z, GIGIG, iklitu, " darkness," also pronounced kukki 
(a modification of G to k, of which Chinese presents plenty of 
instances); kukki, etutu, "darkness"; ge-a g'u, issur must, "the 
bird of night," also called in Assyrian salamdu ; gigig, dd'ummatu, 
"gloom," "mourning"; kukki, du'uwu, "to mourn," and gig-ga, 
pitu, "to open." Now the ordinary value of the sign (t-Z, as 
a syllable in the Assyrio-Babylonian writing, is not gig or ge, 
but mi. I do not believe that this value is arbitrary; it rather 
points to the use of this sound in Accadian as a by-form of ge, 
gig, such as we should expect from the analogy of ga, dialectic 
ma, gu, dialectic mu, and so on. And this inference is confirmed 
by the Chinese, where we not only find ye, "night," which 
represents ge, " night," but also the following cognates of an 
Accadian mi (mu, me): mu, "evening," "sunset "(old sounds, mu, 
mot, mok), Chifu, mu; mu, " evening," "dusk" (see moh, old sounds, 
mak, mat), and under the same head, mo, "dark," "obscure," 
"black;" mo, "dark," "cloudy," "night," mo, "still," "silent," mo, 
"a screen"; ming, "dark," "obscure," "doleful," "night-like"; 
ming, "the sun obscured," "night," "dark"; ma (ma, mak), in a 
Cantonese phrase, "dim," "obscure"; ma, "dim sight"; mat, "to 
secrete, cover, conceal" (mai, ma, mat); man, "dull, half-shut 
eyes"; man, "a curtain," "screen"; man (miin), "to cover"; man 
mak lu, "a dark unlighted road"; mang (old sound mung), "the 
sun obscured " ; mao (mo, mok), " the covering of animals or birds, 
hair, fur, feathers," " herbage, the covering of the earth " ; mao, " a 
covering for the head, a cap " ; mei (mi, mai, mik, mit), Shanghai, me, 
" soot," " charcoal," " embers " ; mei, " mouldy or black spots " ; mei, 
" no sun," " dark " ; mei, " smutty grain " ; mci, " colour-blind " ; mete 
(mu, unit), "dim," "indistinct vision"; mi," beclouded " ; mi-mi 
mang-mang, " a thick shade " ; " overcast," " cloudy," — a very instruc- 
tive phrase : mi (mai, mei, mi), Shanghai and Chifu, mi, obviously 
reproduces (ZZ mi (erne sal?), and mang (mong), see MUNG 
Cantonese mung (=mug) means "foggy," "gloomy," as in mang 
mang fien, " foggy sky," i.e., gloomy weather. Mang is also, the sun 
below the horizon, and the moon about to set, and to cover, and blind, 
and dark: jih yiieh mang-mang, "the sun and moon are darkened," 
(ana mi, " heaven-darkness or eclipse"). Mi is also a riddle, an 
enigma; cp. mi-a-gin-G-in = ha'idu, riddling (?) ; "Jin, HTll- We 

72 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

also have mie/i (mft, met) fire gone out, to //// out a light ; mien, 
" dim vision," " to sleep ; " mill (mit, mik), " hidden," " occult " ; mill, 
"still," "silent," "rest"; mi/i, "to cover," " a curtain " ; min, "the 
autumnal sky " ; min, " turbid," " foul " ; min, " obscure " ; ming hai, 
"the unknown and dark sea." 

4. With gig (mi?), "image," "likeness," cp. miao (mio, mok), 
"to limn, sketch, copy"; mao, "form," "like," "to draw a likeness"; 
mu (mu, mot, mok), "a mould," "a pattern," "the figure"; mien, 
" the face, visage, front." 

5. Gigga (giga), in the sense of pitu, "to open," corresponds 
with man (old sound, mun), Cantonese mun, "a gate," "an opening"; 
unuig (mong, mang), Swatow me and meng, "budding," "sprouting," 
" to germinate," "incipient"; mang, "to begin"; mao, "morning"; 
niei, "to cut open"; wei, "doors"; and, as "to carve, engrave," is 
included in the idea of opening (nnC> Exodus xxviii, 36; 1 Kings 
vii, 36), ming, "to carve." Also wa, "a hole in the ground"; wan, 
"to scoop out"; wan, "to carve"; wo, "a hole"; wu, "to 
excavate " ; wan, " to cut asunder, divide, break," etc. 

6. The Accadian mu, zikaru, " a male," also me, is repeated in 
the Chinese men, mu, " the male of quadrupeds, of a few plants, and 
birds," "stallion," "bull"; meu, "a screw or bolt"; cp. also wang 
(wung, yung=MUM, i.e., mu-mu, or mun, or mug; and gun or gug), 
"a husband," the Cantonese yung, Chifu wung; wei, "to love 
women," "to hug" (old sounds, ngek = gig, mi, mit); wit, "pivots 
on which a door turns"; wei, "obscene," "to debauch"; wu, 
"obscene," "to defile" (ngo, mo); wu, "to caress, love." 

7. The Accadian mu, rabu, "great," "strong" (erne sal, for 
gis, as usual); mag, mahhu, (a loan-word), rabu, "great," mar 
( = gal), ditto, answer to meu, "to be or make great"; meu, mao, 
" vigorous," " strong " ; meu, "to surpass"; meu, "luxuriant," as a 
forest; min, "strong," "robust"; mah (mit), Cantonese mat, 
Shanghai mak, "brawny"; mai (ma, mat), "to exert strength"; 
mat, "to surpass, exceed"; man lili (lik = Accadian lig), "herculean 
strength"; mang-mang, "great," "crowded," "to become great") 
mang, "great," "eminent," "large"; mao, "eminent," "excelling in 
force"; mo, mu, Chifu mu, "ample," "great" (old sounds, mak, 
mat); mang, "corpulent," "large," "fat"; cp. also wan (man), "a 
number," "myriad," "many"; wang, "great"; wei, "lofty," "grand " ; 
wei, "vast," like the ocean ; wu, "strong," "warlike." 

73 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1SS9. 

8. The Accadian mu, sarru, "king" ( = gi, sarru), may be 
compared with mu, " shepherd," in the phrase fien mu, " Shepherd 
of Heaven," an ancient term for a ruler. In Accadian, kings 
are also called sib, the Babylonian ri'u*, "shepherd." See MUH 
(old sounds, mot, mok), Fuhchau miik, Chifu mu ; under which head 
we have also mu, "the eye," "a director," "principal man," "leader"; 
mu, "majestic"; mu-mu, "royal"; wang (wung, mung), "a king,'' 
"a title for monarchs before B.C. 220; wit, "majesty," "august," 
"lordly," "to be awed by majesty," "awful," "imperious" (cp. 
Accadian me-lam, Assyrian mUammu, " majesty " = Chinese wei, 
"majesty" + Ian, old sound lam, "splendour," "brilliance"); wei, 
"the throne," "to assume regal sway," "to begin to reign"; wei, "to 
dread, venerate, stand in awe of," "awfulness," "awe"; wu, "ma- 
jestic," "fierce-looking." The Assyrian limu, limmu, usually rendered 
'year of office,' Archontate,' may be a loan-word; cp. Chinese lin 
(old sound, lim), Amoy Urn, "near," "connected with," "supporting," 
"assisting, as a minister his prince." Then " ina lime, So-and-so,' 
means "in the Associateship (with the king) of So-and-so." Cp. 
also Chinese It, "magistrate," "a deputy," "to govern." The term 
limu does not seem to contain the Accadian mu, sattu, "a year," 
the Chinese nien, that is, ngin, gi. 

9. The Accadian mu, me, samu, " heaven," which is the M-form 
of gi-s, "heaven," may be compared with min, "the autumnal sky" ; 
ming, in the expression tsHng-ming, "heaven" (= azure 4- dark) ; 
ma (horse),* as an emblem of heaven; mat, "a misty, foggy sky"; 
man, " boundless," expanding," as clouds ; mi-mi mang-mdng, "over- 
cast," " cloudy " mo, " dark," " cloudy," etc. I think the term means 
the dark sky, the cloudy canopy or curtain that covers the world ; 
and hence is related to ge, mi, "dark," and their cognates already 
considered. 

10. The Accadian mu, salfu m , "battle," may be connected with 
ma, "to strike"; mi, "to destroy, put down"; mi, "soldiers flying"; 
mo (ma), "to destroy"; miu, "to oppose"; mieh, "to exterminate"; 
mich, "to beat"; miao, "to strike"; wan, "to draw the bow"; 

* The Chinese ma, "horse," as an M-form, implies a correlate with initial 
G(K). Now in Accadian we have kur(kus), kis, "horse," and kisi, uus, 
" hair." The horse may have got its name from its mane ; cp. m&ng, "the long 
flowing mane of a horsef " ; mao, "a horse with long hair." That the horse in 
Chinese should be "an emblem of heaven," the Accndian c;is, GIRA, (ma), me, 
MU, is suggestive, considering the identity of appellations. 

74 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. ' [1889. 

wei, " to invest, besiege, hem in " ; wu t " to oppose, resist " ; wu, 
"a file of soldiers"; wu, "military"; wu, "a rencontre"; wu, 
" fencing (with swords) " ; etc. Cp. also the Accadian dialectic forms 
gu, ge, mihistu, " battle " ; Gi, ga, " to rival, oppose, be hostile " ; 
du, saltu 1 ' 1 , " battle." 

11. The Accadian mu, nadanu, "to give," which occurs in proper 
names, answers to wei, "to give"; cp. also mang, "generously pro. 
vided for"; mu, " to give a bounty to, enlist"; mu, "to enrich by 
kindness"; mu, "to gratify." The Accadian mun, biltu, "tribute," 
appears to be cognate. The stronger form, gun, " tribute," corre- 
sponds to the Chinese kung (kong, gong, ging), "to give"; kung, 
"presents," "tribute," "taxes in kind." Cp. also wan (men, mun), 
"to send presents when asking after one." 

12. The Accadian mul, bUu, "lord," and mulu, biltu, "lady," 
dialectic forms of (g)en, "lord," and nin, "lady," answer to mu, "a 
local ruler," which is written in the same way as mu, " mother " ; 
ming, "a young wife" (cp. Accadian gin, amtu, "maid"); wa, "a 
beautiful woman; wan (men, mun), "beautiful," "elegant," "the 
literary class," "the gentry"; wan, also read ngao, "an old dame"; 
wan s/idn, a name for the goddess of Earth ; lao wang (wung, yung), 
"an old gentleman"; wei, "lordly"; wei, "handsome," "admirable," 
"powerful"; and the words cited under mu, "great," and mu 
"king." 

13. The Accadian me, me-s, ma'dutu, "muchness," "multitude," 
are used as signs of the plural (cp. the G-form g'ia). Corresponding 
to this, we have the Chinese man (mun), which is used as a sign of 
the plural of persons; e.g., wo-man, "we," ni-man, "you"; ti-Hiiing- 
mdn, "the brothers"; cp. also min, "a multitude"; fan min-miu, 
" a mass of people." Gis = mu = rabu, "great," is cognate. 

14. The Accadian mulu, mul, men, anaku, "I," cp. gin, anaku, 
"I," correspond to the Chinese men, mu, "I"; wu, "I," "my"; 
with which, again, we may compare the Accadian mu, ma, "my," 
mu-mu, me, "our," "us" (suffix pronouns), mulu (= ngalu), amiiu 
"a man," and mulu, nisu, "the people," are represented by min 
"the people," "the common multitude." It has been made an 
objection against Accadian that me, men, mean both / and thou, 
you and us; but an exactly similar phenomenon meets us in the 
Chinese. JVung is " I " in Nanking and Fuhchau, but in Kiangsu it 
means "you," "thou." Dr. Edkins observes that uung is a form for 
the first personal pronoun in Kanghi, but at Shanghai it is the second, 

75 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

as it is also in the Odes, where for "you" we have Jung, pronounced 
nung {Evolution of the Chinese Language, p. 86). The term pre- 
supposes a primitive gun (gin), coinciding with Accadian gin, "I." 
Are the pronouns /, thou, related to the numerals one, tivo ? gis, 
" one," min(a), "two," curiously resemble gin, "I," men, "thou." 
The Chinese phrase, yi-erh, "one two," is used in the sense of " we." 
gis, "one," implies a form mu or me, "one," and min, "two," implies 
the existing gi(n) sand, "second," "other." It is evident that forms 
so nearly alike might easily be confused with each other. The 
Accadian mi-n, "two," may be compared with Chinese nieu, "to 
double," nieu, "equal"; wu (mu) "a comrade," and wu, "a pair"; 
so that it is a true synonym of tab, "two." Dr. Edkins explains 
the use of nung for the first and second personal pronouns by regarding 
it as originally a demonstrative. 

In Accadian, na, ni, are suffix pronouns meaning "him," "her," 
"them." But ni is also a suffix of the first person, "my," and na 
is also a suffix of the second person, " thy " (see Briinnow, s.v.). 
This exactly agrees with the Chinese phenomena. In Chinese, nai 
is sometimes " your," " yours"; sometimes " that," " those " ; na is 
"that," "there," "cela"; na-ko zhan, "that man"; while ni-na 
is " you, sir ! " in respectful address. The ordinary Chinese word 
for you is ni, "thou," "you," "yours"; but ni, written with a 
modified form of the same character, is "we," "us," in Kiangsu ; 
and ni-ko is ours. In Cantonese ni is this ; ni-ko, " this one " ; 
ni-tih, "this." These facts are surely enough to demonstrate that 
the Accadian is not singular in using identical forms for pronouns 
of different persons. 

I may here briefly consider the other personal pronouns. 
Professor Douglas (Chinese Manual, pp. 70, sq.) gives the following 
list for the Chinese : ngo or too, anciently pronounced nga, ga, go, 
kan, a ; "I " (" mine," " my," " me," " our," " we," " us "). Every 
one of these old sounds may be paralleled from the Accadian. 
Nga, Shanghai ngu= Accadian gal (ngal) ga "I"; ga and go = 
Accadian ga ; kan = Accadian gin, " I " ; a = Accadian |^, A, " I." 
Wo and wu, " I," " my," go back, as we have seen, to Accadian ma, 
me, mu, "I," "my." Yii, "I, we, our, myself," = ku(gu), gi(n). 

ngan, an, "I," "myself," in the vernacular of certain parts of 
northern China = ngal, gin (ngin); cp. til, tin, "life," for 
the interchange of 1, n. 

76 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [18S9. 

tsa, tsan, are used in Chihli and Shantung for we, " our " ; tsa-vian, 

"we," "our." The dialectic tsa, cha, point to primitive za, DA. 

Compare the Accadian za, zu, "thou," "thy"; dam, "thou." 

Tsan (dzan) "I," "me," is a further development of tsa. 
For the second person, "those," we have ni, nin, or ?iina, and 
ju. Ni (old sound ni), is compared by Bishop Caldwell with the ni 
of the Scythian tablets at Behistun. Nin, old nim, is probably GIN, 
as is indicated by the Cantonese Jim, Shanghai nidng (ngin) ; and 
is thus identical with gin, anaku, " I." 

ju, zhu, implies an archaic series gu, du, zu ; vid. supr. s.v. zhu. 
t ( a, "he," "she," "it"; "that," "the other," "another." The old 

sounds ta, t'ap, identify this term with the Accadian tab, 

"fellow," "partner," "brother," "to add." 
k'i, c/ii (old sound gi), " he," " she," " it "; " his," "they," " theirs " ; 

"the," "that," "the one"; cp. Accadian gi-s, gi, "one," di-s, 

"one." 
As I pointed out in the Academy, No. 916, the language of the 
letter of the king of x\rzapi to Amenophis III (sixteenth century B.C.) 
is clearly related to Chinese on the one hand, and to Accadian on the 
other.* In this inscription we have mi as suffix pronoun of the first 
person, and ti, tu ( = di, du, = za, zu) as suffixes of the second. 
These forms obviously admit of comparison with the Chinese and 
Accadian forms already discussed. 

The Accadian ma, "boat," "ship," answers to the Chinese mdng, 
" a small boat," " a pinnace," " a long boat " ; and truing (old sound, 
mong), "a fast-sailing war-junk," "a galley." 

The Accadian |^, denoting "water," is not only pronounced 
a, but also me. It does not seem likely that the latter sound 

* The term bibbid, "chariots," answers to the Chinese pii pci, anciently 
pit pit, that is BID + BID {cp. Accadian I!A1shar = bar + bar, SiSSid = Sid + Sid), 
kalatta or kalata, " brother," is ko lao, anciently ka LAT. The ideogram 
\r *Y> Sig, is probably to be read ZIN, as it has the phonetic complement -in. 
ZIN is to sig, as Zl to Si, or ZID, "corn," to §E, "corn." Cp. with Sig, damqu, 
"bright," "fortunate," the Chinese shih, "to brighten, adorn"; sh&ng (shing), 
"sunlight," " splendour," etc. ; and with ZIN, ts'ing, " pure, clear, unsullied " ; 
ts'in, "rest," ising, "peace"; tsin°, "to adorn," etc. Zin-nug G'UMANDA 
is, "May peace (or prosperity) be multiplied"! NUG = Chinese ning, "tran- 
quillity," "to wish j)eace to"; and da {cp. Accadian da in DAM AL) = Chinese to 
(da), "much, great, to be or become many " ; ta, "great"; cha, "to open out, 
expand," etc. 

77 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

is borrowed from the Assyrian me, mu ; for we have a Chinese 
series to support its claim to be considered a genuine Accadian 
vocable. The Chinese terms are as follows : man, " an expanse 
of water"; " an overflow " ; mang (old sound, mung), "water ;" mao, 
"watery"; "stagnant water"; mo, "small rain"; mo, "shallow 
water;" met, "summer rains;" met, "flowing water;" mi, "a vast 
expanse of waters;" ho shut mi-mi "wide and full is the river"; 
cp. Accadian a-ma-ma = a-ga-ga, me rahasu; mien, "a flood 
bursting the barriers; a mighty stream"; min, "a vast sheet of 
water"; "to flow off"; ming, "the deep;" "drizzling ram;" me, 
mo, "to sink in the water"; mu, "to bathe"; mu, "fine rain." 
The obvious implication of this series of cognate terms is 
strengthened by the fact that we have in Accadian G-form like 
g'a, g'e, g'u, g'al, gur, implying a corresponding M-form like me. 

I have not exhausted the points of agreement presented by 
Chinese words under the letter m with their Accadian doubles or 
originals. Just as we should expect in Accadian an M-form 
answering to the gin of za-gin, so we actually find in Chinese min, 
"a fine kind of stone, clouded alabaster "; poh min, "pure white 
alabaster"; min shi(h), "common alabaster"; wan or min, "the 
streaks in agate or jade "; and other cognate forms. 

And as we have mu-s, " serpent," in Accadian, so we have in 
Chinese man, mang, min, with the same meaning (see under Jan). 
With ga, sabatu, "to beat," we may compare ma (mit), "to strike"; 
mieh (mit), Canton mit, "to beat"; with gi, sahru, "little," mi, 
"small, petty;" miao, "small"; mieh, "minute," etc.; with ga, 
pasdhu, and gin, kanu or taqanu, mi, "to soothe, pacify"; "settle, 
establish"; with ga, saharu, mi, "around"; with gi, sanaku, kalu, 
ga, salamu, mi, " to prevent, close up, stop ; to complete "; with gid, 
"long, distant"; mi, do.; with gin, qanu, mieh, "bamboos"; with 
gin, gam, "to bow the head," mien {min), "to hang down the 
head"; with gin, taru, mien, "to turn the back on." But I need 
not now say more than that under M it is easy to find doubles 
for all or most of the Chinese words given under J. 

I have said that the Accadian terms for " ear," were Gi-s, ge, mu-s. 
I can now throw further light on this identification. The ideogram 
is *y», with the syllabic values ma, a, me, bi, pi, tal, tu ; and the 
name of the sign is giltanu. Now this Assyrian conventional name 
is equivalent to gistanu (cp. iltenis = istenis, and many other well- 
known examples of / for s). gis being " the ear," what is tan or 

7S 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

dan? Let the following Chinese series help us to decide: ta 
"great ears, hanging over"; tan, "ears without a rim on the lobe"; 
tan, "pendent ears, reaching to the shoulders"; fan, "earthenware 
jars, with ears or handles"; tang, "ear-pendants"; tang, "an ear 
whose lobe reaches to the neck," such as we see on images of the gods 
(e tang), and which is regarded as a mark of intelligence. This 
recalls Ashurbanipal's boast that the gods had given him "large 
ears" (uznd rapsctti). Cp. further fu, "yellow ear-flaps"; ti, "a 
jar with small ears " ; ting, " a tripod kettle with two ears " ; ting, 
"a running from the ear"; to, pendent things"; e to, "lobe of the 
ear"; t'ing, "to hear." gildan, or gistan, therefore, is gis (ges) + 
dan, "ear -hear." With gis, "ear," cp. gin, magaru, "to hear, 
listen to." gis-tug, mus-tug, "to hear," seem likewise to combine 
both terms for "ear." 

As to the phonetic values of the ideogram, ma, me, answer to 
mu(s), as in so many similar instances ; A has lost the initial con- 
sonant (as e, "to speak," = me, "to speak"); bi is a hardening of 
mi, such as regularly takes place in the Amoy dialect of Chinese, 
e.g. ming, "a corn-fly," Amoy beng; cp. Accadian ban, "a bow," with 
gin, gam, "to bend." tal is to tan, as til to tin, or dil, "man," 
to din (mudin), and tu answers to Chinese to, "pendent" (vid. 
supr. ) ; cp. Cantonese ///, Amoy to, Shanghai ///. The ordinary 
word for "ear" in Chinese is e, which Wells Williams writes 'rh, 
Edkins er, and Wade erh. But R is not to be found anywhere else in 
the Chinese lexicon ; and the sound intended appears to be merely 
the open e, heard in such words as " ere," " mere " ; so that all the 
homophones given under 'rh really consist of a single vowel, and 
ought to be transcribed e. The dialects point to the same con- 
clusion, e, "ear," is the Cantonese /, Amoy//", Shanghai ni. Now 
e, i, have lost their initial letter, like the Accadian a (for the deflexion 
of the vowel, cp. Accadian a, "water," and £, "water; Accadian .\, 
"clothes, Chinese i, "clothes"); while the Amoy//", tu", vulgar hi, 
and the Shanghai ni, point to older forms identical with the Accadian 
gin, "to hear," gi-s, "the ear," mu-s, "the ear." In Chinese, we 
have also wan, Cantonese man, "to hear" (old sounds, men miin), 
obviously corresponding to the Accadian terms. 

The character *f»-, "ear," is like ^|>~, "eye"; and the Chinese 
lexicon notes that the characters for ear and eye are often written alike. 

Another Chinese e {'rh), means "the whiskers," "hairy." It is 
the Cantonese i, Amoy //, Shanghai c. GI or ge is the form pre- 

79 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1889. 

supposed by ji; and we may compare Accadian kisi, "the hair." 
But what is Kisi, kis? It is, I think, identical with J^| us, or 
rather gus, gis, muttatu, " the hair." (gis, " the male," is also the 
hairy or bearded and whiskered sex). The Chinese supplies the 
corresponding M-forms, mei, "the eyebrows"; mao, "hair." 

Another c ('r/i) is " two," " the second," " to divide in twain," 
" to duplicate " ; and there are two other homophones, meaning 
"a second," "an assistant " ; and, "a substitute," "a second," "to 
reiterate," "to oppose." Here, again, the dialectic /, //, ni, carry us 
back to gi, mi, or di ; and, as we saw above, Accadian gi or gin is 
sanii, "second," or "to double," while Accadian min, is "two"; and 
ga, gi, are " to turn," " return," " answer," " oppose " ; and du-g 
(du, de) is " to speak." With gi, " second," we may also compare kas 
or gas, Una, " two," and kur, kus, ahu, "brother" ("the other," 
"the second"; cp. also Chinese, ko = ka, "elder brother"). The 
Chinese man, "double," is to Accadian min, mina, as the Chinese 
tan, "single," is to Accadian tan in as-tan. 

I have already called attention to the relation between the first 
and second numerals and the first and second personal pronouns. 
What I then said is borne out by the fact that e (VA), in the three 
dialects i, ji", e, is the second personal pronouns "thou," "you." 
The initials of two forms are lost, and the third points to gin, min 
(din). Cp. the Accadian ku, "thou," men, "thou," "you," dam, 
"thou." The same Chinese character has the meanings, "so," 
"thus," and "abundant"; cp. Accadian gin (= dim), kPam, "so," 
"thus"; g'e, "abundance." 



Addenda. 

Page 64, note. The Chinese k'iie/i, Zi'ie/i, old sound giet, Amoy 
Mat, "blood," answers to gud. 

Page 78. The Accadian men, agu, "a crown "= Chinese mien 
(min), "a crown." 

(To be continued.) 



80 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

WAS THE CAMEL KNOWN TO THE EARLY EGYPTIANS? 
By the Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

It is a well known and very remarkable fact that no figure of the 
camel occurs on the monuments of ancient Egypt. Relying on this 
negative evidence, some writers have, I think, somewhat hastily 
concluded that this animal was not employed by and scarcely known 
to the old Egyptians. Victor Hehn goes so far as to say that 
"the camel was first introduced into Africa as late as the third 
century of the Christian era, although that animal seems expressly 
made for the Libyan desert, and has opened that impenetrable 
region to foreign nations, their trade and their religion." ( Wandet ings 
0/ Plants and Animals, p. 203, ed. Stallybrass). In a note (p. 476) 
he says that some writers have supposed that, for some reason 
unknown to us, the Egyptian painters may have been forbidden to 
copy camels. Sir G. Wilkinson writes : " It is remarkable that the 
camel, though known to have been used in, and probably a native of 
Egypt, as early at least as the time of Abraham (the Bible distinctly 
stating it to have been among the presents given by Pharaoh to the 
patriarch (Gen. xii, 16; see also Exod. ix, 3), has never yet been 
met with in the paintings or hieroglyphics. We cannot, however, 
infer from our finding no representation or notice of it,* that it was 
rare in any part of the country, since the same would apply to 
poultry, which, it was scarcely necessary to observe, was always 
abundant in Egypt, for no instance occurs in the sculptures of fowls 
or pigeons among the stock of the farm, though geese are repeatedly 
introduced and numbered in the presence of the stewards." {Ancient 
Egyptians, hi, p. 35, 3rd ed.) The instance of the absence of the 
domestic fowl from the monuments is not parallel with that of the 
camel; this bird was unknown to the early Egyptians. We know that 
the domestic fowl is aboriginal in India, and that it first migrated to 
the west with the Medo-Persian invaders, as Victor Hehn has well 
reminded us. The artificial hatching of eggs, therefore, which Aristotle 
(Hist. Aniin., vi, 2, § 3) and Diodorus (Lib. i, c. 74) mention as 

* Sir G. Wilkinson, in a note, says : "I have a stone seal found in Nubia, 
on which two camels are rudely engraved, but it is of uncertain date." 

81 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1889. 

practised by the Egyptians, must refer to the eggs of geese or ducks, 
or to a period later than the Persian conquest. In the case of the 
camel we have the direct testimony of Genesis xii, t6 ; Exod. ix, 3 — 
the murrain was on the camels of Egypt — and Gen. xxxvii, 25 — 
Ishmaelites from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery on their way 
to Egypt. The Biblical statements are completely set at naught 
by Victor Hehn from the negative evidence of the Egyptian monu- 
ments and from the presumed late introduction of the camel into 
Africa. On a priori grounds it would appear highly improbable 
that so valuable a beast of burden, and so much used in Arabia, 
Syria, and other Asiatic countries, should not have been employed 
by the old Egyptians ; but I am able to bring forward direct con- 
clusive evidence of the camel having been used as a beast of burden 
by the Egyptians in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (born b.c. 

3°9)- 

Strabo in his last two books describes Egypt, Ethiopia and the 
north coast of Libya ; he had seen Egypt as far as the first 
cataracts, and his description of the country is generally allowed to 
be one of the most complete parts of his work. Speaking of the 
desert tract between Myos Hormus on the Red Sea and Coptos on 
the Nile, he mentions Philadelphus as the first person said to have 
opened a road between these two places, and to have provided 
stations and water supplies. " Formerly," says the Greek geo- 
grapher {i.e., before the time of Philadelphus), " the camel-merchants" 
(jot KafirjXefnropoi, i.e., those who carried their goods on camels) 
" performed their journeys by night being guided by the stars, and 
like mariners, carried with them a supply of water, but now watering 
places " (vcpe7a) " are provided, and rain water, which is scarce, is 
collected in reservoirs." (Geograph., xvii, 1, § 45, ed. Kramer.) 
In the historical inscription of Esarhaddon we read how the 
Assyrian king on his arrival at the city of Ra-pi-khi on the frontiers 
of Egypt, found the boundary stream dry, and secured the aid of 
the kings of Arabia, who supplied him with camels to carry water 
for the use of his army in his campaign against Egypt (b.c. 672 circ). 

But although there is no representation of the camel on the 
monuments, there are one or two Egyptian words which point with 
much probability to their denoting the camel. Our learned President 
has kindly supplied me with extracts containing instances in which 
the camel is supposed to be the animal meant. The first instance of 
the occurrence of a w r ord which might be identified with the animal, 

82 



Dec. 3] 



FROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



occurs in the 1st Anastasi Papyrus about the travels of an Egyptian 
officer in Syria. At page 23, line 5 of the MS., the traveller or 
Egyptian officer (Mohar) seems to ask for the flesh of the camel to 
;at ; the words are — 



1 1 1 

pa ta 









*? 



kamaair 



ra 



T 

mahair 



U=fl 



J] 



e 



en amu 
'■''(Give) the flesh of camel to the Mohar to eat." 



Besides this example M. Chabas (Etudes sur Fantiquite historiquc, 
p. 412) gives three others which he identified more or less with it. 
The animal is here called _^g^ \\ t] _p . 
is said — 



u* 



In the Bologna Papyrus it 



pa kari setem tet-u antu - f her Kas 

"The camel hears the words, he is brought from Kush." 

This text is of the Ramesside period. 



In Anastasi iii, 4, 1, we are told — 

tutu her seba kaari 

" One teaches (the) camel to 

The Proverbs of Ani (Boulaq Pap., 9, 4) say — 



Y< 



er kenken 

dance." 



ta 



kaari 

^ -^Q V* 

m i! 4 Jr in 

maqalau 



faau 



au bu faau su mut n set 

" The (young) female camel bears the burden, did not her 
mother bear it ?" 

83 H 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

Now the question is, how are we to read the word (1 (1 V ? 

Both Brugsch and Chabas hold that the sign ^s>- has the value 

mar as well as man, and therefore read K3?s v\ fi \\ 1^1 Kamari 

or Kamali. Mr. P. le Page Renouf informs me such a phonetic value 
of -<22- is one which, he thinks, requires confirmation from other 

instances. M. Chabas, referring to _— ^ ma and -^V 1 CTZi 

-<2>- _xr^l -C2>- 

mar, thinks -cs>- has this value ; with this we may compare 

-cg>- nwr " an eye." But whatever may be the real naine 

of the beast of burden, I think there is little, if any doubt, that 
the camel is the animal denoted by both the Egyptian words 

1^1 and ^^"vx n n IS. What 



I 

is said in the above texts suits the camel better than any other beast 
of burden. Kush seems to have been the land where the camel was 
best known, and to this day it is very abundant in Nubia. We 
have seen from Strabo that the camel merchants at one period 
carried their water with them across the desert between Myos 
Hormus and Coptos on the Nile, and I think it highly probable that 

the burdens denoted by the word A \\ ._£=& (I \\ maqalau 

a _Ms- 1 Jl ill 

or maqarau were vessels for carrying water, as the determinative 
would lead one to infer. 

The text about dancing camels is not so easy to understand, 

Mr. P. le Page Renouf says " it seems to explain the verb (|[l <^p\ 

which (in another text published by Brugsch in his Recueil, II, pi. 62) 
comes in a series of words expressive of gymnastic feats performed 
by men." Perhaps the gymnastic feats were grotesque imitations of 
camel-conduct and attitude. 

The full form of the Egyptian word Kamaaar (r=I, cf. Heb. 7^) 
occurs where we should expect to find it, viz., in the travels of the 
Egyptian officer in Syria. I have noticed several Semitic words in 
the record, as given by Mr. Budge in his useful recently published 
" Egyptian Reading Book." On some of the animal and plant 
names I may have something to say on a future occasion. To 
conclude, I think the evidence adduced here is enough to satisfy us 
that the camel was known to and used by the Egyptians from, 
comparatively speaking, early times. 

84 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

Notes on Egyptian Inscriptions of the Middle Kingdom. — I. 
By F. L. Griffith. 

I. Among the contracts which Hept'efaa, in the reign of 
Usertesen I, made for the benefit of his ka, there is one — the third 
of those recited in his tomb — in which the other party was the 
corporation of the temple of Apuat, consisting of ten members. 
From the schedule (Siut I, lines 266-288) we see at a glance that 
the ^Ty)' or ' director of the prophets ' received twice as much as 
each of the inferior members, who all share equally ; and in the 
recital, or perhaps we should rather say in the body of the contract 
as written, we find that their contributions also were in the same 
proportion. 

Most of the contracts were made either with individuals singly 

or with classes of subordinate priests, such as the ^ MA i 

I qJ o $±± 1 
who appear to have been all on an equal footing ; but the ninth 

affords another instance of a distinction being observed. The other 

party here consisted of the " director of the necropolis-people " 



t=q 



^a r-. v^, V^r an d the w Mf^ 1 , the latter comprising an 
J- \> yT - ^ - ' " ran § er (?) °f tne mountain," and eight other persons 

called simply ^ MA, "dwellers on the mountain," (not, of course, 
" Bedawin " or foreigners). In the recital we find that the provisions 
supplied were as follows : — 

From the director, 2 jars of beer, 100 scones or flat loaves, 10 
white loaves. 

From the ranger, 1 jar of beer, 50 scones or flat loaves, 5 white 
loaves. 

From the eight mountain people, 8 jars of beer, 400 scones or 
flat loaves, 40 white loaves (that is, from each of the last, 1 jar of 
beer, 50 scones or flat loaves, 5 white loaves). 

Here again the director was to supply twice as much as each of 
the others. 

Another item of the contract was that Hept'efaa should give to 

85 11 2 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

the other party X \\ lli~i>* the proportions being recorded 
in a schedule of which only the first column, containing the titles of 
the recipients, is at all legible. However, on the analogy of the 
former cases, the director was probably to have twice as much as 
each of his subordinates : there were nine persons to receive equally 
(the ranger and eight mountain-people), and one other to receive a 
double portion. The problem was therefore to obtain eleven portions, 
presumably not fractional amounts, out of v v\ T | | . Now 

T naturally means 2000, and | | should mean 2 . ., and as 2002 . . 
gave no satisfactory result, it was quite evident that the T T and the 
1 1 referred to different units. 7". looked very like the odd eleventh 
portion, and in fact the only solution was to make T — 10 — ; then 

each portion was j~| , the ^\ <=z> o H )q& received jTJ the \ ^s 

received T"!, and the 8 ^ received 16 — or T . On comparing 
these figures with the traces of the schedule on the wall, I found no 
disagreement, and had thus fairly obtained the little secret that 



= 10 — 

3S 



Whether or no V \\ actually means 1000 hat I cannot 

decide, although it seems very probable. In this case — is 100 hat. 
But it will be observed that T is really an unit, otherwise the sum 

would have been written P *V\ ^ • 



si*'" x_m s 

From the following passage we obtain a connection between 
I and the \ v °°° 1 ' , \ §^1 of later texts. I found the quotation in 
Brugsch's Wtb., Suppl., p. 898, where the text is very correct, but 
the provenance faulty. At the last moment I have traced it to the 
tomb of Sebek nekht (early XII Ith Dynasty) at El Kab (rf. Champ., 
Not. Desc, I, p. 273, a bad copy). 

it § ° ^ s SISISS — ^ y s e 

1 n in «=> _zr 1 I ^o 1 J\ 111 nn 

nn 
nn 






* The sign, with rounded ends, is possibly equivalent to -, shortened by 

the scribe owing to lack of space. 

86 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

The version in the dictionary, written about 1882, is " Berechnungen 
der Landereien atbt, Kiesboden (\em) 20,000, die welche auf der 
Hohe gelegen sind (nil hr qa-t) 120, die welche sandigen Boden 
enthalten 140 Aruren (oder ahnliches Feldmass)." 

With our new datura we can entirely change the face of this, and 



give to all the words their natural meaning. 1 has probably 

nothing to do with sandy soil. Read also -=> (with feminine a ) as 
hat. atb is masculine. 

"Account of the hat: low-lying 20 T, that which is on the high 



ground 120 of 1 : total 140." Here 1 varies with as 

° is 1 £ is 1 

a unit of measurement. 

In modern Egypt also,* the fields are divided into two classes, 

the rai (o\,, from the root L ., meaning 'moist') corresponds to 

kherit, and the sharaqi ( J\-2> , 'dry by exposure to the sun ') to qat. 

-TL l#/ 3X I . . . . 

Bringing water to the high ground A v\ o ¥ I , *•*• ungating, 

by means of canals and locks, that which the Nile could not reach, 
was reckoned amongst the virtues of princes in the Early Middle 
Kingdom (see Siut V, 7, and Rifeh, VII,f 22-3). Professor Brugsch 
has brought forward some examples to prove that v\ means 

' stony ground,' but there cannot now be a shadow of doubt about 
its meaning in this passage. Moreover the word occurs at Beni- 

hasan (Khnumhotep, 1. 140, in the form ^0 2p^ , again 

without any determinative of stone or pebbles. The context of 
the passage freely rendered is (the king fixed the boundaries of 
the nome), placing landmarks at the southern and northern limits, 
" setting up them (or others ?) upon the meadows of the low-lying 
land,% amounting to 15 land-marks set up in its fields." The low- 
lying land, subject to inundation, needed special care in marking 
with a large number of stones, since the floods were likely to 
obliterate marks or sweep away boundaries. 

* Compare Baedeker, Lower Egypt, English edit., p. 71. 

t Rifeh I and VII afford some valuable illustrations of the Ileracleopolite 
tombs at Siut, but contain no reminiscences of Tomb I. From this I conclude 
that they are anterior to the reign of Usertesen I, though Rifeh, Tomb VII, 
resembles in plan the portico-tombs of Benihasan. 

J So Maspero ; my friend Dr. Krebs is wrong here. 

37 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1889. 



II. In the long inscription of Khnumhotep at Benihasan there is a 

phrase I rn V\ v& ' ' (line 206). The word sap has been 

v I — j^^ d 1 s I 

a puzzle ; the numerous errors (of the mason ?) in this part of the 

inscription have led commentators to emend it, changing □ into I or 
otherwise altering the word. At Siut there is a small fragment of a 
neatly cut inscription, very legible, which gives the expression 
(I. 282) II fl v& sat-a se. The root is therefore sa or sat, 

and probably D should be corrected to o. 

III. The sign r£] takes various forms at Siut □, J? , J/ , and the 
direction of the upper part of the sign seems not to be absolutely 
fixed. The best proof of the value of the last form is in I, 235, 

PjflSv^n^l' ' walls '' In IV ' 2 5' we have ' = IqI, but 
J^ is written £\, V, 3, < S\^, I, 263, and £ in V, 1. 




SS 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1S89. 

NOTES ON A TOUR IN UPPER EGYPT.* 

By F. L. Griffith. 

West Silsileh. 

On this side of the river the quarries are less striking and 
extensive than on the east, but inscriptions are very numerous. 

Various texts contained in the Grotto of Horemheb and in the 
Nile Stelae of later Pharaohs have been, published by Champollion, 
Lepsius, and others. Mr. Petrie and I remained on the west side 
for more than a day and a half, and guided by Wiedemann's valu- 
able bibliographies employed ourselves chiefly in the tombs ; owing 
to their convenient size we were able to copy rapidly, and had nearly 
exhausted the place before it became necessary to move on. We 
were surprised to find how few lines of these copious inscriptions 
had ever been published. 

It will be seen that all or nearly all of the tombs in West Silsileh 
belong to the period of the XVIIIth dynasty, from Thothmes I 
to Amenhotep II : a large number of them date from the joint reign 
of Hatshepsetu (formerly called Hatasu) and Thothmes III. In 
some cases the titles of Thothmes III are inscribed on the right 
side of the lintel, and those of Hatshepsetu on the left ; sometimes 
their relative positions are reversed. In nearly every case the titles 
of Hatshepsetu have been more or less completely erased, apparently 
by Thothmes III. The most instructive example is in No. 57. 
Khuenaten's heresy also has left its record in the continual deface- 
ment of the name of the god Amen. I have, moreover, noted in 
one instance (stela 3 outside No. 33) an erasure of the name of 
Sebek, possibly by a fanatical inhabitant of Edfu ; in others the 
principal figures have been maltreated or chiselled out for some 
reason that I have not been able to discover. Altogether the 
Silsileh tombs have suffered almost as much from malicious deface- 
ment as from any other cause, yet the soft sandstone hollowed 
and undermined by the river is not very favourable for their perfect 

* Continued from Vol. XI, p. 234. The Plates there were wrongly numbered 
owing to an unfortunate oversight, II and III being transposed. The stela of 
Seti I (PI. IV) has been published Rouge, Insc. llierog., 263-5, 0UI rough copy 
is therefore quite useless. 

s 9 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1S89. 

preservation through thousands of years. In one case, No. 28, the 
ancient quarry men have bodily removed the walls, possibly under 
07'ders. 

It is surprising that on a site from which the Pharaohs of the 
XVIIIth dynasty derived the bulk of their building materials for 
Upper Egypt, the tombs belonging to that period should not contain 
a single reference to the quarries. If one may hazard an explanation, 
I should be inclined to suggest that these small but well-decorated 
sepulchres, belonging to persons of high rank but apparently of no 
local status in either the civil or religious administration of Silsileh 
or of the neighbouring cities, were constructed by third-rate courtiers. 
These people, having no interest outside the court and Thebes, may 
have been struck by the fact that a neat little tomb in the western 
rock of Silsileh would suit their taste better than that their mummies 
should be lost amongst a crowd of superior magnates in the necro- 
polis of Uas. The position is a remarkable one, the ground was 
probably free to all comers, and the conveniently situated quarry, full 
of constant activity and excitement, may have become to some 
extent a fashionable resort for the living, although there was never 
any town of importance at Silsileh. 

Another point worth noting is the absence of royal names after 
Amenhotep II. The last kings of the XVIIIth dynasty, like those 
of the Xllth, seem with all their magnificence to have exerted a 
repressive influence on the nobility. Especially in this respect does 
the active builder Amenhotep III offer a striking analogy to his 
great ancestor Amenemhat III. In the cemeteries of the capitals 
this influence is less evident. It is the natural outcome of the 
centralisation which a succession of powerful kings gradually effects. 

As far as our notes permitted I have tried to indicate seriathn 
the monuments that exist between the Grotto of Horemheb and the 
naos-stela of Seti I, proceeding from north to south ; but in this 
there is a good deal of patch-work and guessing. No Nile traveller 
who is bound for Aswan can avoid passing within a few yards of the 
rocks, and I hope that some person may be tempted to make the 
necessary corrections to the list this season. In editing the inscrip- 
tions I have improved a very few signs for the sake of the printer, 

90 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

but although we had no time for revision on the spot, the conditions 
were very favourable for accurate copying. No doubt more of the 
injured portions will be deciphered by future visitors. 

The direction of the figures and hieroglyphs is reversed in print- 
ing, except where an arrow < — m. indicates that they face to the left. 

1. Horemheb Grotto. Plan and elevation L. D. I, 102 : insc. 
L. D. Ill, 120, etc., etc. 

-<*» %1WlIil»111^I3J 



h <* e [=j | III!! H m k <C.) Petric, " Season 

in Egypt,' 625. 

The sign Q or fj possibly stands for n. | would seem to be a 

determinative of water = 

3. Ravine. 

4. Stela of Rameses V. L. D. Ill, 223. 

5. Stela of Shashanq I. L. D. Ill, 254. 

6. Stela of Rameses III with the Theban triad. L. D. Ill, 223 (?). 

7. Beneath 6 graffito fijjffi jfr ^ jl Y ^ Si' ( G -) Petrie ' 
626. 

8. Two unfinished grottoes high up. 

9. Graffito: phallus <UUUK. (G.) Petrie, 627. 

10. Ruined grotto with niche: no sculpture but plastered: in it 
a Cufic graffito. 

11. Niche unfinished. 

12. Tomb: in the entrance graffito Tjiii (1 r\h ^- 

_§^ §f , f=^ ^ ( P - G -) Petne > 6 3i- 

In central chamber sculptured group of man and two women 
seated, with defaced inscription. 

Right hand chamber similar. 

Left hand chamber similar. It has been split in two by the rock 
dividing and slipping down. On the ceiling decoration in yellow, 
red and blue. 

9i 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOC-Y. [1889. 



13. Graffito (P. G.) Petrie, 628. Champ., Not. I, 264. 



■*■ 



14. Tomb (P. G). Well made but not quite finished, the ^^ 
cutting of the hieroglyphs and figures not having been com- ftf] 
pleted. 



Lintel. Lower part broken away. 



A B C D 

m — > < — «< m — > < — m 



A- 

ft 



/WWV\ 



O £3 

s 



V 



D 



w 



a 



A 



D < — «« 



I I I 

/VW\AA 



/WW\A 



1.X 



D 



8 



r\ 



5^ 



Q 






CO 



•^<£-5&<' 



3 r 






i M ¥ 











pis 



J2r 

AAAAAA 



■ 

'--7. i'jX 



92 



Dec. 3] 

Inside the tomb 

D 



PROCEEDINGS. 



+ ki^ 



[18S9. 



n © 



tz i) 



°°s 



D O 



Q rT0 1 



ra 



VWV\ 



CX Champ. Mon. II, cviii ; Not. I, 649 



by offerer ijLc-J^ by adorer 



^ 
?£%& 



+Cj2- 



2^2%c* 



1 AAAA/NA 

O I 

OS 



In the centre, unfinished statue. 




Ill 

Mi 






On north side *^p 



On south side CTAYPOCAWN {sic), 
XPICTfANLON. 



15. Small niche, two figures- 



111 



H 



OOO 



■?ST^«'-> 






* Restored from L£ ' S/ which is the reading of most copies. 



93 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[18S9. 



16. Tomb high up; lintel destroyed (?) ; inside, scenes and 
inscriptions painted. (P. and G.) 



Back wall niche 



■to 

IT 






d <— «k 



STATUE 



IS 



/^__D 



A /WWW 



/A/WNA AA/WVN 



North side. 
C7 



U I 






0J0 



tit J 

/\AAAM 

u 

AA/WSA 



D 






Jwi ? 






South side. < — «c 






o 



c o 



B 



ill 



- D 



s 



V> -v'.VN Vo-vVVX V\AV\V\ S,'\<iV'\0 >>"C>A"<5 



94 



Dec. 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



17. Lintel of a rough tomb. (P.) Winged disk 



% 



O o 






/\f 



Af 'PJ 



pw*\ 



iii 



uu 






PJ 






figure of Sebek. 
[ft*-* 

_/ Five columns erased 
(Hatshepsetu). 



figure of Sebek. 



< — m 

18. Unfinished tablet. 

19. Unfinished tablet. 

20. Graffito beneath a figure adoring. (G.) Rouge, cclxvii. 
Petrie, 635. 

21. Tomb with cartouche of Thothmes III. 

22. Tombs ruined by the fall of the cliff, one containing 
a statue. r, 

23. Hieratic graffiti, a horse (?), etc. i2f 

_ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^- -7 r\ limn 

24. Graffito O = perhaps either (1 ©, etc., or 



AA'VAAA 



m. — \^ AAAAAA 1 ./ 

25. Graffito ^-^^ra'l^S^^. (G.) 

-■«»— fflDlAPIlfflP? 



UJ 



IS^I 



n 



ill- 



(G.) Petrie, 630. This is the 



only occurrence of the name of Pepi I at Silsileh. Against the edge 
of the cartouche is the sacred monogram v/ : the difference of 

weathering between the early and the late graffito is small. They 
are completely exposed to sun, rain, and atmosphere. 

27. Graffito ICOC03C (Its fleo's). (G.) Petrie, 633. 

28. Tomb quarried away : only the base remains, showing sculp- 
ture ; one foot above the level of the high Nile. 

29-32. Four fine tombs with figures, etc., and inscriptions of 
Thothmes III and I. The high Nile washes into most of these, and 

95 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1889. 



the rock below the entrance having fallen away they are almost 
inaccessible. See Nos. 54-61. 

33. Tomb (G.) : j A o lintel of the usual form ■¥- 

a ^ > -2- < m. b in the middle of each line. 



c w> — > y < — <m 



<-t 



b. Same as a. 



%% rest destroyed. Jambs broken away. Interior 
^% 

unfinished, a coffin-shaped receptacle for a mummy at the back is 
reached by a separate entrance. 

Stelae in the rock round the entrance of this tomb. South side 
two stela? — 

(1) A man offers in the upper register to four seated figures, 
in the lower register to two women seated ; below are three 
lines of inscription defaced. 



(2) A man offers to man and woman, inscription 

etc. Damaged. 
On the north side two stelae — 



AonJ 



(3) 



XJ -z=~s= XJ 

/WW\A ' WWWV 

AAAAAA W /WWW 

Upper register — 

AAAAAA 
1 AAAAAA 



A-WVW 









UZi 



b ^~ m - 



O^ S^S ^M5 






AAAAAA 



96 



Dec. 3] 

Second register- 
ed - 



PROCEEDINGS. 



•t 



\7 



[|Q 



[1889. 



5> 



r^^i 






? &a 
@ w 



J 



p 



Lower register — 



erased r^Tl erased 



etc. 



$ 



AAAAA/V W? 



— a 1 h — 2cS_ y =^ 0° j^ n 



^g, 



id I AAA/W\ 



_s> 






(4) Another stela in bad condition. 

34. Tomb inaccessible from the land, unfinished and without 
sculpture, but the base at least 12 feet below high Nile. 

Then follows a group of three tombs also inaccessible from the 
land, viz. : 

35. Facade broken away, a small plain tablet above and another 
on the south side ; barrel roof. 

36. (G.) Facade destroyed, barrel roof, with inner chamber. 

97 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.LOLOGY, 



[1SS9. 



On inner doorway, cf. L. D. Ill, 8, c. :- 

Lintel . m Wineed disk. 



Repeated 
W) — "^ 



iflK 







ElAf 



A 



o a 



a u 



erased S Q | 



o 

c 

I 






1 

AAA/WV 






J 



® I 

Y 



Af 1 



u 



/WW\A 

I I I 



r? 



:>} 



o 



00 111 

III .O 

I I I 



M 






which 
in 
the 



!f¥(3ISlAf 

Left jamb. 

Inside on the right of the door 
is a scene: at the top-^^s; from 
each urasus hangs •¥• ; inscription 
^^ ® 1 ' ; below this is a figure 

of Sebek standing m — > ||f in 

human form with crocodile's head, 

holding the sceptre j : (to the 

top of the sceptre is attached -t- 

and to that an arm =^ 

proceeds from the hand 

the inscription ^^ 21!' 

whole forming a chain 

beginning in the inscription, 

while the last link is held in 

the hand of Sebek). In front 

of Sebek is a table of offerings, 

on the other side of which is a 

king with plain head-dress" 1 ^), 

(^ offering jj, A and O in his 

hands, his name above : there 

was another figure, probably 

the deceased, behind the 

king ; beneath is a row of offerings. 

On the left of the door is a 

scene of offering much defaced : 

a figure is visible presenting a 

statuette of the king standing ; 

Legend 1 



f 



8 

u 



u 



,*-:; '* .-75 '.V 



98 



Right jamb. 



Ui 



o 
C3 



aO a 



Jl 



AP 



£X III 

^ w 

1 — 1 






i 

© j^ 



1 I l 



( c== u) 



l\ y\] 



u 

AA/WV\ 



A 



Af:- kf/ 



Dec. 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



WO' 



■") A , . erased 

North wall : along the top 1 A pHd±±±±±i~l 

(J Q ( Jq -==' 



iitJK 



JVAAAAA 

A/NA/WV 



("=13) 



SKal I I I /Al I I I All <= 

L < n <CJ erased ! A . & /] 

CD I .^ T o LwwvJ V 21 
but curiously blundered. 

Beneath — 



O 



A 



Finely cut 



n 

AAAAAA 



/wvw\ 



If 



Jw ^ J 



I I l 



ML K<=*. 

sic C==K 

A' 



Offerings, etc., 
not copied. 



Two figures seated. 



South side — 

•< — m 



111 



« l 111 f 1 £ 
1" 



=> mp 



O III 



to 



{^ 



\T3 I 



37. Niche : figures of man and woman : graffito 



indistinct. 



38. Niche without sculpture. 



99 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[1889. 



< — m. 
39. (P.) Tomb. Lintel as usual ■ 



^ 



II 






fig OWflAT-" t MJ^=fl At 

•¥- " ' ^ , XI and ■f-^C >;- •-: ( 3> 1 1 



Chamber rough, three seated figures sculptured at the back : over 
them rnXTOKAHC JzYMENOYC HKfglEN (^XOev?) 
TtOI KBL HAXfXN 10 (P.) (Petrie 632). On the south side 
is a demotic graffito. 

40. (P.) Tomb, lintel as usual. 






^v- : i ; >. 



fc= %1 At! ""ii A f 



S&&&&& 



Jambs destroyed. 
North wall. =»-* 



# jln ^ 



n 



M 



inn 



m 



v. 

J 



=* 



Servants with 
offerings, etc. 



Man and woman. 



South wall. 



AVWA 



I 



List of offeri 



ing , -» • in & ^ ^ 1 1 



o 



Two men. 
100 



Dec. 3] 

41. 

A 

u 

blank 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



aaa 



ODD 



in 



1 1 1 



u 



Q 



P?; 



/WWAA 

1 /Vs/wv\ 



© © 

1 /VWWS 



«J- 



(P.) Tomb under a lofty rock, ten feet above the high Nile ; 
facade plain. 



The chamber is finely painted with scenes of offerings 
and inscriptions, in four colours : — red (light and dark), 
blue, yellow, and green ; the women are painted yellow. 
The ceiling is decorated throughout with a tendril pattern 
'V§|\vS) vi^f m white and yellow on a red ground, 
the centre of each coil being blue. Down the middle of 
the ceiling is the inscription A. 

North wall, over deceased and wife, cf. Champ. Mon. 
CVIII, 5. 



~J& 






2 

/WWAA 



ra 



« 



wm ® ® t 

ml /WW\A 



5 



CT3 I 



1 1 1 



=^5 
sic 



o 



Five sons and six daughters seated : a row of servants 
below. There is a long list of offerings not worth printing. 



Over eldest son 
<2>- © II 



n 
n 



n 



¥ 



\7 



cm 



South wall, variants. 



2 

^ W 



D 



u 



^\) J- 



f 1 ! 



4 

etc. 



-£> 






Read 



101 



I 2 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

42. Tomb : on the facade a fragment giving the name of 



Hatshepsetu 



O 



Interior rough. 



43. Stela, the inscription partly erased 1 A, etc., for TO t^il 

i# (GO 

44. Tomb containing three statues, the inscriptions destroyed. 

45. Panel in the rock : tree with serpent, man leading a horse ? 
Greek graffito six lines. 

46. Stela, adoration of Seti I by ... . 

47. Stela of Rameses III, L. D. Ill, 218? facing the south. 
This cuts into No. 46. 

48. Naos-stela of Merenptah. L. D. Ill, 200. 

49. Naos-stela of Rameses II, L. D. Ill, 175 ; a flight of steps is 
cut up to it from the river, which now is wearing away the base of 
the stela. 

50. Stela of an official of the time of Amenhotep I. L. D. Ill, 200. 

51. Stela of Merienptah. L. D. Ill, 200. 

The above, 46-51, are frequently represented in typical views of 
Silsileh. Desc. de l'Eg. Ant. IV, PI. 47 ; Teynard, Eg. et Nub. I, 
PI. 78 ; Mariette, Voyage, PI. 74. 

52. Niche without inscription. 

53. Naos-stela of Seti I, almost destroyed by the river, which 
rises into it at high Nile : the rock in which the flight of steps has 
been cut has split and slipped round, so that the steps are now at 
right angles to their original direction. Ch. Not., p. 248. 



Some tombs the position of which I cannot determine : — 
54. (P.) Inscribed lintel of the usual kind; at the top < ^^ » | A ; 
below, three lines, in the centre of each -2. from which the inscrip- 
tions start on either side. 






f 



Cf. L. D. Ill, 28, 7 (the right hand portion is much erased). 



Dec. 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1889. 



LV. (G.) One of a group; facade destroyed, but a fragment 
shows the erasure of a line, so probably temp. Hatshepsetu. 

Of the chamber, the south side is partly destroyed. 
Front Wall, north of doorway. 



VxVNv^vvv^N yv^vw 



: M ill 



o 



§1111 A^-fl 

Figure entirely ~00t? 
chiselled out. 



_S 



1 



North Wall, upper register. 
L. D. Ill, 25 Ms 0. 



n 



-J& 



1* 



^ 



I a 



a d 



o 



L7H I 



S 



1 






A 



1 



Aamatu and Taaamatu were re- 
presented seated on one couch, 
receiving the offerings of their / J 
son . . ser and others, but the © n 
figures have been carefully 
erased. ^^^ 






L. D. Ill, 25 bis p. 



T 



^S> 



o \ c 



^ 



III 

IIP 



The head of . 
is erased. 



rt 4nLD. 



/'t 



L. D. 



103 



r CDI L.D. 

PPP 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Behind . . . ser < m Three rows of offerings. 



[1SS9. 



4 



/v\/vw\ 



nww 



5 






10 



11 



IJiitSSiSifflssiI 



o 



n 



c± 



Lower register, first half beneath Aamatu (see above) »—*-. 

12 3 4 



©4 !fct\ f JdJo f J — a ^ 

I rv. n aa/wv\ 

ft " 

I J A AAAAAA 

Lower register, second half beneath . . ser, etc. -«— « . 



QlUl 



^-^ III Ik nt?*^ -* ' -? jTa!! 



o D *— ' 



Ik 



oD 



South Wall, much injured : upper register 
^ftyss Vi-t^. ^yss **^' ^* 



csvi&Ss 



Altar 



^ I 



Erased figures. 



Man I n m I ^ 



offering 



104 



Dec. 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[18S9. 



Lower register. 



a 



5 









*h» the rest »-»■ . 






* 






^ 



PI 



Back Wall. Four statues seated, holding lotus, much injured ; 
inscriptions down the front. In order from the north : — 



(0 

Woman 



\ 



WM 



etc. 

MAAM 

u 

AAAAAA 






(2) 

Man 

hands 

crossed 

on breast 



S\ 



(3) 
Man 



1P 



(4) 
Woman 

(destroyed) 



Another series : three tombs " just south of mooring place " : — 

LVI. (P.) Lintel, with winged disk and T" I I ( ° ^^ vf 1 

Hy> repeated in the two halves of the first line : the other 
AAAAAA J \ 

lines destroyed. 

i°5 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1889. 



Over deceased and wife < m 






never cut ? 



£^ 



H 



n 



ify 



LLQ 



n 



U 



w 



LVII. (P.) Lintel, with winged disk, and 

Cf. L. D. Ill, 28, 6, which shows that in the second line 
Thothmes III has usurped Hatshepsetu. 

South Jamb, broken away. 

Interior. 



/VNA/WN 






8 



1/ 

Sim 



n 






. >AO>;\0 C3C3C3 VXiXt-CCS f <wvw> 

/ 2^-/<->; III Z&?!0- I -J vxayxp 




Scraped away. 



LVIII. (P.) Lintel inscription as usual, each line divided into 
halves by y, winged disk above 



half erased 



000 









CD ^ 



C7 L. D. Ill, 28, 5. 



106 



Dec. 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

North jamb <— «< South jamb destroyed. 

U 



ir.Yy D 



an 

I I I 

o <=> 






Is 

C==or>==3 

IP* 

m 



LIX. (P.) Stela outside 58. 



A- 



I WWM 



n 



*t* <» 



111 1 



ci 



1^ n 



> w 

107 



7^m 



2_Q- ? ^^J} Figure standing. 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1889. 



Another group " Tombs high over the river " : — 

LX. (P.) Entrance. Lintel, south half. Northern half de- 
stroyed. Cf. L.D. Ill, 28, 4, a. 



damaged. 



ifSKMHMitl 




Fragment of 
north jamb. 






mi 

/WWV\ 

U l 



y<GWT<5 



South jamb. 

§^#! 

%£&&/* 

-,« , ,X"-///\ 

-/^■--/^ 



^^ 







Thickness of wall north. 







e*so 



Thickness of wall south * 



^ w 



1 r*i 
■* V X p T | *i 

O /WWW </0 




IOS 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. 

Back Wall. Niche. 



[1SS9. 



South jamb m — > North jamb < — «« 









1 □ 

A Q 






ftA/WV\ 

U 1 



~M 



111 

-j/X:-j/X: 






~.>/X--;'X; 

„■ 



/WWW 

ill 



PT 



109 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[18S9. 



North Wall- 



A 



□ 



& 






ill 







f$ 



figures of man and woman 



offerings woman 



mj 






11 

/WWW 






1B 






- fl 



/V\AW 






South Wall, upper register. L. D. Ill, 28, 4, */. 






I 



AAAAAA 



^„ D © ^ 






c± 



Si 

Hi 

AAAAAA 






[1]8? 

Hi 



At' 



o 



QJS8 






^B 



/wvw\ 



two figures seated 



end 



I n^ ^s^ ^ 

^s ^ M 111,28,4/;, ^111 

=^ reading JL ? 



I* 






L. D. 






Dec. 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1SS9. 



South Wall. Lower register, L. D. Ill, 28, 4, c. 



O 



1! 



o 



U 






A yjcx n /*aaaa 



* I 






tt«\rt?.fv 



IP 

/WWSA 









£ L. D. adds | s ^ J beneath the cartouche. 

South wall (continued), inscription of the usual kind, detailing 
ritual and offerings with figures. It is not worth printing. Two 
columns in the middle adjoining each other are — 



O 



vE\ 



U 1 

£3 /wwv\ 



I /WWV\ \| 



o 



llll 



U 1 

^^ AAAAAA 



1 



Dec. 3] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[i* 



LXI. (P.) Entrance. Lintel as usual. 



I ' ' v ,.-■ ■ • ;: 1 (J 



and < m ■¥■ 



half erased 



11 



aaa 



.'-.<-VN I -;4'Vn'.A'V'. 1 ;i>A' 



Thickness of 
wall north of 
door 



A' 






3X I 



m 



-y/Xw/X'/,'* 









H 






hacked out. 



l l I 



Interior : decoration mostly scraped and rubbed away. 






North wall, upper register. 



it 

2'-/:.;/;. 

188 



J 



At 



MM 

mm 



^ 



figure 



OOO 



111 

figure 



Af 



PJ 



p*^ 



figure 



lower register m— > 






^ O 



khnum 



and at A -*—m 



Af 



TJ 



Af 



[111] 



figure 






^VV 



88811 
iiili 



Af 






|>W<j n! 



figure 



J' 



•*"K3 



I 



5S1 



table of offerings. 






112 



Dec. 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. 

P J 






Back wall, standing figure <=, 

cut out. Jp 






niche 



IE 



figure 
cut cut. 



goddess. 



Lintel .-— -BHBSainlUmSt 



Jambs 



and ^ 









li 



-0 

h a 

I I I 

/wvw\ 

a 

_^ 

n 1 






1 



® D 

a a 

Oo 





sn 






South wall -*— m 






■ 



si 



TrfJHAfl^lPAllPJ^ 



Z] O 



10- 



and 

table of ^/XvV 
offering 



m 



goddess 
ii3 



^ 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

NOTES DE PHILOLOGIE EGYPTIENNE, 
Par Karl Piehl. 
(Suite.)* 

7. La lecture du groupe ItS 11 / ; 8. l'etymologie du nom de 

dieu rl^; 9- Passage du Papyros Ebers ; 10. La grande inscription 
hieratique du couvercle de la caisse de Seti I cr ; 11. La particule 
^f/v; .,.Lemot ^|)(| 



7. Les textes des Pyramides de Sakkaraf nous offrent un mot 

TiS H / "cote,"dont la transcription en lettres modernes selon 

l'editeur de ces textes doit etre nsi.\ En examinant soigneusement 
les textes que je viens de mentionner, je n'ai rien trouve qui parlat en 
faveur de cette opinion enoncee par M. Maspero ; car les rares 
variantes S c==== '' > cz=z- | que nous rencontrons pour notre mot, 
ne semblent aucunement l'appuyer. Par contre, le groupe *^ c 



"trone," que nous transcrivons Jisi(t), et que nous connaissons pour 
le voir partout sur les monuments, s'ecrit reeulierement ^~T"\ dans 

les textes des pyramides. Particulierement quant a la pyramide de 
Merenra, dont j'ai fouille attentivement les inscriptions, cette obser- 
vation se montre comme exempte d'exception. C'est que dans les 
quatorze passages § 011 dans ces derniers textes, se rencontre le mot 

/WW\A /WNAAA TT 

"trone," il s'ecrit toujours ^T\ , pluriel ^TTn V¥. 



Dans ces circonstances, il est tout-a-fait invraisemblable qu'on 

r\ /www r\ 

aurait lu nsi le mot S 1 / , sans jamais l'ecrire ^TT^ I / ou 

j\ I / ou bien ™ I . A mon avis, il faut done chercher 



* Continued from Proceedings, Vol. XI, p. 226. 

t Unas, lignes 209, 492, 580 ; Pepi I, 376, 406, 438, 671, 674, 675, 678 ; 
Merenra, 264, 316, 345, 364, 367, 598, 653, 660, 661, 741, etc. 

X Maspero, dans la Zeitschrift, 18S4, page 83. 

§ Pyramide de Merenra, lignes 9, 15, 18, 19, 23, 25, 326, 449, 454, 457, 459, 
473> 634. 662. 

114 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

une autre solution du probleme qui nous occupe. Je n'hesiterai 
point a proposer la lecture kes, qui est admisible pour toutes les 
variantes © \\c=z-, ^ ,c=^-n, c=^ que nous connaissons du 
groupe qui forme le sujet de cette note. 

Le nom de nombre "moitie," qui en general se transcrit 
par ma* doit selon moi se transcrire par kes, ce qui nous donne une 
explication satisfaisante du mot copte 6"oC (theb.), XOC (boh.); 
etat construit : (Tic : X€C dimidium " moitieV't Ce rapproche- 
ment me parait definitivement ecarter tous les obstacles qu'on pour- 
rait mettre a la lecture kes du groupe S I / " cote." Ce dernier 

mot nous est du reste connu par un texte} d'epoque recente, 011 se 
voit ^expression que voici : \ ta — m — — » — ~jl^. 

"^2e=? Sa . " II pousse son cceur vers elle, son corps a lui vers son 
corps a elle, sans cesse." 

Le determinatif f de notre groupe a ete explique comme 
appartenant a la classe de signes qui comprend " die Erde " § ou 
a l'ensemble de signes, intitule " Stadte, Gebaude, Zimmer, Theile 
des Hauses,"|| et une pareille acception semble soutenable quand 
on pense aux hieroglyphes K^==\, ^*\, qui evidemment derivent 

du signe / . Mais si Ton examine la forme que revet ce dernier 

aux textes des pyramides, a savoir la suivante : ^ =: ^, on en est 
amene a proposer une autre explication. Je crois que notre signe 
repr6sente tout simplement Paisselle de Ffwmme et la sinuosite c/iti 
en descend entre le bras et le tronc humains. De cette facon s'ex- 
plique tres naturellement la forme que fournissent les pyramides 
pour notre signe. On comprendra alors aussi fort bien le role 
du dit signe dans des expressions comme celles-ci : 

* Voir de Rouge Chrestomathie Egyptienne, II, page 118; et Brugsch, 
Worterbuch, II, page 521. 

t Voir Stern, Koptische Grammatik, page 135. En acceptant mon identi- 
fication, on n'a besoin de chercher ni dans l'hebreu ni dans l'armenien le prototype 
du mot egyptien pour "moitie, demi." 

X Dumichen, Altagyptischc Tempelinschcrijien, I, pi. 32, 1. 13. Ayant colla- 
tione ce texte sur l'original, j'y ai introduit une ltgerc correction. II faut du role 
faire remarquer que malgre son apparente jeunesse, ce texte a des particularius 
grammaticales qui annoncent un age anterieur a l'epoque ptolemaique. 

§ Lepsius, dans la liste de Theinhanlt [Zeitschrijt, 1875). 

|| Brugsch, Grammaire Hiiroglyphique. 

115 K 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1889. 

livres sont sur ses deux cotds, ses talismans sont sur ses pieds.''* 

" Unas est venu a sa moitie de tronc, comme le dieu est venu 
a sa moitie de tronc. Unas est venu a sa chevelure, comme le 
dieu est venu a sa chevelure ;" f et d'autres analogues a celles-la. 

Notre raisonnement est d'ailleurs appuye par des faits bien 
connus de la semasiologies qui nous enseigne que, si un mot 
designe a la fois une partie du corps humain et un endroit de 
la nature, c'est, la plupart du temps, le piemier des deux sens 
qui est l'originaire. Car, suivant cette loi, il est evident que l'hiero- 
glyphe c=^- designe originairement une partie du corps humain. 

Dans ces circonstances, il me parait probable que la forme 

a. lignes droites, / . de notre signe en soit directement derivee 

de la forme a lignes ondulees, c=^-. Les hieroglyphes *^=\, J^E\, 

q-ui-se sont developpes du signe / , ne font aucun obstacle a cette 

supposition, car ils pouvaient bien representer le serpent qui entre 
et qui sort de l'aisselle. Dans un pays ou la sorcellerie a droit 
de cite, les charmeurs de serpents doivent avoir eu une place a part 
dans la societe. II serait en realite etrange qu'aucun de leurs 
exercises ne fut reproduit par les signes hieroglyphiques, qui en 
general representent ce que les Egyptiens avaient sous les yeux. 

8. L'etymologie du nom d'Osiris rj'S parait etre au nombre de 
celles qui intriguent serieusement les savants s'occupant de l'etude 
de la mythologie egyptienne. C'est ainsi que Ton s'est vu force de 
proposer pour ce nom des explications, plus ou moins factices, dont 
les textes egyptiens ne font aucunement foi. Ce qui surtout a con- 
tribue a-cet ordre de choses c'est evidemment la circonstance que, 

en interpretant litteralement le mot rlS, on aurait ete amene a 

* La pyramide (fUnas, ligne 585. 

t Ibidem, ligne 4S9. Pour d'autres exemples du mot t — ? I ayant le sens 

d'une partie du corps humain, voir entre autres le Papyrus Ebers. 

s 1. - 

X Comparez, p. ex., cap = promontoire (caput), et de meme l'arabe , uj\.; 
cdti (costa) ; cole aupres de Cote a" Or ; col ou con a cote de Col di Tcnda. 

»l6 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. 

admettre pour Osiris un role cosmique qui ne convient a Tideal que 
nous connaissons aux dieux egyptiens, mais bien au contraire le 
mettrait de plain-pied avec les deesses de la mythologie egyptienne. 

De cette maniere, je crois devoir considerer, p. ex. l'etymologie 
que nous a donnee notre infatigable maitrea tous, Brugsch, quand il 

dit* que le nom riS signifie "die Macht, die Kraft des Augapfels," 

oder " Kraftig ist der Augapfel " \la puissance, la force de la prunelle ou 
puissante est la prunelle]. Car pour obtenir une pareille explication 
du nom-dieu qui nous occupe, il faut detourner le signe il de la 
valeur "trone" qui lui est assuree par des milliers de textes. Mais 
comme je ne connais aucune preuve, empr-untee a l'ancien egyptien, 
en faveur de 1'equation f| = " puissance " (je ne parle bien entendu 
pas l'epoque ptolemaique), je crois devoir maintenir pour le signe 

■j du mot rj ^ , la valeur qu'il a dans beaucoup d'autres cas. 

Suivant mon opinion, le nom rj 1 ^ signifie done, "les siege de 

l'ceil," ce qui, si nous nous souvenons que Vail tres souvent dans 
le langage mythologique denote le soleil, amene forcement la sup- 
position, que Osiris est le del, e'est-a-dire presente une notion 

mythologique synonyme de celle de \$\J, Hathor^ et d'autres 

divinites feminines. Par 1'application de la figure grammaticale que 
nous connaissons sous le nom ^ellipse, on en est arrive a. retrancher 

la seconde syllabe du mot rj ^ , d'ou a ete engendree la forme n 
[Pyramide de Merenra, 824: (| ^^ J "ton pere Osiris], var. 
^ Q {Pap. Ebers), jj ^ [Piehl, Inscriptions Hieroglyphiques, I, 
pi. II, 1. 9], qui designe aussi le dieu Osiris, et dont des textes 
plus recents nous offrent le derive fl O, forme, comme Q ^^ 9 
*5 f^- £i ? £i> etC- ' P ar Addition du nom du soleil rd. A cote de la 
forme abrege J] du nom d'Osiris, on a cree une forme feminine 
ri ^, en etablissant entre les deux les meme rapport grammatical qu'il 
y a entre ^^ Q et ^j^ g ^ } pno ^j e t p Q ^j etc. Maintenant 
la divinite feminine etant en general regarde'e comme symbole de la 
maternite, la deesse |j Q , dont le nom bientot devait etre regarde" 
comme une designation du ciel, a eu la qualification de mere du 

* Brugsch, foligion und Mythologie der alten Aegypter, page 81. 
117 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGY. [18S9. 

soleil, dieu dont Osiris a pris le role, en quittant son ancienne 
fonction de representant du ciel. A ce changement de la destinee 
d'Osiris a pu contribuer plusieurs circonstances : le caractere general 
des deesses comme symboles du ciel, qui devait exclure les dieux 

du merae emploi ; la forme pr'ehistorique du nom H H ds-dr, 011 le -t 

caracteristique du feminin ne se trouve pas, ce qui dans le cours 
des siecles a obscurci l'entente du dit nom,* etc. 

Cette theorie du nom Osiris qui, originairement une designation 
du ciel, bientot aurait revetu le sens de " soleil, astre du ciel," ne 
manque pas d'analogies, empruntees a. d'autres mythologies. Ainsi 
p. ex. Zeus des Grecs, a-t-il originairement symbolise le ciel, de 
merae que son correspondant, Jupiter des romains, et tous les deux 

noras proviennent de la merae racine que le mot Sanscrit f?"c[, 

"ciel."f Cela n'empeche pas que nous rencontrions beaucoup de 
cas, oil Zeus est le dieu-soleil, comme l'a fait remarquer fort bien 
M. Preller.J H est bon d'ailleurs de se rappeler, pour l'illustration 
de pareilles transitions de sens, le phenomene, si frequent dans le 
langage, de la transplantation d'un mot d'une notion dans une 
autre qui dans Pespace ou dans la pens'ce ocatpe une place trh- 
rapprochce du premier. En effet, le ciel et le soleil presentent l'un 
par rapport a. l'autre, des particularites qui les font mettre dans 
une pareille relation. Comme point inter mediaire de la sus-dite 
transition il faut evidemment regarder le sens " ciel eclaire," qui est 
aussi celui des derives de la racine dev-. 

* Le nom f | — , r? (m> Hdt-hcrit, par contre presente anciennement 

le -t du feminin que existe encore Chez Plutarche dans la transcription grecque 
"ASvpi du nom en question. Cela nous autorise peut-etre a dire que le nom 

rj ^ est de beaucoup anterieur a celui de [J ^^ <;£;> § ]m et °l u '^ appartient 
a une stratification de la lange egyptienne, qui est bien plus ancienne que celle 
dans laquelle le nom [J r— -. <= JL^ ^ [m a ete decouvert. La forme ]1 g Jj 
aset-ra qui se manifeste au moins a partir de l'epoque de la XXP dynastie 
[Masi'ERO, Les mo/nies royales de De'ir el-Bahari, page 523. Le savant auteur lit 
(1 X J le nom en question, mais bien a tort] et qui apparait encore a l'epoque 
des romains, montre l'effort, fait par le scribe, d'ecrire le nom d'Osiris d'une 
maniere (grammaticalement) correcte. 

t Bopp, Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, etc. Berlin 1857, I, page 253. 

X Gricchische Mythologie, Berlin 1872, I, page 92 et suiv. 

Il8 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

Je ne suis pas bien sur d'avoir choisi la meilleure explication qui 

puisse se trouver pour le nom [" _. par rapport a. celui de H S , 

mais le resultat general demeurera toujours le raeme. II sera sans 
doute prouve par d'autres qui connaissant mieux que moi la 
litterature religieuse des e'gyptiens 011 je presume qu'on pourra 
relever des passages, faisant allusion au role prehistorique d'Osiris, 
comme dieu-ciel. 

9. Le passage du Papyrus Ebers, pi. I, 1. 8-9, que le savant 

editeur * avait transcrit de la maniere suivante : I f == u) \t\ 



. -y- c± ^jf o sic , w , a ^, — . c-^^ i 1 1 1 

O c 



<2 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 



m'avait fourni l'occasion de proposer | 



de remplacer le mot <= ^ > /^~~. , qui n'a ete releve dans aucun autre 
texte egyptien, par celui de <cz^> ^~" , qui rend exactement les 
signes de l'original hieratique et qui nous est connu de beaucoup 
d'inscriptions. M. Ebers, maintenant son ancienne lecture ^^-^ *^T" 
dans un imprime qui vient de paraitre,J je me regarde comme 
autorise a. appuyer ma rectification par une preuve que je prends 
la liberte de considerer comme definitive et absolument irrecusable. 
C'est le passage de texte que void : ^t V\ | ] * ^ a 



& 

<rr> ~~^ , " habile dans l'art de donner une forme elegante et 

litteraire a la parole." % 

Pour un autre exemple concluant, voir Piehl, Inscriptions 
Hieroglyphiques, pi. 123. 

10. Parmi les inscriptions hieratiques qui decorent le couvercle 
de la caisse de Seti P r , trouvee a Deir-el-Baheri en 1881, la plus 
longue renferme une donnee, assez curieuse, dont l'editeur de ces 

* Ebers, Papyrus Ebers, page 20. 

+ Recueil de Vieweg, IV, page 117. Mon article porte la date de l'an 18S0. 

X Kalender fiir den Orientalislen-Con°ress, 1SS9-1S90 (Drugulin, Leipzig) ■ 

ElN FREUNDLICHES ANGEBINDE AUS DEM PYRAM I DKM.ANDE. 

§ LErsius, Denkmdler, II, 121. 

119 K 2 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [18S9. 

textes, * M. Maspero, ne s'est pas apercu, n'ayant pas bien saisi 
l'enchainement des phrases qui forment la fin de la dite inscription. 

Toute la partie initiale de notre texte a ete fort bien rendue par 
M. Maspero. Je n'ai done pas besoin d'en donner la transcription 
hieroglyphique, mais je me borne de communiquer dans la suite la 
traduction qu'en a livree le savant francais.f Pour le reste du texte 
— j'entends la partie oil mes vues different de celles de l'editeur — le 
lecteur a le droit d'avoir sous les yeux non seulement nos traductions 
respectives, mais encore l'original en transcription hieroglyphique. 

Voici d'abord la traduction qu'a faite le savant francais du texte 
en son entier : " L'an XVI, le quatrieme mois de Pirit, le 13 du roi 
Siamon, jour d'apporter le roi Menmari Siti Minephtah, hors de 
son tombeau pour le faire entrer dans le tumulus de la reine 
Anhapou X qui est a la grande necropole — par l'entremise du 
prophete d'Amon-ra, roi des dieux Onkhfniamen, fils de Boki, du 
pere divin d'Amon-Ra, roi des dieux, troisieme prophet de Khonsou- 
mois Nofirhotpou, du scribe directeur des travaux du temple 
d'Amon-Ra, roi des dieux, domestique du temple d'OusiRMARi 
sotepenri dans Thebes, intendant de la ne'eropole Mirithoti, du 
scribe ingenieur en chef Nsipkashoutii. Apres que leur mere, la 
superieure de la demeure du Grand, eut dit : " Ce qui etait en bon etat, 
en ma garde, n'a souffert aucun dommage quand on les transporta hors 
de ce lombeau oil Us etaient," on les Jit entrer e?i ce tumulus de la reine 
Anhapou qui est en la grande necropole oil Amenhotpou repose en 
paix." 

* Les momies royales de Deir-el Bahari, ouvrage publie dans le I er volume des 
Me 'moires publics par les membres de la mission archeologique francaise an Caire, 
pages 511 et suiv. 

t Bien entendu, je ne suis point partisan du systeme de transcription qu'a 
applique Pauteur fran5ais dans son ouvrage, Mais e'est la un point de detail qui 
ne va pas nous occuper a cette occasion. 

X Cenom que M. Maspero a transcrit ( J] Q f*"^ %CCCC ' — ' "III ]> c ^°' t 
peut-etre se lire ( ]j^/^>vwwi=ifw ] An-ra-tef (dx. f*^ ZZZ, 

" benetzen, befeuchten," Brugsch, Worterbuch, p. 1543). En effet, le signe 
hieratique que nous avons transcrit par O , a partout ailleurs dans notre texte 
cette valeur, chose qui merite d'etre notee, les cinq exemples, que nous avons 
du nom de la reine Ati-rd-tef, employant la ineme forme hieratique pour le 
signe que nous transcrivons par rd. 

I20 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 

Je donne maintenant en transcription hieroglyphique ce qui de 
l'original correspond a. la partie souslignee de la traduction de 
M. Maspero. La teneur en est la suivante : — 






11 III J\ 1 1 1 «J <=> 1 .A _B^ ™«« £/>5h <z> 

Ce que je voudrais traduire de la maniere suivante : " Apres que la 
Mere, superieure de la grande demeure, eut dit : ' Ce qui a ete bien 
conserve jusqu'ici ne risque rien, quand on les transportera hors de 
ce tombeau 011 ils se trouvent et qu'on le fera entrer en ce tumulus 
de la reine An-ra-tef "qui est dans la grande necropole ou Amenhotep 
repose en paix.' " 

II faut examiner quelques-uns des points qui dans cette tra- 
duction s'ecartent des parties correspondantes de celle, publiee par 
M. Maspero. Ce qui d'abord constitue la difference essentielle entre 
les deux traductions, c'est l'acception de la locution f^(a @, qui, 
chez l'auteur francais, introduit la proposition principale, tandis que 
nous y attachons un sens copulatif, determine du reste par la 
proposition qui precede, qui dans ce cas est une proposition in- 
cidente. Pour l'emploi coordonnant de |^.(D au debut d'une pro 
position, voir Erman, Neuiigyptische Grammatik, §§ 216 et 361. 

L'expression |j ^fc=* cr"Zi ~Jf , que M. Maspero a traduite " la 

demeure du Grand," signifie plutot " la grande demeure," le -t, 
caracteristique du feminin, est depuis longtemps tombe. Le de- 
terminatif ^| , qui accompagne tout ce qui est divin, joue un role 
fort marque dans les papyrus de la XX i&me dynastie et des epoques 
suivantes. En general, n'importe quelle qualification elevee pent 
etre suivie de ce signe qui s'emploie d'une fac,on completement 

expletive, p. ex., dans l'expression ¥\ 1 Jn, qui peut signifier 



" devant moi," mais qui signifie tout aussi bien " publiquement " 

121 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1889. 

ou " auparavant," comme dans le texte qui nous occupe. La 
" Mere " que mentionne notre texte, et dont on n'avait pas jusqu'ici 
determine la tache, est sans doute identique a. la deesse de la 

on -^X. 7A 

ou u ^ 



necropole, qu'elle s'appelle 

d'un autre nom. 

Cela dit, je crois pouvoir enoncer, que notre inscription contient 
a la fin une reponse* de la deesse de la necropole qui a ete consultee 
avant le transfert de la momie royale d la place qu'elle a eue Van 
16 du pharaon Si-amon. En d'autres termes, notre texte constate 
P existence dans la necropole thebaine dPun oracle, preside par la 
deesse des morts. C'est la un fait qui a son importance et qui 
gagne de force, si nous refiechissons que c'est vers l'epoque de 
la conception du texte hieratique. trace sur le coffre funeraire de 
Seti i er , que surgissent les premiers documents relatifs a. l'oracle 
du dieu principal de Thebes des vivants, "d'Amon-ra, seigneur de 
Nes-taui, roi des dieux, re'sidant a. Apet." 

11. Comme correspondant copte du mot hieroglyphique j^^., 
negation frequemment usitee, on compte f non seulement le It qui 
forme l'element initial de la negation de la langue neo-egyptienne, 
mais encore la particule <LIt qui s'emploie pour renforcer le dit 
element. Un pareil dedoublement ne presente rien d'extraordinaire 
a. quiconque connait un peu les manieres dont se developpent les 
mots de n'importe quelle langue. Pour ma part, j'ai longtemps ete 
obsede par les analogies parlant en faveur du dedoublement de 
l'ancien "-^ dans les formes coptes It et <LIt, ce qui m'a force de 
supprimer l'idee, suivant laquelle le second element <LIt de la 
negation copte serait le fl /V hieroglyphique. 

Aujourd'hui que j'ai ramasse quelques exemples, militant en 
faveur de ce dernier rapprochement, je n'hesite point a soumettre la 
matiere a l'appreciation des confreres. Voici mes exemples de 

* Le mot ZI J^i lj J CZI ^ont le determinate est identique a celui qui entre 

n ~^™ . r^i 

dans les mots II "^ — > 1 " pierrc," " montagne," etc., a ete rendu " tumulus " 

1 I I fTTTTTI 

par M. Maspero, et j'ai provisoirement adopte ce sens. 

t Maspero, De la conjugaison en igyptien antique, en dimotique et en copte, 
page 107 ; Stern, Koptische Grammatik, page 226. 

122 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1889. 



b±^\m^c^Li,is 



l'emploi de fl A. hieroglyphique dans le role de la negation £.rt 

du copte 

A. ^ "Que son ame ne soit jamais, jamais aneantie dans la 

/WW\A \\ 

region inferieure." * 



C3> k /vw^a O " Je ne permets aitcunement, aiuunement qu'on 
=^ rv~i A. \\ 



detruise son ame dans la region inferieure." f 

I A/W>AA I 111 ^£1) _/_! r™ *ij /W\AW I "r \\ 111 /WWW \\ <- =* 

«'<?/* retranche, rien, tant que subsiste le firmament et que Schou 
apparait." % 

Dans ces exemples, on ne peut rendre le groupe ^£ A- par 
" de nouveau," iterum, car cela donnerait un sens absolument 
deraisonable. Pour qu'une chose se passe de nouveau, il faut qu'elle 
se soit produite une fois auparavant. Mais il n'entrait assurement 
pas dans l'esprit de l'auteur des deux premiers exemples que Fame 
du defunt eut passe par une destruction, pas plus que par letroisieme 
exemple il aurait voulu constater que le meme defunt eut ete reduit 
a jeun, apres la mort. 

On pourrait peut-etre faire remarquer contre l'equation que 
nous venons de proposer, le fait que l'adverbe ° A-, " de nou 



* Maspero, Les momies royales de Deir-el-Bahari, page 610. M. Maspero 
ne donne pas ici de traduction de /^^^ A. . 

t Maspero, 11. , page 600, traduit " /V de ce passage par " au contraire," 

et pretend qu'il " appartient a la phrase qui finit," c'est-a-dire a la phrase qui 
suit immediatement celle que nous avons cit£e. Mais de cette facon, Tadverbe 
^^ A- introduirait une proposition, ce qu'il ne fait jamais, a ma connaissance. 
Oil trouve-t-on d'ailleurs des exemples d'un sens " au contraire," confere au mot 
Q A-? 



X Maspero, 11. , page 613, traduit cette expression de la sorte : " il n'y sera 
rien retrancheVde nouveau, en toute saison determinee du ciel, quand Slum sort." 
Cette traduction renferme une expression que je ne saurais comprendre. 
l^u'entend notre auteur par sa " saison determinee du ciel "? 

I2 3 



Dfx. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1SS9. 

veau," correspond au copte OH, et que par consequent un mime 
mot ancien e°;yptien - — a A. se serait transforme en deux mots 
coptes differents, <LH, "non pas," " ne pas," et OH, " de nouveau." 
Mais rien n'est plus frequent dans les langues qu'un pareil dedouble- 
ment, appuye par la creation d'une divergence de sens. On n'a 
qu'a penser a des doubles comme chevalier a. cote de cavalier {lat. 
caballarius), pape aupres de papa, ou l'allemand Vogt aupres de 
Advocat, Heiland aupres de heilend (tous les deux originairement 
part. pres. de heilen, "guerir"), etc., pour reconnaitre que, loin de 
nuire a. notre acception, l'existence des formes differenciees £.H 
et OH du - — D A. ancien la soutient au contraire. Cela au^mente 
d'ailleurs de vraisemblance par le fait que le dialecte copte — celui de 
Fayoum — 011 l'ancien - — -° A-, " de nouveau," a ete conserve sous la 
forme <LH, a modifie le correspondant copte de l'ancien - — ° A., 
"non pas," en GH. II y a done partout un besoin tres fort de 
differencier sous le rapport de la forme ce qui s'etait transforme 
quant au sens. 

J'ai cru inutile de m'occuper ici longuement de la question 
de savoir comment l'ancien - — a A- ait pu arriver a jouer le role 
de negation. Ceux qui connaissent Phistoire des negations fran- 
chises pas, pins, guere, jamais, rien, etc., n'ont point besoin de- 
dications sur ce point de la matiere. 

La particule d'interrogation <LH* du dialecte bohairique est 
evidemment de la merae origine que la particule negative <*»H. 
L'emploi en rappelle celui du latin nonne, qui presuppose une 
reponse affirmative. Au moins, la plupart des cas ou je l'ai ren- 
contree indiquent, pour la particule d'interrogation <LH, plutot un 
pareil sens que celui de num, donne par les grammairiens.f 

* La negation v\ — Ql J ' decouverte par Brugsch (Zeitschrift, 1876), 

ins- Nvwvs _/l_c- ' * 

est probablement une forme a suffixe possessif de la racine 4h£. L'antithese 

4 qi II FL o , , 

^ e ^>v est ^^ en ^V^ 1 /vw ^ • Y a-t-il des exemples ou ce dernier 

mot ait le sens affirmatif de s/, oui ? 

t Cfr. Stern, Koptische Grammatik, page 348. Le thebaique 6H6, qui se 

rencontre la, oil les textes bohairiques offrent £.H, est sans doute un descendant 

de l'ancien 4 [1 Q , comme on semble penser communement. 

124 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1S89. 

12. II y a deja longtemps,* j'ai releve, pour l'epoque que d'accord 
avec Erman et Stern nous appelons " neuagyptisch," la forme 
Ik nn 1 comme article possessif du pluriel. Parmi les exemples que 
j'avais cites je choisis comme particulierement instructif le suivant : 

suis rendu aux domatnes de Ramessu-mi-amon."t 



'je me 



yw^w*. 



Dans le groupe hieroglyphique Ik \\\\ [Brugsch, IVorterbuch, 
page 737] nous avons a voir un mot derive de Ik nn I , dont l'emploi 

presentait trop d'analogies avec celui de substantifs pour ne pas 
en amener la creation de nouveaux. Le -/ de la desinence a ete 

introduit en ''k M comme dans d'autres mots, designant une 

localite. Evidemment avant de signifier "Sitz, Wohnung, Statte," 
le groupe en question a du designer un endroit defini. Puis, par 
ellipse, on a ete amene a y rattacher le sens plus general que je 
viens de mentionner. J'ignore s'il faut rapprocher de notre groupe J 
celui de ^®, (Brugsch, Worterb., VI, p. 658), quoique cela paraisse 
vraisemblable. 



* Nordisk tidskrift for filologi. Ny rrekke, VI (1882), pages 26-31. Cfr. 
Piehl, Dictionnaire du Pap. Hams, No. 1. 

f Papyrus Anastasi, No. IV (6, n). 

' wwvv © © 

X Le groupe Ik OH que donne Brugsch comme variante de , 

est plutot a considerer comme deux mots, l'article possessif + lc mot ®.. 



125 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [18S9. 



British Museum, London, W.C., 
November 1 8*7/, 1889. 
Dear Sir, 

With regard to Professor Oppert's letter, quoted, translated, and 
commented upon by Dr. Bezold in the last part of the Proceedings, 
I have only to remark, that no conversation whatever has, at any 
time, taken place, and no communications have passed, between 
Professor Oppert and myself, concerning the text known as the 
Nin-mag inscription. Professor Oppert probably confounds me with 
someone else. 

Yours tru'y, 

Theo. G. Pinches. 



-i T'vQ' -jg-fe^^- 



The Anniversary Meeting of the Society will be held at 
9, Conduit Street, Hanover Square, W., on Tuesday, 14th 
January, 1890, at 8 p.m., when the Council and Officers of 
the Society will be elected, and the usual business of the 
Anniversary Meeting transacted. 



126 



SOCKTY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 

XLhc 3von$e Ornaments of tbe 
palace (3ates from Balawat. 

[ShAlmaneser II, b.c. 859-825.] 



Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus, the price for 
each part is now raised to £1 10s.; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) ;£i 1*. 



Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1889. 



President. 
P. le Page Renouf. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Lord Halsbury, The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

The Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, G.C.B., &c. 

The Right Rev. J. B. Lightfoot, D.D., &c, Bishop of Durham. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles T. Newton, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c, &c. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c, &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball. 
Rev. Canon Beechey, M.A. 
E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. 
Arthur Cates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Rev. R. Gwynne. 
Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 
Rev. Albert Lowy. 



Prof. A. Macalister, M.D. 
Rev. James Marshall. 
F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A. 
Alexander Peckover, F.S.A, 
J. Pollard. 

F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A. 
E. To wry Whyte, M.A. 
Rev. W. Wright, D.D. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honoiary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



HARRISON AND SONS , PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN S LANE. 



VOL. XII. Part 3. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION. 

Third Meeting, January i^th, 1890. 
[anniversary.] 



CONTENTS. 

PAOB 

Secretary's Report for the Year 1889 ... 129-134 

Statement of Accounts for the Year ending 31st December, 1889 135 

Council and Officers for 1890 136 

Robert Brown, Jun., F.S.A. — Remarks on the Tablet of the 

Thirty Stars (Part I) 137-152 



-#*- 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

11, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 
1890. 



[No. LXXXVIII.] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 

ii, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



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PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTIETH SESSION, 1889-90. 



Third Meeting, \\th January, 1890. 

[anniversary.] 

THE REV ROBERT GWYNNE, B.A., 

IN THE CHAIR. 

8ce r.e 

The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors; a special vote of thanks 
being awarded to M. Guimet, for his valuable present : — 

From the Author, Robert Brown, jun., F.S.A. : — The Etruscan 
Numerals. 

Archaeological Review. July, 1889. 
From the Author, Philippe Berger : — Inscriptions ceramiques de 
la Necropole Punique dAdrumete. 
Revue Arch. 1889. 
From the Secretary, Geo. Yate, F.S.A. : — Letters from Syria 
and Palestine before the age of Moses. By Archibald Henry 
Sayce, M.A. 

Reprinted from the Transactions of the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Antiquarian Society. 8vo. 1889. 
From Robert Bagster : — Records of the Past. New series. Vol. 

II. 8vo. 1890. 
From M. Guimet: — Annales du Musee Guimet. Tomes I to 
XIV. 1880 to 1882. 4to. Paris. 

Congres provincial des oricntalistes. Compte rendu de la 

troisieme session. Lyon. 1878. 2 vols. 4to. 
Catalogue du Musee Guimet. Par L. de Milloue, directeuj 
du Musee. Nouvelle edition. Lyon. 1883. 8vo. 
[No. lxxxviii.] 127 l 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

From the Author : — Sull' origine e fondazione di Roma. Disser- 

tazione dell' aw, Gio. Batt. Lugari letta all' Accademia Pontificia 

di Archeologia il 25 Aprile, 1889. Roma. Folio. 1889. 
From the Author : — La Domus Marmeniae ed il sepolcro di 

S. Urbano al IV miglio dell' Appia. Dissertazione dell' aw. 

Gio. Batt. Lugari letta all' Accademia Pontificia di Archeologia 

il 24 Maggio 1888. Roma. Folio. 1889. 
From the Author : — La Via della Pedacchia e la Casa di Pietro da 

Cortona. Memoria di Gio. Battista Lugari. Roma. Folio. 

1885. 
From the Author : — Intorno ad alcuni monumenti antichi esistenti 

al IV miglio dell' Appia studii di Gio. Battista Lugari Romano. 

Roma. Folio. 1882. 
From the Author : — S. Sebastiano. Memorie publicate in occa- 

sione del XVI centenario del suo martirio con note archeologico- 

critiche di G. B. Lugari. Roma. 8vo. 1889. 
From the Author, F. Cope Whitehouse, M.A. : — The Raiyan 

Moeris. 8vo. 1890. 

Address made before the American Geographical Society. 
11 Nov., 1889. 

The following were elected Members of the Society, 
having been nominated at the last Meeting on December 3rd, 
18S9:— 

Charles F. Richardson, LL.D., B.A. (Lond.), Tranby, Colwyn Bay. 

Charles Martin, Clanmarina, Torquay. 

The following was nominated for election at the next 
Meeting on 4th February, 1890: — 

George A. Barton, care of J. N. Danforth, 13, Pearl Street, Boston, 
Mass., U.S.A. 

The Secretary's Report and Audited Statement of Ac- 
counts having been submitted and received, the thanks of the 
Meeting, proposed by the Rev. Canon Beechey, seconded by 
E. Towry Whyte, were voted to the President and Secretary, 
the latter being proposed by Jos. Offord, jun., and seconded 
by P. R. Reed, for their labours in behalf of the Society 
during the past year. 

128 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 

FOR THE YEAR 1889. 



During the past year the Society has suffered severe loss by the 
death of some of its members, and it is with no ordinary pain that I have 
to record the names of the Right Rev. J. B. Lightfoot, D.D., &c, Bishop of 
Durham, Vice President, and Professor William Wright, D.C.L., LL.D., 
&c, both of whom from its commencement took the warmest interest 
in the Society. To Prof. Wright we have been often indebted for 
valuable papers and notes. In Volume IX of the Proceedings, he 
commenced a description of Kufic Gravestones in the British Museum, 
and being asked, with his usual kindness willingly undertook to place 
the members in possession of descriptions and translations of these 
ancient and curious memorials of those who lived and died 800 to 1,000 
years or more ago. Commenced in June, 1887, a melancholy interest 
is attached to his second and last communication, which appeared in 
our Proceedings of June, 1888. 

Another distinguished member has passed from us, Philip Henry 
Gosse, F.R.S., well known from his many valuable works on Natural 
History. Although his favourite line of study was foreign to the objects 
of the Society, his interest in our subjects was very great, and as one 
of our earliest members, he ever gave the assistance and support in 
his power, which was continued to the last. 

It is true our loss has been great, but I am pleased to be able to state 
that the number on the roll of Members, although the increase is not so 
extensive as might be wished for the welfare of the Society and advantage 
of present and future Members alike, is fairly maintained. In order to 
fully realize the wish and intention of the Council, when they decided, as 
I mentioned in my last Report, to change to some extent the form of our 
Publications, it is necessary for every Member to exert himself. To many 
the Society is indebted for valuable communications, and if the remainder, 
who from one cause or another do not wish to help in the same manner, 
would make a distinct effort to enlist the assistance of those interested in 
Biblical Archaeology, the intention of the Council would be realized, and 
general advantage would accrue to all. I have urged this in other 
Reports with happy results, but cannot urge it too often, as, except by 
the accidental circumstance of the generosity of single members, it is only 
by our own efforts that the present success of the Society's Publications 
can be increased. There is no want of material, an almost unlimited 
supply simply waits the means of publication, and more is certain to be 

129 L 2 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S90. 

forthcoming. The Society has done much, but there is much more to be 
done, and I cannot help feeling that it is our duty to do it. 

The Twentieth Session has now commenced, with the twelfth volume 
of the Proceedings. In almost every instance it has been possible to print 
in extcnso in each current number the paper or papers read at each 
meeting. Thus those Members who, from distance of residence, or other 
causes, have been prevented from attending the Meetings, have been 
placed in possession of the subject-matter discussed within but a short 
time, and the writers are no longer subjected to the irritating delay 
in the appearance of their communications which existed in former 
years. Although the old form of publication, the Transactions, may 
really be said to have ceased, with the exception of the completion of 
Vol. IX, and a probable Index Volume to the Series, it must be distinctly 
understood that nothing is really done away with. The papers read are 
printed exactly as formerly, the only difference being that the material is 
transferred to another form of publication, the Proceedings; at the same 
time being not only increased in bulk but in variety of subjects. Thus, 
the old irregularly issued Transactions have been merged into what may 
be called a regular monthly Journal of Biblical Archaeology, a change 
certainly more convenient, and one which I think none can look upon as 
other than a decided advantage. 

In former years I have detailed the various papers laid before the 
Society, classed under different sections. It will be well to continue 
this arrangement, as best suited to the objects of my Report, and of 
greater convenience than any other for general reference. 

I am happy to be able to state that about fifty communications 
on many different subjects have been printed in our Proceedings. Some 
of them are of very considerable length, some are illustrated by plates 
and others include new texts, either never before published, or now issued 
in a more correct and complete form. I need hardly point out the 
advantage to Members of thus having valuable texts, translations, and 
notes placed in their possession, in clear type, without the necessity 
of poring o\ei the crabbed and difficult writing of the originals. It 
has always been the endeavour of the Council to furnish students with 
such original material for study and extension, and the best thanks of 
the Society are due to those who are able, and at the same time 
willing, to go through the necessary drudgery in order to place us 
in possession of the results of their labour. 

To the President, the Society is indebted for a variety of Papers 
and short communications, which I have every reason to believe would 
have been much more numerous during the past year, had not his 
official duties usurped a more than ordinary portion of his time. 

To commence with the first number issued during the past session 
(November, 1888), the President re-opened a very interesting discussion in 

130 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. L1890. 

a paper with the double title : Is tfJJK (Genesis xli, 43) Egyptian ? The 
Thematic Vowel in Egyptian ; in the former portion of which much 
light was thrown on the debated meaning and origin of the word abrech. 
Again, in the next number (December, 1S88), for the first time, I believe, is 
a distinct explanation given of two interesting vignettes from the Book of 
the Dead, the explanation being found in the magnificent papyrus 
recently acquired by the British Museum, a complete fac simile of which 
will shortly be issued with a commentary by our President. Errata to the 
Inscription of Kum-el-Ahmar, which appeared in Vol. X, pp. 73, 132, 
followed in the January number, and his valuable paper on Egyptian 
Phonology (Part I) in February (1889), to be completed at a future time ; 
to close the list, I must mention a most interesting communication, 
entitled Parallels in Folk Lore, which appeared in April. 

The letter on Pronominal Forms in Egyptian (November, 1888), not 
included in the above list, gave rise to a discussion between the President 
and Professor Sayce (January and May, 1889). 

Professor Piehl of Upsala has, as on former occasions, contributed 
several valuable notes, some in continuation of those printed in the 
volume for the previous session. Among these may be mentioned : 
Errata, Textes Egyptiens Inedits (January, 1889), referring to Vol. X, 
pp. 530-9. Sur le sens du groupe 1^ f P ] ^ (February, 1889). Notes 
de Philologie Egyptienne (April, 1889). The continuation of the first 
of which, I am happy to say, will appear in the current number 
(December, 1889) of the Proceedings. 

Professor Maspero has favoured us with two interesting papers, La 
Reine Sitra (April, 1889), and Quelques Termes dArchitecture Egyp- 
tienne (June, 1889) ; to the latter of which I should wish to call the special 
attention of those more particularly interested in the art of building as 
practised by the ancient Egyptians. I am happy to be able to state that 
Professor Maspero has kindly promised me to send at no very distant 
date a longer paper of considerable interest. 

In the Proceediii^s of May 7 was printed an interesting paper by 
Prof. August Eisenlohr, describing the Egyptian Antiquities at Brussels. 

To one of our most regular and valued correspondents we have been 
indebted, as in former years, for several communications calling attention 
to texts and antiquities which have either escaped notice, or upon 
which new light has been thrown. From Dr. Wiedemann we have 
received Some Monuments of Mont at Thebes (January, 1889) ; Stelae of 
Libyan Origin (April, 1889) ; Texts in the Collection of Mr. Lee (June, 
1889) ; Texts of the Second Part of the Eighteenth Dynasty (June, 1889). 

Mr. F. L. Griffith, of the British Museum, whose recently published 
work, presented to our library, includes some of the collections of inscrip- 
tions made by him in Egypt, besides an illustrated paper with suggested 

131 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGY. [1890. 

corrections of the received text of the d'Orbiney Papyrus (March, 1889, 
continued with the same title in the June number), has in Notes on a 
Tour in Upper Egypt (April, 1889), commenced a series of communi- 
cations which will be of great assistance to students. 

The last note of the Egyptian section to be mentioned is that by the 
Rev. Henry George Tomkins, to whom we have often been indebted for 
papers dealing with the interesting subject of the identification of Towns 
mentioned in the Egyptian lists of conquests : Note on the Name 
Nepiriuriu in the Karnak Lists of Northern Syria (January, 1889). 

To turn to the Assyrian section. The Society has been fortunate in 
being able to publish a large number of translations and texts. Some of 
the latter now appear in print for the first time, and it is sincerely to be 
hoped, for the benefit of students, that during the present session some 
competent scholar will lay before the Society translations of those texts 
which still remain unexplained. 

In June, 188S, two papers were printed, dealing with the important 
discovery at Tel-el-Amarna of tablets wiLh cuneiform writing. The first, a 
valuable catalogue, by Mr. E. A. Wallis Budge, with selected specimens of 
those obtained by the British Museum. The second, by Prof. Sayce, 
describing and translating tablets preserved in other collections. A 
fitting supplement to the latter is found in Prof. Sayce's paper, entitled, 
The Cuneiform Tablets of Tel-el-Amarna now preserved in the Boulaq 
Museum (June, 1889). 

Besides this paper, which gives translations of a large number of texts, 
the Society has been indebted to the same writer for two other short 
letters (November, 1888), Note on the Babylonian Weight (see Vol. X, 
p. 464), and Greek Graffiti at Abydos (June, 1889 ; see also Vol. X, p. 377). 

The valuable series of papers by the Rev. C. J. Ball, commenced 
in the last volume of the Proceedings, has been continued, and I may 
say nearly completed. It must be a subject of sincere congratulation 
to the Society to have now for the first time so large a number of 
texts and translations collected together recording the actions of a 
king who played so important a part in Bible history. The following 
is a list of those in the present volume : — 

Inscriptions of Nebuchadrezzar the Great. Parts VII and VIII 
(February, 1889). Part IX.— The Cylinder 85. 4-30 in the British 
Museum, eight plates (March, 18S9). Part X. — The Cylinder A.H. 
82-7-14, 1342, British Museum; and Notes on the Cylinders 68-7-9, 
I (5, R. 34) and A.H. 82-7-14, 1042 [(A) and (B)] (April, 1889). 
Part XI. — The Nin-Mag Cylinders (May, 1889), which gave rise to two 
letters which will be found at the end of the June number. Inscriptions 
of Nebuchadrezzar the Great ; Two passages of Cylinder 85. 4-30, I 
(June, 1889), of which text eight plates were given in Vol. XI (March). 

132 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

To these may be added a short note on the Wood called Urkarina 
(February, 1889). 

To Dr. Bezold the Society has been indebted for six communications. 
In the twenty-two plates which are included therein will be found 
several previously unpublished texts. They are printed with the following 
titles: The "Woman's Language" of ancient Chaldsea (November, 
1888) ; Some Unpublished Cuneiform Syllabaries, in eight plates (De- 
cember, 1888) ; Two Inscriptions of Nabonidus, five plates (January, 
1889). On two duplicates of the Babylonian Chronicle, two plates (Feb- 
ruary, 1889) ; A Cuneiform list of Gods, two plates (March, 1889) : Some 
unpublished Assyrian " Lists of officials," five plates (May, 1889). 

In the communication by Mr. Robert Brown, jun., F.S.A., entitled, 
Names of Stars in Babylonian (February, 1889), some curious and 
interesting information has been collected. Mr. Brown having made a 
special study of ancient Babylonian astronomy, I am glad to be able to 
report that he has kindly consented to continue the subject in a series of 
articles to appear in the numbers of Proceedings during the present 
session. 

Of those papers dealing with more general subjects, I have already 
mentioned that of the late Professor William Wright, D.C.L., LL.D., on 
Kufic Gravestones in the British Museum (November, 1888), a folding 
plate of specimens of which was issued with the Proceedings of November, 
1888. The Rev. G. W. Collins, of Cambridge, in a paper entitled 
'Ashtoreth and the 'Ashera (June, 1889), has re-opened the interesting 
question of the exact meanings of these words, in the careful discussion of 
which he has collected a very considerable amount of interesting matter. 
Rev. A. Lowy, in a short note (May, 1889), advances a new theory on 
the origin of the name Damascus, transcribed by him Dameshek, and in 
the same number, under the title, The Elohistic and Jehovistic Names 
of Men and Women in the Bible, discusses a subject of considerable 
interest. 

Besides those papers already detailed above, in the section devoted 
to Egyptian antiquities, Dr. Wiedemann has placed the Society in 
possession of his studies in another field, and in two papers, on the 
Legends concerning the Youth of Moses (Part I, December, 1888 ; Part 1 1, 
May, 1889), has brought together a large quantity of ancient and curious 
lore bearing on this subject. 

Thus ends the various and valuable series of papers with which the 
Society has been favoured during the last Session. Before however 
leaving this portion of my Report, I cannot help referring shortly, and 
particularly calling attention to the series of papers commenced in the 
recent December number of the Proceedings. Doctors differ very consi- 
derably as to the proper position to be assigned to the nation called the 
Akkadians. For this reason anything based on the scientific principles 

133 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

of philology which will throw light on so interesting a subject cannot 
help being carefully scrutinized by many, whether competent or otherwise. 
In the theory of Mr. Ball, in his papers entitled "The New Akkadian," we 
certainly have a startling discovery, and one which will work a consider- 
able change in the ordinarily received ideas of East and West. With the 
strong support of so distinguished a Chinese scholar as Professor Douglas 
on one side, and the justly esteemed studies of Professor Haupt on the 
other, leaving aside for a moment the laborious work of Mr. Ball 
himself, the case seems to be a strong one. And should this theory, as 
seems probable, stand the hard usage of strict examination and criticism, 
I cannot help thinking that it must take a foremost place in the philo- 
logical discoveries of our own century. Our Society I feel will then have 
good reason for self satisfaction in having been the means of making it 
known to the world of science. 

The Library still continues to increase, and I am happy to say that 
this desirable improvement has added also to the number cf readers, thus 
extending its value and usefulness. Much has already been done by 
many kind friends to aid by valuable donations this important part of 
the Society's endeavours. To some authors we have been indebted for 
each portion of their writings as issued, and it is to be hoped that such 
admirable examples will in the future find many imitators. I must here 
mention the valuable donation of M. Guimet, one of our Honorary 
Members, who has generously placed the Society in possession of the whole 
series of the Annates of his magnificent museum. The Society exchanges 
publications with a large number of kindred Societies, with which several 
new exchanges of publications have been arranged both at home and 
Abroad. A number of books have been purchased, as funds would allow, by 
the Council, but I cannot too often repeat that the calls on those funds 
are greater than they can satisfactorily answer ; many works required by 
students are still wanting, and the series on many subjects still imperfect 
The books may be borrowed by the members, and it is therefore to be 
hoped that more assistance will be given, thus placing such works as may 
be required, within the reach of those who otherwise may have few oppor- 
tunities of using them. A list of works more especially required for the 
Library has many times been issued in the Proceedings, to which several 
responses have been made, and I will ask those who have spare copies of 
any of those given in the list, or others, will present them to the Library, 
where I can assure them they will be fully appreciated. 

The Audited Balance Sheet annexed shows that the Funds available 
for the year 1889 have been ,£721 is., including a donation for which the 
Society has been indebted to M. P. J. de Horrack, one of the Honorary 
Members, and the expenditure in the like period .£668 \is. gd. The 
Balance carried forward to the current year, 1890, is ,£52 8s. 3d. 

W. Harry Rylands, 
Secretary, 
134 



T-AN. 14] PROCEEDINGS. 

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135 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

The following Officers and Council for the current year 
were elected : — 

COUNCIL, 1890. 



President. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF. 

Vice-Presidents. 
Lord Halsbury, The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Ven. J. A. Hessey, D.C.L., D.D., Archdeacon of Middlesex. 
The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 
The Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, G.C.B., &c. 
F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 
Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles T. Newton, K.C.B.. D.C.L., &c. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D. 
Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 
Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 
Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 



Council. 



W. A. Tyssen Amherst, M.P., &c. 
Rev. Charles James Ball. 
Rev. Canon Beechey. 
Prof. R. L. Bensly. 
E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. 
Arthur Cates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 



Rev. Albert Lowy. 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.D. 

Rev. James Marshall. 

Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 

J. Pollard. 

F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A. 

E. Towry Whyte, M.A. 

Rev. W. Wright, D.D. 



Honorary Treasurer. 
Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary. 
W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Hon. Secretary for Foreign Correspondence. 
Rev. R. G wynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian. 

William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 

136 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

REMARKS ON THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS. 

Part I. 
By Robert Brown, Jun., F.S.A. 

I. 

The Tablet W.A.I. V, 46, No. 1, written in the Babylonian 
cuneiform, is of great interest in connexion with archaic astronomy 
and stellar mythology. It is divided into three parts. Part I, 
lines 1-38, including the obverse and the two first lines of the 
reverse, is in two columns, the first of which gives the names of thirty 
stars, and the second their regent divinities. Part II, lines 39-53, 
is also divided into two columns, the first of which gives a further 
star-list, and the second adds some remarks and explanations. At 
the head of this second star-list stand Sakvisa {Mercury'), Dilbat 
{Venus), Lubat (Jnpiter), and Nibatanu (Jlfars).* Part III, 
lines 54-64, consists of text, not in columns but in two divisions 
the first containing six, and the second five lines. The Tablet, as of 
course, is very difficult to transliterate and translate ; and the mean- 
ing of much in the astronomico-mythological tablets is extremely 
involved and obscure, even when a satisfactory rendering is possible, 
these records being essentially for the illuminated, and not for the 
profane. 

According to the well-known passage in Diodoros (ii, 30), the 
Babylonian heaven was divided into three parts: (1) a central 
portion, roughly corresponding with the Ecliptic, in which moved 
sun, moon, and the five planets, these latter being called 'Interpreters,' 
which " is probably the meaning of the word >~<y< >-y<y^ (]*- or 
»-<y< ^y<y^* ^y^, which might be read ticsi, tirfiv, or ticpi."\ 
Ytto 8e ttjv roVTiov (jiopav Xe^ovffi TeTct-^Oat TOiaKovra aore/Oas, ovs 

7rpo<raryopevouffai fiovXai'ou? Oeov*. "And under the orbit of these 
[the planets] they say that thirty stars, which they denominate 
1 Divinities of the Council,' have been marshalled." As I have 

* Vide Robt. Erown, Jun., Names of Stars in Babylonian [Proceedings, 
Feb., 1889, p. 145 et scq.). 

f Sayce (Transactions, III, 173). 

137 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

elsewhere * observed, these " Divinities of the Council " are the 
thirty stars of the Tablet. (2) A northern portion, occupied by 
twelve stars called by Diodoros 'dicasts'; and (3) a southern portion, 
also occupied by twelve stars similarly named. " And they say that 
the chiefs of the Divinities [of the Council] are twelve in number, 
to each of whom they assign a month and one of the twelve signs of 
the Zodiac." Here we see a combination and harmonization of two 
distinct systems, solar and lunar, and also, apparently, Semitic and 
Sumero-Akkadian. For in the Semitic Creation Legend, Tablet V, 
we read (ap. Sayce) : — 

3. " He ordained the year, appointing the signs of the Zodiac 
(Mizrdta = Mazza roth, Job xxxviii, 32) over it ; 

4. For each of the twelve months he fixed three stars." 

Here we have no mention of thirty, but twelve central, stars (or 
Signs), flanked by their paranatellons, northern and southern, the 
twenty-four "Judges" of Diodoros. Again, in W.A.I. IV, 15, we 
read (ap. Sayce) of certain spirits : — 

Ak. " In the watch of the Thirty (stars) was their office." 
As. "In the Signs of the Zodiac was their office." 
So that the sphere of the Thirty Stars was equivalent to that of the 
twelve Signs, and the former concept was rather Sumero-Akkadian, 
the later Semitic. In a combination of the two divisions and sys- 
tems, twelve of the thirty necessarily became ' chiefs.' 

Although the number thirty, as that of the days of the month, is 
connected with the Moon and the lunar month of twenty-nine days, 
thirteen hours, yet these thirty stars do not, strictly speaking, repre- 
sent the lunar mansions ; for they only mark the moon-stations in a 
very vaguely approximate manner. Thus, in the Arabian lunar 
mansions, which are accurately mapped out, and named with reference 
to the Zodiacal Signs, the twenty-first moon-station, Al Beldah ( " A 
district "), represents no particular star or stars, but an apparently 
starless space in the Archer. 

Dilgan ( Capella) is not included amongst the Thirty, but appears 
in Part II of the Tablet, next to Kaksidi, which I was inclined to 
identify with Spica, but the balance of authority regards it as being 
Sirius, and its non-appearance amongst the Thirty, gives additional 
weight to this opinion. Sibzia?ina (Arcturus) does not appear in 

* The Babylonian Zodiac (The Academy, Jan. 29th, 1887). 
138 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

either List, and the exclusion of Capella, Arcturus, and Sirius from 
the "Divinities of the Council," supplies some idea of the limits 
within which we may look for the Thirty Stars. 

Mr. J. F. Hewitt, who has recently published some very interest- 
ing remarks on the questions of the archaic Lunar Year and early 
Euphratean influence in Non-Aryan India,* has called my attention, 
in connexion with this Tablet, to the Hymn Rig-Veda, X, 189, 
where " the thirty stations of the day and night " are said to " shine 
with the rays " of some power, the Sun, according to the native 
commentators, but, more probably,"} - the Moon. Another reading 
is, " He shines for thirty stations," explained by some as "the thirty 
days of the month." 

The stars named in the List in Part II of the Tablet are not 
placed in uranographic order, but there is very considerable reason 
to suppose that the Thirty Stars are so placed, if not in all cases 
exactly, yet, at all events, approximately. 

Prof. Sayce, with his usual kindness, and Mr. George Bertin have 
rendered me much assistance in the study of the Tablet, but I am 
alone responsible for the views expressed. 

II. 

The " Divinities of the Council " thus representing thirty more 
or less prominent stars in or comparatively near to the ecliptic, the 
very interesting question next arises : — Assuming them to be placed 
in uranographic order, where does the circle begin ? Now, very 
fortunately, what the thirtieth and last star represents, is, as will be 
seen, absolutely certain ; and, hence, there is a considerable amount 
of material for the identification of the first star. Of course it is 
quite possible that the stars may not be named in their heavenly 
order, but the balance of probability is decidedly the other way. 

Line 1, Star No. 1. 

^HJ ~£TT I HP- 4 

Kakkab Apin | Tin Sar 

The-Star of-the-Foundation. The-god Sar 

* Notes on the Early History of Northern India (in the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, Vol. XXI, New Series). 

t The place of the Hymn in the Canon, the divinity of the Hymn 
Sarparajni, otherwise " Kadru, the mother of the serpent race,*' and several 
other points, strongly indicate non-Aryan influence. 

139 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

Line 38, Star No. XXX. 

Kakkab Ma-{ kh " } Kakkab Muna- X a 

The-Star Makhar, (i.e.) the Star of -the- He-goat-fish. 

Hf- *? < HP- IH T- ^ 

D.P. Nabiu u D.P. Ur - me - turn 

The-god Nebo and t he-god Urmetum. 

The male Goat-fish is of course Capricortms, who appears on the 
monuments much as in a modern almanac,* the ideograph (the 
reading of which is not quite certain) showing goat + fish + tail ; and 
therefore next to the Goat-fish comes "the Star of the Foundation." 
This affords a striking illustration that we have before us a lunar 
circle, for a solar circle would begin with the Ram, or (earlier) the 
Bull ; and the Pleiades, for many reasons, would excellently answer 
such an appellation as "the Foundation Stars. "f But, whilst the 
"Star of the Foundation" being placed first is strongly suggestive of 
an orderly, as opposed to a hap-hazard arrangement, on this theory 
we are necessarily precluded from identifying it with the Pleiades. 
One star would be the ' Foundation,' or first star, in a solar scheme 
and another in a lunar scheme ; and the term ' foundation ' may be 
used in various senses. Thus Ur (^^z)]), the horizon, was also 
"the god of the Foundation," X the nadir. Mr. Pinches prefers to 
translate Apin by 'channel,' but Messrs. Sayce, Bertin, and Budge 
read 'foundation.' Mr. Bertin, in accordance with his linguistic 
views, would render the star-name by the Semitic equivalent Ussu. 
In W.A.I. Ill, 53, No. 1, 1. 2, we read (ap. Sayce) : — "The star Apin 
portends a gate to be begun," which reminds us of Tablet K. 2894, 

* Vide Robert Brown, Jun., The Heavenly Display, Fig. 58. 

f This is well illustrated by the Indian Nakshatras or lunar mansions, the order 
of which has been changed several times and in different ways. "One ancient 
order of the asterisms" commences with Krittikd, the Pleiades, "precisely as we find 
it among the Chinese" (Weber, History of Indian Literature, 247). The second 
asterism is Kohini (" the Red-one," "a red cow") = Aldebaran (" the Follower," 
of the Pleiades). The names of the twenty-eight Pahlavi lunar mansions are given 
in corrupt Pazand forms in the Bundahis, cap. ii, the first of them being Padez<ar, 
which corresponds with the Indian Aivini, and the Arabian El Slieratain ("The 
Two Signs "), and consists of « and (i Arietis, a solar commencement. 

% Sayce, Rel. And. Babylonians, 118, 249. 

140 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

"The constellation of the Scorpion (Girtab) portends a foundation";* 
but Apin is not Girtab, which latter is No. XXVI in the List of the 
Thirty Stars. There was both a vernal and an autumnal 'foundation,' 
but those were solar. That Apin was in the ecliptic we also learn 
from S. 375 (ap. Budge), "The Star of the Foundation {Apin) the 
road of the sun took."f Its importance we may gather from the 
"Saints' Calendar" Tablet, translated by Professor SayceJ: — "The 
twenty-fifth day (is) the processional day of Bel and Beltis of 
Babylon. A lucky day. In the night the king presents his free-will 
offering to Bel before the Star of the Foundation." 

The winter solstice was a natural commencement of the year, 
and the Boiotian, Delphian, and Bithynian years began at this 
period. § The appearance of the first full moon after the winter 
solstice " is still celebrated as the chief annual festival of the 
Dravidians of southern India, where it marks the beginning of the 
year ";|| and a list of Tamil (Dra vidian) lunar and solar lunar months, 
given by Mr. Hewitt, is in exact agreement with the Tablet of the 
Thirty Stars. This list is as follows : — 

Tamil Lunar List. Tamil Solar-Lunar List. 

Kumbha, "The Watering-pot." 
Minam, " The Fishes." 
Meskain, " The Ram." 
Rishabam, "The Bull." 
Midhunam, " The Twins." 
Kartakam, "The Crab." 
Siniham, "The Lion." 
Kauni, " The Girl." 
Tulam, " The Balance." 
Vrishakam, " The Scorpion." 
Dhamsu, " The Archer." 
Makaram, " The Goat -fish." 

* Vide Proceedings, Feb. 1889, p. 145. 

t Transactions, VII, 60. The sun-path ^$ >-»-| ^\, Kharran D.P. 
Samsi, is referred to in several passages. 
X Rel. And. Babylonians, 74. 
§ Vide Lewis, Astronomy of the Ancients, 29. 
|| Hewitt, Early Hist, of Northern India, 55 1-2. 

141 



I. 


Tai. 


2. 


Ma us si. 


3- 


Panguni. 


4- 


Chittri. 


5- 


Vayasi. 


6. 


Aunt. 


7- 


Audi. 


8. 


Auvani. 


9- 


Purattasi 


10. 


Arpesi. 


1 1. 


Kartikai 


12. 


Margali. 



Jan. 14] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. 



[1S90. 



The signs of the Zodiac reached India through the Greeks,* 
and duly appear in the Tamil Solar-lunar list, but they are found in a 
non-solar order, and in one which, harmonizing with the Euphratean 
Tablet, places Capricorn, styled Makaram, and by Hindu writers 
elsewhere, "the Makara," last, and, consequently, the Urn of 
Aquarius first. 

Else\vhere,t when treating of the ten Antediluvian Babylonian 
Kings in connexion with the ecliptic, I have shown that the legendary 
lengths of their reigns correspond with the distances separating 
certain ecliptical stars ; and when allowance has been made for 
variance in tradition and alteration in records, the agreement is very 
remarkable. The list appears thus : — 



King. 


Reign in 




Stars. 


Aloros 


10 


Alaparos 


3 


3rd King 


13 


4th „ 


12 


5th „ 


18 


6th „ 


10 


7th „ 


18 


8th „ 


10 


9th „ 


8 


10th „ 


18 



Degrees. 


Point in 
Ecliptic. 


Degre< 


3° 


Hamal 


31 


9 


Alcyone 


10 


39 


Aldebaran 


43 


36 


Pollux 


36 


54 


Regulus 


53 


3° 


Spica 


44 


54 


Ant ares 


53 


3° 


Algedi 


20 


24 


Deneb Alqedi 


16 


54 


Skat 


54 



120 360 360 

The arrangement here is solar, but it will be observed that both 
Algedi (" the Goat," = a 1 and a 2 Capricorni, twin stars in the head of 
Caper) and De7icb Algedi (" the Goat's Tail," = c Capricorni) appear 
in it, with Skat ("the Leg," = B Aquarii), also styled Sakib ("the 
Pourer ") ; k Aquarii is especially called Situ la (" the Urn "), the con- 
stellation generally, the Burj ad dalu ("The Constellation of the 
Pitcher '") of the Arabs, appearing in the Tamil List as Kumbha 
("the Watering-pnt "). There are, therefore, strong reasons for 
identifying the Kakkab Apin with Skat, or with Skat and the 
adjoining stars, since kakkab also signifies 'constellation'; and 
the meaning of ' channel,' suggested by Mr. Pinches, would be 

* Vide Max Miiller, India, what can it teach us? 322 et sea.; Robt. 
Brown, Jun., The Law of Kosmic Order, Sec. VIII. 
f The Heavenly Display, Appendix ii. 

142 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

exceedingly appropriate for a star or an asterism which marks 
(and may have marked at a remote period) the flow from the 
Urn. The " Channel " star may have become the " Foundation " 
star by a secondary meaning. "The channels of waters" (mi nyyai 
rwv bhinwv) are connected by the Hebrew poet with "the founda- 
tions of the world"* (to Oefiekia i-i}? oikov/ucvij^A In this part of 
the heaven is situated the Great Deep, wherein swim Cetus ("the 
Sea-monster"), the three Fish, the Dolphin, and the Sea-goat ; and 
its position here in connexion with the ' Foundation ' and ' Goat ' 
stars, alike at the beginning and end of things, is in perfect 
accordance with Sumero-Akkadian belief respecting the Abzu or 
"watery abyss which was the source of all things," \ and which in 
one aspect is, and in another contains, the Tiamat or Cetus-monster.§ 
The ruling divinity of the " Star of the Foundation " is appro- 
priately the god Sar, Ak. An-sar, the power of the upper expanse, 
who is named in the Creation Legend, and whose name " is generally 
read Assur as a deity in later times, being an ordinary symbol for 
the supreme god of the Assyrians." || His position in the interesting 
Euphratean Theogony preserved by Damaskios, is shown by the 
following table : — - 

Ziku (Gk. Sige) 

l - x — 1 

Tiamat =j= Apsu 

(Gk. Tauthe) (Gk. Apason) 

Mummu (Gk. Moumis) 



Lakhmu 
(Gk. Lache) 



1 

Lakhamu 
(Gk. Lachos) 



! _ — . ( 

Kisar -p Ansar 

(Gk. Kissare) (Gk. Assoros) 



I T 1 

Ana (Gk. Anos) Elimma (Gk. Illimos) Ea (Gk. Aos)=pDavkina (Gk. Dauk( -) 

Bilu (Gk. Belos) 

III. 

The very prominent position of the Goat in archaic religion and 

* Psalm, xviii, 15. t LXX, in loc. 

X Vide Sayce, Rel. And. Babylonians, 374. The Sumerian mob-aim, Semitic 
ap&u, seems to have been the origin of the famous magical word £di^, said to 
mean " the sea" (vide Clemens Alex., Siromata, V, 8). 

§ Vide Robt. Brown, Jun., Eridanus, River and Constellation, 16. 

|| Smith, Chaldean Account of Genesis, 61. 

1 43 M 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890. 

mythology is well known. It was a sacred animal alike in the 
Euphrates and Nile Vallies ; it equally appears in connexion with 
the Vedic Pushan, the Semitic Dionysos, the Hellenic Athena, and 
the Norse Thorr ; and this prominence has ensured its entry into 
the Semitic Zodiac. Line 38 may possibly speak of two stars, 
together forming an asterism, but I do not think that such is the 
case, for in line 34, where two stars are undoubtedly mentioned, they 
are coupled in the ordinary way by the conjunction ^, vd, 'and/ I 
think, therefore, that, as in many similar instances, we should read, 
" The Star Makhar, the Star* of the Goat-fish," which, from several 
indications, seems to have been conterminous with Capricorn. This 
Sign and its stars are further illustrated by W.A.I. Ill, 57, No. 7, 
Sec. IV, where we read : — 

1. r ^Hf- - ~< '-' -23 e£ ^ w 

Kakkab Dil-bat ina arakh Sabadhi nip-kha 
The-star Venus in the-month Sebat a-rising (makes). 

D.P. Dil-bat ina zumbi ina D.P. Samsi atsi innamar 
Venus at the-tails at Sunrise is-seen. 

Professor Sayce reads " with tails," but this I do not understand. 
Mr. Bertin writes, " In Arabic, as was shown by Redhouse, the fox 
or wolf's tail is the Zodiacal Light. Could it be possible to see 
Venus in the Zodiacal Light at sunrise " ? I think so, and the 
nearer the equator the more easily would this sight be seen. But 
the passage speaks of ' tails,' which negatives the idea of the single 
tail of the Zodiacal Light ; and the scribe, who has in his mind the 
constellational figures in this quarter of the heavens, refers, I think, 
to the closely adjoining tails of Capricorn and the Southern Fish, for, 
as we shall see, "the Star of the Fish"" is mentioned next to the Star 
of the Goat-fish. 

4 . \ kHF- ~< - -S3 £ *T TT ^ 

Kakkab Dil-bat ina arakh Sabadhi yumu 2 

The-star Venus in the-month Sebat on-day the-second (and) 

yumu 3 icassid-va ina karni 

day the-third is-in-thc-ascendant and on the-horn (o( the Goat) 

* I include 'constellation' under the term 'star,' when necessary, as kakkab 
can mean either. 

144 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890 

5. Rises. In the month Sebat on the first day on the horn of the 
constellation of the Yoke (Niru, ^ TJT^"| ) .... (it is seen and) 

6. Crosses (i-ti-ik). 

Kakkab Uz saku-sa-risi kakkabi Muna-xa 

The-star of- the- Goat = the-top-of-the-head of-ihe-constellation of-the-Goat-fish. 

This explanatory line shows that the Star Uz = Algedi, and, 
hence, that the Goat-fish was conterminous with our Capricorn ; 
and I may observe that it is a striking illustration (and one at 
the time quite unknown to me) of the principle on which I have 
endeavoured to explain the origin of the Signs of the Zodiac, and 
many other mythological symbols, i.e., as reduplications of simpler 
ideas connected with natural phenomena. The Akkadian goat-god 
Uz is a solar divinity who, clad in goat-skins, presides over the 
revolution of the sun;* and the Goat-sun is reduplicated in the 
Goat-star. Astrologers for centuries, and without knowing why, 
have termed the twelve Signs alternately " diurnal " and " noc- 
turnal"; and this is quite correct, inasmuch as they were in origin 
simply diurnal and nocturnal phases familiar to what I may style 
the mythological imagination, not arbitrary inventions or products 
of mental imbecility, but ideas which arose naturally and spon- 
taneously in the mind. On such an analysis the twelve signs 
appear thus : — 

I — Diurnal Signs. II — Nocturnal Signs. 

1. The Ram-sun, afterwards, Aries. I. The Moon-bull, afterwards Taunts. 

2. Sun and Moon, 

3. The Lion-sun, 

4. The Holy-sun, 

5. The Archer-sun, 

6. The Rain-giving sun 



* Vide Sayce, Rel. Aiict. Babylonians, 284-5. 

t Vide Robt. Brown, Jun. , 71ie Heavenly Display, 65; Proceedings, Feb. 
1889, p. 146. Achilleus Tatios says of the Claws (of the Scorpion), liis x«\av 
tcis Ka.Xov/j.evcvs vtt Afyvimtov 'ZtV-^ov ( = Libra). 

X Afterwards Pisces. " The double mouth Adar and Ve-Adar would be the 
origin of the double Pisces" (Sayce, Transactions, III, 166). 

145 



,, Gemini. 


2. 


Darkness, , 


, Cancer. 


, , Leo. 


3. 


The Moon, , 


, Virgo. 


„ Ara. f 


4- 


Darkness, , 


Scorpio. 


,, Sagittarius. 


5- 


The Sea-sun , 


, Capricornns. 


,, Aquarius. 


6. 


The Nocturnal sun , 


, Piscis. X 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

Mr. Pinches has supplied me with the next line, one which does 
not appear in the W.A.I. : — 

8a. The constellation of the Yoke = the Goat-fish. 

An interesting instance of the fact that the same star, or con- 
stellation, may be, and often was, known by various names. In 
W.A.I. Ill, 57, No. 4, line 5, it is stated that "the constellation 01 
the Yoke like a flag (As. dagilu, Heb. degel) floated"; and as the 
Yoke = the Goat-fish, we are confirmed in the view that the latter 
equalled Capricorn in extent. The notion of a ' yoke ' placed on 
the ecliptic is familiar to ourselves from the instance of the Greek 
constellation Zy-/os (=X//\«/), where the idea, which arose in Egypt in 
comparatively late times, is apparently suggested by the star-grouping 
as well as by the equinox; and so, here, the ends of the Yoke would 
be the head and tail-stars of Caper, which alone are remarkable, 
the constellation, as a whole, being "the dusky Goat."* The head 
and tail stars would form the ends of the ' Flag.'f 

In W.A.I. Ill, 53, No. 1, reverse, line 29, we meet with "the 

constellation of the Yoke, the star of Gula, \ the star the 

constellation of the Goat-fish." The sense is uncertain ; the passage 
might mean that some of these stars are identical. 

kakkabi 
of-the-constella Hon 



9- - -23 




m _ - <r- 


Ina arakh 




Sabadhi ina pan 


In the-nwnth 




Sebat in front 


<>A^A SK 




m ht<t* 


Muna-xa 




itik 


of -the- Goat-fish 


she 


(i.e.) Dilbat) crosses. 



The XXIXth Star of the Tablet is :— 

Kakkab nabu a - ab • ba § 

The Star of the Proclamation of - the - Sea. 

* Aratos, Phainomena, 702. 

t The Flag, as a distinct constellation, appears in a MS. of the XVth century 
in my possession. Its stars are taken out of Leo and Virgo (vide Robt. 
Brown, Jun., On the Origin of the Signs of the Zodiac, in Archacologia XLVII, 
I't. ii). 

J Betelgeux (« Orionis), according to Messrs. Sayce and Bosanquet. 

§ As. tamti. 

146 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [189c. 

And those stars are found in similar order in W.A.I. Ill, 57, No. 4, 
reverse, where we read : — - 

Kakkab Dil-bat* ana kakkab Tamti dikhu 

The Star Venus to the Star of the Sea opposite (is). 

2 The star Dilbat to the Star of the Fish (^<) is opposite. 
The star Dilbat to the constellation of the Goat-fish is opposite. 

3 The star Dilbat to the Star op the Foundation is opposite. 

Here, in each case the three stars (or asterisms) of the Sea, the Goal- 
Fish, and the Foundation appear in the same order. By the " Star 
of the Fish," I think we may understand Fomalhaut ( Fom-al-hut. 
" the-mouth-of-the-Fish," a. Piscis). We meet again with Capricorn 
and its stars in W.A.I. III. 57, No. 7, Sec. I : — 

T^Hf- ^ - *E3 £T 

Kakkab Dil-bat ina arakh Duzi. 

The-star Venus in the-month of-Tammuz (is seen). 

HP- <« Hf- e£5 <Ee Efl 

D.P. Sin. D.P. Sar - ner - ra 

The- Moon, - The King of the Foundation (and) 

D.P. Gal - lam - ta - ud - du - a ina bi - rit karni kakkabi. 

The - Bull - of - the - Rising - Sun\ close to the - horn of- the - 
constellation (of the Goat -fish are). • 

Kakkab Uz. | innamiru-va yumu 3 nazuzu. 

{They and) the-star of-the-Goat are-seen and on-day the-third they-are-flxed. 

* Mr. Bertin (The Pre- Akkadian Semites, 15) prefers to read Dil-mut, but 
Hesychios gives AcXc0ot (= Dil-bat, "Proclaim + old," = "the Ancient Pro- 
claimer'), o t//<? 'A0/jo^/t//v «vt>)/j, vTrb XaXdai'ivv. Tlie name thus corres 
ponds with Ln-bat, "Old Sheep" or "Old Ox," an Akkadian appellation for 
the planets. 

t Prof. Sayce renders Gallamta-uddua, " He-who-goes-forth-in-strength " 

(Transactions, III, 175), which, I presume, is an Assyrian paraphrase. Cf. a 
usual name of 'Mercury, Sul-pa-ud-da or Sulpa-uddua, " The-messenger-of-the 

rising-sun." 

X As. Enzu ; Algedi, as shown above. 

147 M 2 



[aw 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

5. The god Sar-ner-ra and the god Gal-lam-ta {are) 

6. D.P. Gut-tav* ("Bull of heaven," i.e. Jupiter) and D.P. 
Nibat (Mars). 

In the -tablet of the Thirty Stars, line 4, Sarnerra and Gallainta- 
uddua appear as joint regent divinities of Star No. IV, Bar-tab-ba- 
gal-gal-la.\ 

In W.A.I. Ill, 57, No. 1, Sec. I, we read : — 

2. Kakkab Gut-tav ina kakkabi Gu-la yu-dan-nat 

The-Star Jupiter in the-constellation of- Gula lingers. 

4- Hf- m *T - srHF- £* -£T T -4- ^TT^ ^T X*T 

D.P. Gut-tav ina kakkabi Gu-la ana D.P. Sak - us dikhu 
Jupiter in the-constellation of-Gula to Saturn opposite (is). 

From this it is evident that the asterism of Gula consists of more 
than the single star Betelgeux. 

Sec. II, 2 : — 

HP- $zi *] - -HF- 4<>4 -T4 £< *#= MW V £T 

D.P. Gut-tav ina kakkabi Muna-xa yu - dan-nat-va 

Jupiter in the-constellation of-the-Goat-fish lingers, % and 

3. The-star Nun-ki (" Prince-of-the-earth ") measured a measure 
( = rose). In the tablet of the Thirty Stars, the Star ^-TTTT illT> 
Nun-ki, is equated with No. XXIX, " the Star of the Proclamation 
of the Sea," and thus in each case appears next the Goat-fish. 

From another passage W.A.I., 53, 24-6, § we find that Dilbat 
( Venus) was named in different months after the fixed stars which 
she approached, so that in one month she was styled "the Star of 

* As gut = gud, Prof. Sayce suggests that the Phoenician name of the planet 
Gad (" Good-fortune," cf. Isaiah, lxv, 11) may be hence derived, with a Semitic 
meaning added. 

t "The Great Twins " (vide Proceedings, Feb. 1SS9, p. 151) are Castor and 
Pollux in the solar scheme, but not in the lunar ; there are, of course, many 
twin stars and twin asterisms in the heavens. 

X This reference to the slow motion of Jupiter, so different from "the gallop 
of Fomalkaut" near at hand, and "the rapid transits of the Ram" (Aratos, 
Phainomena, 225), shows real astronomical observation. 

§ Ap. Sayce, Transactions, III, 196. "The Star of the Goat" was formerly 
rendered "the Star of the Double Ship." 

148 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Gula," in the next " the Star of the Goat," and in the next Dilgan 
(" Messenger-of-light," Capelld). 

Star No. XXIX, Nunki, I would identify with Altair (Al Tayr, 
•'the Bird," a. Aquilcc), a star of the first magnitude which mounts 
with the Goat* and proclaims the coming of the vast watery space 
which extends in the south from the Eagle to Orion, and is occupied by 
the Dolphin, the Sea-goat, Aquarius, the three Fish, the Sea-monster, 
and the River Eridanus. i\ratos, who, as I have shown, f constantly 
preserves archaic observations and ideas, thus speaks of this celestial 
locality: — 

" Beneath the Goat, below the southern blasts, 
Turned towards the Monster hang's on high a Fish 
The Southern called, distinct from those forenamed. 
And others scattered 'neath the Waterpourer, 
In midst between the Monster and the Fish, 
Are seen in ether, dim and nameless ; near 
The right hand of the famous Waterpourer, 
Like a slight flow of water here and there 
Scattered around, bright stars revolve but small, 
More clearly 'mid them move a pair of orbs, 
Not very far away nor very near, 
One % large and bright by both the Pourer 's feet, 
The other§ 'neath the dusky Monsters tail, 
And all are called the Water." || 

IV. 
I do not find any satisfactory Aryan etymology of Makara, the 
Indian name for Capricorn. It is explained as (1) a fabulous 
animal, emblem of the god of love; (2) a dolphin, and (3) a sea- 
monster ; and the ocean is styled " the receptacle of Makaras." 
The Bab. >-YyT rg = the As. ^fflf ^ fc£ ; ^J = Ak. ma, As. 
elippu, ' ship ' ; ^ £j= has several phonetic values, kJiar, gur, ur, 
and several meanings, amongst which are 'bond,' and 'bracelet,' 
as that which binds. Makhar might therefore mean " the-Ship-of- 
the-bond " (rope). Now the Akkadian Okeanos, which in idea 

* Aratos, Phainomcna, 682-91. 

t Vide Robt. Brown, Jun., The Phainomcna or 'Heavenly Display'' of 
Aratos: done into English verse, 1885. 

X Fomalhaut. 

§ Diphda (" the Frog," (3 Ccti). 

|| Aratos, Phainomena, 3S6-99. " Cunctis nomen Aqua est" (Avienus, 
Aratea, 841). , 

149 



Jan. 14] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. 



[1S90. 



greatly resembles the Homeric, is sometimes compared to a snake, 
like the Norse Midhgardhsormr (" Serpent-of-Midgard," i.e., Earth), 
and sometimes to a rope, "and was then called 'the rope of the 
great god'";* and, in accordance with this idea, we find that the 
solar goat-god Uz is depicted as " watching the revolution of the 
solar disk, which is placed upon a table and slowly turned by means 
of a rope."f That is to say, this Okeanos-rope, which includes the 
Oversea in heaven above, by its flowing on turns the sun round 
in it and with it. Hence, "the Ship of the Rope" would be the 
solar vessel sailing in the all-encircling Okeanos ; and, as such, 
would be identical with the solar Capricorn.% Considering the 




Fig. I. Cai'kicorn. (From Baisylonian Uranograi'hic Stone.) 




Fit;. II. Capricorn. (From a Euj'hratean Boundary Stunk.) 



* Sayce, Rel. Anct. Babylonians, 116. f Ibid., 285. 

X As to the solar Ship, vide Robt. Brown, Jun., Eridanus, Sec. V ; The Law 
of Kosmic Order, Sec. XIX. The Sea-gont. 



*5° 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890 

archaic intercourse between Southern Babylonia and India, * it was 
as easy for the word makara to have been exported, as for the word 
sindhn ('muslin'), "which is found in an ancient Babylonian list of 
clothing," to have been imported ; and when we remember the very 
remarkable agreement in the important point of commencement 
between the Tablet and the Tamil mouth-list, t we see how greatly 
this inference is strengthened. But the investigation of this archaic 
eastern sea-traffic has only just begun ; and doubtless much will be 
revealed by subsequent researches. 

If, however, Makhar and the Goat-fish are, as is possible, two 
distinct asterisms, then we may identify the former with the Dolphin, 
of which Aratos says : — 

" Now near the Goat the Dolphin speeds along, 
Dim in the midst ; and round it lie four stars 
Which parallel are fixed by two and two" \% 

his Dolphin occupying the space now filled by Delphinus and 
Equuletis (the Colt). The Akkadian name for ' dolphin ' is unknown, 
but its Assyrian name was nakhira, from the Syriac word for 
' nostril,' " in reference to the animal's blow-hole." § 

The regent divinities of the constellation of the Goat-fish are the 
gods Nabiu (Nebo, the " Proclaimer ") and Urmetum (" Hero-who- 
proclaims ") ; and these are evidently one divinity, the former name 
being Semitic, the latter Akkadian, just as Makhar and Munaya are 
probably one constellation. Nebo, in origin, is "the Sun of the 
Dawn," who proclaims the day, the solar Goat climbing the heavenly 
steep out of the abyss (sea) of the Underworld, night, and east, and 
so half fish ; and, thus, as an ultimate analysis, Nebo and Capricorn 
are identical. 

Thus, by means of the constellation of the Goat-fish, with its 
adjoining stars of the Sea, the Fish, and the Foundation, we are 
enabled to determine the beginning and the end of the Thirty Stars 
and we further observe that this beginning indicates a year com- 
mencing at the winter solstice, several other examples of which 
I have mentioned. || Amongst others, the old Athenian year began 

* Vide Sayce, Ret. And. Babylonians, 137-S. 
t Vide sup. p. 141. % Phainomena, 316-18. 

§ Rev. Wm. Houghton, in Transactions, V, 363. 
|| Vide Sup. p. 141. 

151 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

at this period, whilst in the reformed Metonic calendar of cir. B.C. 432, 
it was made to commence on the first new moon after the summer 
solstice. So Avienus writes : — 

" Primaeua Meton exordia sumpsit ab anno, 
Torreret rutilo cum Phoebus sidere Cancrum."* 

I may add that "the English began their year on the 25th ot 
December until the time of William the Conqueror," when the 
historical year was made to commence on January i, the date of his 
coronation. 

* Aiatea, 1373-4- 




152 



Jan. 14] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 9, 

Conduit Street, Hanover Square, W., on Tuesday, 4th 

February, 1890 at 8 p.m., when the following Papers will 
be read : — 

Ernest de Bunsen : — -"The Pharaohs of Moses according to 

Hebrew and Egyptian Chronology." 
A. L. Lewis: — "Some Suggestions respecting the Exodus." 



[ 53 



Jan. 14] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 



THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Botta, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847-1850. 

Place, Ninive et l'Assyrie, 1866- 1869. 3 vols., folio. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler. Vols. 

I— III (Brugsch). 
Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publies par H. 

Brugsch et J. Diimichen. (4 vols., and the text by Dumichen 

of vols. 3 and 4. ) 
Dumichen, Historische Inschriften, &c, 1st series, 1867. 

2nd series, 1869. 

■ Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1S86. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1862. 2 vols., folio. 



Golenischeff, Die Metterhichstele. Folio, 1877. 

Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c, 18S0. 

De Rouge, Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 

Wright, Arabic Grammar and Chrestomathy. 

Schroeder, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Haupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 

Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 

Burkhardt, Eastern Travels. 

Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1873. 

Le Calendrierdes Jours Fasteset Nefastes de l'annee Egyptienne. 8vo. 1877. 

E. Gayet, Steles de la XII dynastie au Musee du Louvre. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments Egyptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, Memoires de la Mission Archeologique Fran9ais au Caire. 
Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 
Lefebure, Les Hypogees Royaux de Thebes. 
Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Guimet, Annales du Musee Gumiet. Memoires d'Egyptologie. 
Lefebure, Le Mythe Osirien. 2nd partie. "Osiris." 

Lepsius, Les Metaux dans les Inscriptions Egyptiennes, avec notes par W. Berend. 
D. G. Lyon, An Assyrian Manual. 

A. Amiaud and L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 
et Assyriennes. 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer, 2 parts. 

Robiou, Croyances de l'Egypte a l'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologie des Lagides. 

Pognon, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 



'54 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



Ghe Bron3e ©rnaments of tbe 
palace Gates from Balawat 

[Shalmaneser II, e.c. 859-825.] 



Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus, the price for 
each part is now raised to £1 10s. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) £1 is. 



Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1890. 



President. 
P. le Page Renouf. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Lord HalSbury, The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Ven. J. A. Hessey, D.C.L., D.D., Archdeacon of Middlesex. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

The Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, G.C.B., &c. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles T. Newton, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c, &c. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c, &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 



Council. 



W. A. Tyssen Amherst, M.P.,&c 
Rev. Charles James Ball. 
Rev. Canon Beechey, M.A. 
Prof. R. L. Bensly. 
E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. 
Arthur Cates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 



Rev. Albert Lowy. 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.D. 

Rev. James Marshall. 

Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 

J. Pollard. 

F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A. 

E. Towry Whyte, M.A. 

Rev. W. Wright, D.D. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

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VOL. XII. Part 4. 

PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



-*#- 



VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION. 

Fourth Meeting, February 4th, 1890. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

E. he BuNSEN. — The 'haraohs of Moses according to Hebrew 

and Egyptian, chronology 157-166 ] 

A. L. Lewis. — Some su ;gestions respecting the Exodus 167-179 

Robert Brown, Jun., F.S. A.— Remarks on the Tablet of the 

Thirty Stars (Part II) 180-206 

Rev. C. J. Ball.— The New Accadian. l'art III 207 222 






"" 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OF* ICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

11, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1890. 



[No. i.xxxix.] 



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PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



TWENTIETH SESSION, 1889-90. 



Fourth Meeting, ^th February, 1890. 
F. D. MOCATTA, Esq., Vice-President, 



IN THE CHAIR. 



■%&&&" 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, Prof. C. P. Tiele : — (Letterkundig oversicht.) 
Assyriaca. 

Notice of Works by A. H. Sayce, Dr. Alfred Jeremias, 
Hugo Winckler, Eberhard Schrader, Friedrich Delitzsch, 
H. Zimmern, J. Epping, S.J. 
From the Author, Prof. C. P. Tiele : — Notice of Untersuchungcn 
zur altorientalischen Geschichte von Hugo Winckler. 

From Jos. Pollard: — The Bible and Modern Discoveries. By 
Henry A. Harper. 8vo. London. 1890. 

The following Candidate was elected a Member of the 
Society, having been nominated on 14th January, 1890 : — 

George A. Barton, care of J. N. Danforth, 13, Pearl Street, Boston, 
Mass., U.S.A. 

No. LXXXIX.] 155 N 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890 

The following were nominated for election at the next 
Meeting on 4th February, 1890 : — 

Rev. Frederic H. J. McCormick, F.S.A. Scot, Whitehaven, Cum- 
berland. 

Rev. J. C. Bradley, B.A., Queen's Coll., Oxford, Rector of Sutton- 
under-Brails. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 

The Lancashire College, Whalley Range, Manchester. 



A paper was read by Ernest de Bunsen, entitled, " The 
Pharaohs of Moses according to Hebrew and Egyptian 
Chronology." 

A paper was read by A. L. Lewis, entitled, " Some 
Suggestions respecting the Exodus." 



Remarks were added by Rev. A. Lowy, Mr. P. R. Reed, 
Rev. James Marshall, Mr. de Bunsen, and the Chairman. 

The Rev. Robert Gwynne remarked that Mr. de Bunsen's 
assumption that the Hyksos were the oppressors of the Hebrews, 
was inconsistent with the usual opinion that they were of kindred 
Semitic origin, and would therefore be naturally inclined to favour 
the Hebrews. The oppressors were more likely to be of the native 
Egyptian race. 

Mr. Lewis (in reply to observations made) said that the question 
whether Amenhotep IV and Khuenaten were one or two persons, 
did not affect his theory, as Khuenaten was in either case the later. 
The location of the Hebrews while in Egypt, and the route taken by 
them in leaving it, were also points which did not affect the matter. 
As Ramessu II is said to have set out from Rameses before fighting 
the battle of Kadesh in his fifth year, it was extremely unlikely that 
he founded the city, though in his later years he no doubt made 
great additions to it. It was not stated that the Pharaoh was 
drowned at the Exodus, and therefore any objection as to the 
time of year when Horemhebi or Ramessu I died, or the existence 
of a tomb or mummy of either, would have no weight. 

Thanks were returned for these communications. 

156 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



THE PHARAOHS OF MOSES ACCORDING TO HEBREW 
AND EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY. 

By Ernest de Bunsen. 

In this Essay the attempt will be made to prove that Ahmes 
was the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Amenophis I the Pharaoh 
of the Exodus, in which case Moses lived about two centuries 
and a half earlier than hitherto supposed. 

It is generally assumed that the Hyksos were the bondmasters 
of the Hebrews. According to the Elkab inscription, the Hyksos 
were expelled from Avaris and from Egypt in ' the year five ' of 
Ahmes, the founder of the XVIIIth Dynasty.* The bondage of 
the Hebrews, which according to Genesis lasted 400 years, would 
therefore have come to its end at the beginning of the XVIIIth 
Dynasty, certainly in the sixteenth century, not at the commence- 
ment of the XlXth Dynasty. Yet Ramses II is held to have been 
the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Menephtha the Pharaoh of 
the Exodus. 

If the year B.C. 2360 was the year of the Flood, and therefore, 
according to Genesis, the starting point of Hebrew chronology, as 
it will be proved further on, Hebrews under Abraham migrated 
from Haran 367 years later, f that is, in 1993. Nothing is opposed 
to the assumption that they entered Egypt the same year, and 
that then — not under Jacob — the bondage began. If this can now 
be proved beyond the possibility of a doubt, the attractive; legends 
about Joseph's meeting his brethren, though conveying a true de- 
scription of Egyptian conceptions and mode of life, will turn out 
to be essentially unhistorical. 

According to Biblical tradition the Exodus under Moses took 
place 430 years after the Exodus under Abraham, say in 1563. 
Thirty years have accordingly to be added to the 400 years of 
bondage, either before or after it, for the dwelling in Egypt. J The 

* Records of 'the Past ', vi, 5-10 ; lines 12-15, 21-26. "We took Avaris. . . 
we laid siege to Sharhana in the year five, and His Majesty (Neb-Pehti-Ra, or 
Ahmes), took it." 

t Gen. xi, 10-32. 

X Gal. iii, 17 ; Exod. xii 40, 41. 

157 N 2 



Feb 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S90. 

Biblical year for the Exodus, 1563, if the 430 years are reckoned 
from 1993, falls certainly within the reign of the XVIIIth Dynasty, 
and so does the year 1558, in which, according to Orosius, the 
Exodus under Moses took place.* The difference of only five years 
between 1558 and 1563 may have been caused by the still prevailing 
supposition that the pursuing Pharaoh was drowned in the Red Sea, 
what the Biblical records do not assert. The Spanish presbyter 
Orosius, who spent many years in Africa, and was the intimate friend 
of the learned Jerome, can have known that the death of Ameno- 
phis I, whom he must have regarded as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, 
took place in B.C. 1558, as it will become quite certain further on. 
For if it can now be proved that Ahmes ascended the throne in 
1598, Amenophis I reigned from 1571-1558. Orosius could likewise 
know, that in the last or thirteenth regnal year this Pharaoh finally 
expelled the strangers, according to Manetho.t 

In order to be able to fix the year when the Hyksos dominion 
came to an end, it is necessary to assign a calendrian year to the 
expulsion of the ' Asiatic barbarians ' from Avaris in ' the year five ' 
of Ahmes. This was hitherto impossible, because not a single 
political event in early Egyptian history could be connected with 
a calendrian year. It is acknowledged as a fact that the twentieth 
regnal year of Shishak — Sheshenk, in which, as implied by the 
Silsilis inscription, his northern campaign took place, therefore also 
the capture of Jerusalem, was identical with the fifth regnal year 
of Rehoboam, since according to the Bible Shishak's capture of 
Jerusalem took place in that year. But for the time of Rehoboam's 
reign no positive calendrian dates could be given. On the assump- 
tion that the Biblical year for the Flood is B.C. 2360, we now 
proceed to prove that the year b.c. 928 was the fifth regnal year 
of Rehoboam and the twentieth of Shishak. 

Instead of the 480 years assigned in the first Book of Kings 
to the period from the Exodus under Moses to Solomon's founda- 

* Orosius, contra Gentes, ii, 10. ' In the year 805 before the foundation of the 
city . . when Egyptians suffered from scurvy and leprosy, they expelled, on the 
advice of an oracle, Moses and those who were diseased beyond the borders of 
Egypt. Appointed as leader of the exiled, he secretly carried away with him the 
holy things. Then the Egyptians tried to recover (them) by force of arms, but 
were forced by storms to return.' 

t Josephus contra Apionem, 1, 26-^5. 

t 5 8 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

tion of the Temple, 592 years must be reckoned for this period, 
according to the repeated statement of Josephus, who does not 
even mention the 480 years of the Bible.* The successive chrono- 
logical data here transmitted for the time from the division of the 
land under Joshua until Samuel amount exactly to 450 years, 
provided that either we allow no time for the indefinite period 
without a leader after the division of the land and before Chusan- 
Risathaim, transmitted in Judges ii, 6-8, or that the probable 32 
years of Samuel's judgeship are indefinitely shortened. In the latter 
case there could not have been any definite period from the Exodus 
to the foundation of the Temple, neither one of 480 years nor 
one of 592 years. Paul refers to the period of 450 years,f and it is 
exactly according to the Scripture. If to 450 we add only the 40 
years from the Exodus to the succession of Moses by Joshua, we 
get already ten years more than the entire period from the Exodus 
to the foundation of the Temple is said to have lasted. We have 
sufficient reason for assuming that this period has indeed extended 
over 592 years. For only on this supposition, and by starting 
from b.c. 2360 as the Biblical year for the Flood, we arrive at 
the synchronisms which comparative chronology demands. J We 
accordingly get b.c. 971 for the foundation of the Temple, 934 for 
Solomon's death, and, after a chaotic period of two years, according 
to the Septuagint, 932 for Rehoboam's accession to the throne, 
therefore 928 for his fifth regnal year, which is also the twentieth 
of Shishak. 

The thirty-four years which Manetho ascribes to this Pharaoh 
can now be asserted to include the thirteen years during which 
Sheshenk was only co-regent with his father-in-law Psusennes II 
or Pisebkam. For the XXIst Dynasty of Royal High-priests, to 
which Psusennes belonged, Manetho has transmitted 130 years; for 
the XXIInd Dynasty, that of Sheshenk, 135 ; for the XlXth Dynasty 
162; for the XVIIIth Dynasty, 236 years. It being now certain 
that Sheshenk's co-regency of thirteen years began in 94S, Ahmes 

* Josephus contra Apionem, II, 2. 

t Acts xiii, 20. 

t Thus, only on this supposition, the first Assyrian campaign to Ashdod 
and Judah, in the year 711, according to Assyrian date, coincides with the 
fourteenth of Hezekiah, in which, according to the Bible, this event took place ; 
then the battle of Karkar on the Orontes falls within the reign of Ahab (Biblical 
Chronology, p. 94). 

159 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1S90. 

would have ascended the throne 663 years before Sheshenk, that 
is, in 161 1 ; but, after the necessary deduction of the thirteen 
years, it is now proved that Ahmes began his government in 
B.C. 1598, so that his fifth regnal year was 1593. This is exactly 
the 400th year after 1993, the Biblical year for the Exodus of 
Hebrews from Haran, whose immigration into Egypt, according 
to the above chronology, took place in the same year. The servi- 
tude of the Hebrews in Egypt had lasted exactly 400 years in 
'the year five' of Ahmes, from 1993-1593, and thirty years after 
this date of the Elkab inscription they were led out of Egypt 
by Moses, in the Biblical year for this event, 430 years after the 
Exodus from Haran, that is, in 1563. The Hebrews have there- 
fore sojourned 430 years in Egypt, as recorded in the Book of 
Exodus, and in that land which was not theirs they served its 
rulers, and these did afflict them 400 years, as transmitted in the 
Book of Genesis.* 

The Pharaoh of the Exodus was Amenophis I, the ' Amenophis ' 
of Manetho, during whose reign of thirteen years the second oc- 
cupation of Egypt by the Hyksos took place, whose return was 
assisted by the leprous people or Hebrews according to Manetho, 
that is, according to the Elkab inscription (line 22), by 'rebels' 
who 'joined them.' Not only do the thirteen years of Manetho 
correspond with the thirteen regnal years of Amenophis I, but whilst 
Manetho refers to the retirement of ' Amenophis ' to Ethiopia, 
the Elkab inscription refers to the 'journey up to Rush' of 'King 
Sor-Ka-Ra,' that is, of Amenophis I (line 23). t Manetho calls 
this Amenophis the son of Ramses, and there was a Prince Ramses 
belonging to the family of Ahmes. Amenophis I may have been 
a grandson of Ahmes. 

A harmony so extraordinary between Hebrew and Egyptian 
chronology and history it would be impossible to explain by a mere 
chance coincidence. This result has been obtained by establishing 
a calendrian year for the fifth of Rehoboam which is likewise the 
twentieth of Shishak, and by reckoning backwards from this year 
B.C. 928 to the accession of Ahmes the regnal years of the Pharaohs 
transmitted by Manetho. 

This new result can be raised to the dignity of a fact by the now 
possible explanation of the 390 years announced by the vision 

* Gen. xv, 13 ; Ex. xii, 40, 41. 
t Manetho in Josephus cont. Ap., I, 26-35. 
160 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

recorded in the fourth chapter of Ezekiel. These 390 years, 
decreed for the 'iniquity' of Israel, are implied to have begun by a 
siege of Jerusalem, evidently that of Shishak ; for if reckoned from 
B.C. 928, the 390 years reach to 53S, the year of Cyrus' edict, which 
permitted the return to Jerusalem. To this year of 'redemption' 
refers the fortieth chapter in the Book of Isai th. The author 
announces to Jerusalem that her ' time of servitude is accomplished, 
that her iniquity is pardoned.'* 

A further confirmation of the year b.c. 928 for reckoning back- 
wards the regnal years of Egyptian dynasties as corre( tly transmitted 
by Manetho, is contained in his statement that the fall of Troy took 
place during the seven regnal years of Thuoris, the last Pharaoh of 
the XlXth Dynasty. He is said to have come to the throne in the 
150th year before Sheshenk's accession, that is, B.C. 1208, and this is 
one of the two traditional years for the fall of Troy. A still more 
important confirmation of the Manethonian lists is presented by the 
hitherto unexplained period of 400 years, the era of Seti-Nubti, to 
which Ramses II refers in the Tanis inscription. It can now be 
asserted to have lasted from the sixtieth year of his reign backwards 
to the accession to the throne of his ancestor Seti I, of the XVIIth 
Dynasty, that is, from 1284 to 1684.! 

Finally, we now get an at least possible calendrian year for the 
accession of Menes to the throne. Syncellus the Byzantian, born 
about a.d. 800, has transmitted a Manethonian period of 3555 years, 
which began with Menes. J When Herodotus was in Egypt, about 
B.C. 455, the priests read to him from a papyrus 'the names of 330 
monarchs who (they said) were his (Men's, the first king's) successors 
upon the throne . . . The last was named Mceris. § Diodorus 
Siculus states, and he may have known it from historical tradition, 
that this Pharaoh Mceris of Herodotus was identical with Mendes or 
Smendes, thus with Her Hor, the first of the Royal Higl>priests.|i 
According to the Manethonian lists this Pharaoh came to the throne 

* Is. xl, 1,2; lxvii, 4. 

t Comp. ' Egyptian dynasties' in my Ueberliefemitg, App. I, pp. 346, 341. 

t Syncellus does not recognise the correctness of this period, which he wroogly 
understood to have included the successive regnal years of the thirty dynasties to 
which Manetho referred. He asserts that the period of 3555 years cannot 
have been historical, because Menes and ' Mizraim ' were identical. (Fragments 
Hisloricorum Grsecorum, Carolus Mullerius, Parisii, Didot, 1S48, Vol. II, p. 517.) 

§ Herodotus, II, 100, 101. || Diodorus Siculus, I, 61, 87. 

l6l 



F£b. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

117 years before Sheshenk, therefore, as we may now assert, in 
B.C. 1065. The period of 3555 years, beginning with Menes, may 
have referred to the successive regnal years of the 330 Pharaohs 
beginning with Menes, for on this assumption the average reign of 
these Pharaohs would have lasted slightly over eleven years. If so, 
the Manethonian period of 3555 years would have lasted from 
b.c. 1065-4620, a not improbable year for the accession of Menes. 
As a curiosity it may be observed that this possible year of the first 
king's accession to the throne, has been assigned to the creation of 
the first man by the Seventy, the contemporaries of Manetho.* 

The synchronisms here indicated between Hebrew and Egyptian 
tradition do not in any way depend on this possible calendrian year 
for the accession of Menes. They could only then be doubted if 
the year B.C. 928 for Shishak's capture of Jerusalem could be 
attacked ; or if a sound reason could be advanced for not regard- 
ing as strictly historical those Manethonian dates which have led, in 
conjunction with Hebrew chronology, to such remarkable coinci- 
dences. The synchronisms brought forward point to Ahmes and 
Amenophis I as the Pharaohs of Moses. But the objection has 
been raised, that after Ahmes the conquering expeditions of the 
Egyptians began, which always first touched Palestine, and made 
this land a vassal-state of the Pharaonic empire. Why does the 
Bible not mention anything about this ? 

In the first place, it has to be remarked that this argument 
could be made to refer as much to the passage of troops under the 
successor of Menephtha, the supposed Pharaoh of the Exodus, as 
under the successor of Amenophis I. For Ramses III, allied 
with the Sharutana (perhaps Sardinians) made war against the Rebo, 
the Tzakruri (Teukrians?) and the Purusata or Philistines, whom the 
Sharutana had joined by sea. He made an attack on Maka-Tyra 
(Tyre), and advanced into Naharayn or Mesopotamia, where how- 
ever he could not maintain himself. It is now proved by compa- 
rative chronology that his accession to the throne took place after 
Joshua's division of the land, even if the Exodus had taken place in 
the last regnal year of Menephtha, that is, in B.C. 1258. 

The Pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII to XX, when marching to the 
north, necessarily preferred the road along the sea coast to that on 

* According to the Septuagint, Adam was created 2260 years before the 
Kin ( >d, before R.c. 2360, that is 4620. 

162 



Feu. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

the east of the Dead Sea and the Jordan. Whilst passing through the 
country of the Philistines, Canaanites, and Phoenicians, they could 
ensure the supplies for the troops by the fleet, repel any attack from 
the seaside, and support the operations by land. These and other 
nations could easily be forced to become allies, and by attacking 
tribes of Hebrews, to keep them far from the coast, thus securing to 
the Egyptians their line of retreat. If the Exodus under Moses 
took place during the reign of Amenophis I, the first attacks of 
Hebrews by strangers, as transmitted in the Bible, began in the year 
of the division of the land by Joshua, 45 years after the Exodus, 
that is, B.C. 15 18. The attack by Chusan-Risathaim (1518-1510) 
had been preceded by the passing of Egyptian troops through Syria to 
Mesopotamia under Tutmoses I and II (1557-153 8 ; I S37" I 5 I 5)» 
and Amenophis III (1421-1384) crossed the country during the 
judgeship of Ehud (1452-1372). The temporary subjections of the 
Hebrews by Moabites, Philistines, and Midianites are now proved 
by Hebrew-Egyptian chronology to have taken place from 1470 
and at different times until 1148, thus during the reigns of Tuth- 
moses III and successors until Ramses III (1 260-1 168) and 
successors. Gideon was contemporary of Menephtha (1278-1258), 
and put an end to the dominion of Midianites, probably the allies of 
Ramses II (1344-1278), hitherto supposed to have been the Pharaoh 
of the oppression. 

It is therefore highly probable that, whilst Egyptian troops were 
marching northwards along the sea coast of the Mediterranean, which 
was not inhabited by Hebrews, these did not see a single Egyptian 
before the time of Solomon, excepting the incident related in the 
reign of David.* For this reason nothing is reported by the Bible 
about the passages of Egyptian troops. 

To the popular argument that the name of the city of Raemses, 
built by Hebrew labour, directly points to Ramses II as Pharaoh of 
the oppression, we oppose the following facts. 

A Prince Ramses belonged to the family of Ahmes I, and already 
two centuries earlier, in the time of Joseph (1816-1706), "the 
land of Ramses" was known. It would seem that originally Ra- 
meses, " the young Ra," or " Son of Ra," that is, Horus, the rising 
sun, was contrasted to Pitum, the setting sun. For Ra-em-khuti 
or Harmachis, whose sisters were Isis and Nephthys, means "the 

* I Sam. xxx. 
163 



Feu. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

sun on both horizons." Also the name Pharaoh, per-aa or per-ao, 
" the great house," or " the high Porte," may have referred to the 
same symbolism. We find Ramses II represented at Tel-el-mashkuta 
between Ra and Turn, perhaps with reference to " the right eye " 
and to " the left eye " of Ra, whose vicar the Pharaoh was held to 
be. According to an inscription discovered at Succoth (Pitum), the 
god of the setting sun addressed the following words to Ramses II : 
"thou risest like the god on the two horizons." The inscription in 
which Ramses II appropriates to himself the building of Pithom 
and thus also of Raemses, can only be referred to a rebuilding or 
enlargement of these cities. 

The question whether Moses has lived about 250 years before the 
time hitherto assigned to him, can only be finally settled by the 
now provable synchronisms between Hebrew and Egyptian chro- 
nology. What objections might be raised against this scheme ? 

The year B.C. 2360 for the Flood, and thus for the starting 
point of Biblical chronology, is not supported by any chronological 
authority ; yet only on this assumption the Exodus from Haran 
and the possible entry of Hebrews into Egypt took place exactly 
400 years before the calendrian date assigned to the ' year five ' 
of Ahmes, when the Hyksos, the bondmasters of the Hebrews, 
were expelled ftom Egypt. This Egyptian date, b.c. 1593, depends 
on the correctness of the Hebrew-Egyptian date for the capture 
of Jerusalem in B.C. 928, and on the assumption that the regnal 
years of the Pharaohs have been by Manetho transmitted with 
absolute accuracy. Again, the correctness of the year 928 for 
the fifth of Rehoboam and the twentieth of Shishak depends on 
setting aside the Biblical period of 480 years from the Exodus 
under Moses to the foundation of the Temple, a period which 
has been hitherto regarded as historical. Although it must be 
admitted that the 450 years from Joshua until Samuel, demanded 
by Scripture and cited by Paul, render impossible the period of 480 
years, it does not follow from this that it has lasted 592 years, as 
Josephus asserts. On this supposition Samuel, the time of whose 
judgeship is not stated, must have been a judge for thirty two 
years, which is possible, but not certain. Only on the further 
assumption, based on vague statements in the Septuagint, that 
Rehoboam became king two years after the death of Solomon, 
the year 928 is arrived at. 

164 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

All these objections fall to the ground in consequence of the 
new but unassailable fact, that the 390 years in Ezekiel's vision 
begin with Shishak's siege of Jerusalem in 928, and point to the 
year of Cyrus' edict in 538. The author of the fortieth chapter 
in the Book of Isaiah* announces to Jerusalem, at the end of the 
390 years, when Cyrus the Anointed of God gave Israel leave 
to return, that the time of her bondage has an end, that her 
iniquity is pardoned. The now indisputable year B.C. 928 for the 
5th of Rehoboam and the 2cth of Shishak confirms the correct- 
ness of the year 2360 for the Flood, j* as also the period of 592 
years, Samuel's judgeship of thirty-two years, the accession of 
Rehoboam to the throne two years after Solomon's death, the 
year B.C. 1065 for the accession of Pharaoh Her-Hor, and the 
possible year 4620 for the accession of Menes. 

The years of the life of Moses and of Joshua's leadership can 
now be approximately fixed. The accession of Ahmes to the 
throne, of the new king in Egypt who knew nothing of Joseph, took 
place in b.c. 1598; this is therefore the earliest possible year when 
Moses can have been born. It follows that in the year of the 
Exodus, 1563, his age cannot have been more than 35 years, nor at 
his death more than 75. Moses has therefore lived beyond the 70 
years mentioned in his Psalm, but, he has not reached the excep- 
tionally high age of " fourscore years." Five years after his death 
Joshua divided the land, and in this year 1518 began the dominion 
of Chusan-Risathaim, which came to an end by Othniel's victory. 
If not in the year of the division of the land, Joshua certainly died 
before the liberation by Othniel in 15 10. 

In the following chronological table the dates not otherwise 
explained have been calculated after Biblical statements, starting 
from the year B.C. 2360 for the Flood. 

* He calls himself the Anointed of the Lord (Is. lxi, 1), a title given only 
to a high priest, for which reason I submit that the author of the last twenty- 
seven chaDters in the Book of Isaiah is the high priest Joshua. 

+ It is remarkable that Censorinus, about the year A.D. 238, in his work 
De die natali liber (21, 1-3), states, on the authority of Varro, that what the 
latter called 'the historical age' lasted 'about 1600 years,' that is, 'from the 
earlier flood, also called that of Ogygius, to the first Olympiad.' Accordingly 
the flood of Hebrew-Greek tradition occurred about the year B.C. 2376, within 
sixteen years of the Hebrew date here submitted. 

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Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

Chronological Table. 

B.C. 

4620. Possible first regnal year of Menes, the first of the 330 
Pharaohs whose names were read out to Herodotus by 
the priests from a papyrus, and who reigned till ' Moeris,' 
identified by Diodorus of Sicily with ' Mendes ' or Smendes, 
that is, with Her-Hor. According to the Manethonian lists 
this Pharaoh came to the throne 1 1 7 years before Sheshenk, 
B.C. 1065. The 330 Pharaohs can have reigned during the 
Manethonian period of 3555 years, which began with Menes 
and lasted from B.C. 4620-1065. 

2360. The Flood. 

1993. Emigration of Hebrews under Abraham from Haran to Egypt, 
and commencement of their bondage. 

1593. Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt in 'the year five' of 
Ahmes, according to the Elkab inscription. End of Hebrew 
servitude, which had lasted 400 years. 

1563. Exodus of the Hebrews under Moses, 430 years after the 
emigration from Haran. 
971. Foundation of the Temple by Solomon, 592 years after the 

Exodus (Josephus). 
934. Solomon's death. 
932. Rehoboam's accession to the throne, after a chaotic period of 

two years (Septuagint). 
928. Capture of Jerusalem by Shishak in his twentieth regnal year, 
according to the Silsilis inscription, which year is also the 
fifth of Rehoboam. 
538. Release of Hebrews by Cyrus, 390 years after the capture of 
Jerusalem by Shishak (comp. Ezek. iv, and Isaiah xl, 1-2 ; 
lxiii, 4). 

Opinions greatly differ on the question when and by whom the 
Scriptures of the Old Testament were composed ; but a comparison 
of the dates therein recorded with Egyptian, Babylonian, and 
Assyrian events, points to a unity of source, to a historical tradition. 



®@BU7& 



166 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

SOME SUGGESTIONS RESPECTING THE EXODUS. 
By A. L. Lewis, F.C.A. 

The question, under which of the Pharaohs the Hebrew Exodu? 
took place, is one that has engaged the attei.tion of most 
Egyptologists at some time or other. It has been generally con- 
sidered that Ramessu II was the oppressor, and that his son and 
successor Mer-en-ptah was the king of the Exodus, but that difficulties 
have always been felt in accepting this view, is evident from the fact 
that other theories are from time to time put forth. In i860 
Mr. Basil Cooper published a pamphlet in which he fixed upon 
Tahutmes II as the king, and 15 15 B.C. as the date of the Exodus. 
In 1886 Mr. David Burnett published a pamphlet in which he fixed 
upon Apachnas (who was, he says, the last Hyksos king but one) as 
the king, and 1665 B.C. as the date of the Exodus. In 1889 
Mr. Jacob Schwartz published some articles in the "Theological 
Monthly," in which he fixed upon Tahutmes III as the king, and 
1438 B.C. as the year of the Exodus. Lastly, M. de Bunsen has 
just designated Amemhotep I as the king and 1563 as the date of 
the Exodus. 

There have doubtless been other theories propounded which I 
have not become acquainted with, but to the five already mentioned I 
am about to add a sixth of my own. As a justification for this appa- 
rently unnecessary action, it is desirable in the first place to examine 
the theories already mentioned, and see why and where they fail to 
command universal acceptance. 

What may be called the orthodox theory, namely that Mer-en-ptah 
was the king of the Exodus, has been ably set forth by Lepsius, who 
considered the date to have been 13 14 b.c. Lepsius thought that 
the period commonly assigned to the Hebrew Judges was much too 
long; that Osarsiph and his lepers (spoken of by Manetho and 
Josephus) were Moses and the Hebrews ; that the king Amenophis 
v.'ho fled from the lepers to Ethiopia, was not one of the Amen-hotcps 
but Mer-en-ptah (or as he called him Menepthes) ; and that his prede- 

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Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

cessor Horus, who had been a " beholder of the gods," was Horem- 
hebi, the last king of the XVIIIth dynasty. He analysed the genea- 
logies of the Old Testament, and endeavoured to prove that only ten 
or eleven generations, equal to about three hundred years, elapsed 
between the Exodus and the building of the temple, instead of four 
hundred and eighty years, as stated in 1 Kings; and, following the 
same method, allowed only three generations, or ninety years, 
between the entrance of Jacob into Egypt and the Exodus, and only 
one hundred and eighty, or at most two hundred and fifteen years, 
from Abram to Moses. All this seems very consistent and convin- 
cing at first sight, but on second thoughts some difficulties present 
themselves. If the descendants of Jacob were only ninety years or 
so in Egypt, they must either have formed but' a very insignificant 
part of the multitude who went out and afterwards formed the king- 
doms of Judah and Israel, or, if those who went out were, as has 
always been believed, chiefly the descendants of Jacob, the Exodus 
must have been such a trifling affair that the absence of any mention 
of it in Egyptian inscriptions can no longer surprise us. Lepsius 
would probably select the former alternative, but it seems to me 
most reasonable to suppose that we have only fragmentary genea- 
logies, and that some of the generations have been omitted. The 
identification of Horus, the "beholder of the gods," with Horemhebi 
is not conclusive ; the seventh king of the Vth dynasty (Mencheres 
of Manetho) is called Hormenka in the Turin papyrus and the 
Abydos and Saqqarah lists, and the names of some other unplaced 
kings begin with Hor, and as the " beholding of the gods " must 
have been a mythical event, it is most likely to have been attributed 
to some Hor or Horus much more remote from Mer-en-ptah than 
was Horemhebi. 

The strongest argument in favour of Mer-en-ptah and not 
Tahutmes being the Pharaoh of the Exodus, is that no mention of 
the Hebrews occurs in the account of the wars of Ramessu II in 
Syria, and that no mention of the Egyptian invasion of that country 
occurs in the Jewish annals, from which it is inferred that the 
Hebrews were not then settled in Judea, and could not therefore 
have left Egypt so early as the reign of Tahutmes II or III. 

This objection applies to the second theory which I have to 
notice; that, namely, of Mr. Basil Cooper, who fixed upon 
Tahutmes II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, and upon 15 15 B.C. as 
its date. The only reason I can find given for his doing so is that he 

168 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

fixed upon 15 15 B.C. by certain astronomical calculations as the year 
of the death of Tahutmes II, and that the year 15 13 b.c has been 
adopted by Eusebius and others as the date of the Exodus. 

I come next to Mr. Burnett's theory, that the Exodus took place 
in 1668 b.c, under the last but one of the Hyksos kings. If so, 
the Hebrews must have been in Palestine when Tahutmes III 
conquered it, yet he did not record their presence there, nor they 
his. Perhaps it is enough to say that a cardinal point of this theory 
is that Moses was put into the Nile in the Hyksos domains, and saved 
by the daughter of the Theban king, so that, if Mr. Burnett's view 
be correct, he must have floated a great number of miles up the 
river, against the stream, and must have been accompanied along 
the banks by his mother and sister. 

The fourth theory I have to examine is that propounded in the 
" Theological Monthly " by Mr. Jacob Schwartz, who says that 
Tahutmes III was the king, and that 1438 B.C. was the year of the 
Exodus. He bases his theory largely upon the supposed date of 
the destruction of Troy, and upon a special interpretation of Manetho's 
accounts — a most unsatisfactory foundation — and has been led by 
the latter to believe that the last kings of the XVII I th dynasty were 
Amenhotep III and Horus (meaning Amenhotep IV or Khuenaten, 
whom he confounds with the Osarsiph of the leper story, and 
apparently with Horemhebi), whereas Khuenaten was succeeded by 
his sons-in-law in the following order: — 1, Ra-sa-a-ka-kheper ; 2, 
Tut-ankh-amen ; 3, Ai, and they again by Horemhebi, the four reigns 
lasting more than fifty years. Mr. Schwartz, moreover, makes 
Tahutmes to be the king both of the oppression and of the Exodus, 
whereas both the Old Testament and Josephus plainly state that 
these were two different kings ; nevertheless Mr. Schwartz considers 
that the Exodus took place in the middle of the reign of 
Tahutmes III, namely in his 27th year; but that king was 
fighting in Syria and Mesopotamia during his 22nd, 23rd, 29th, 30th, 
and 31st years, or, as a fragmentary inscription (translated in 
"Records of the Past," vol. ii, p. 52) states, "commencing in his 21st 
and continuing to his 32nd year";" so that if the Exodus took place 
during that period, it had little if any effect on the power of the 
Egyptians. This theory is also open to the objection, already 
mentioned, that the Hebrews were not in Palestine in the earlier 
years of Ramessu II, which they must have been if they left Egypt 
in the time of Tahutmes III. 

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Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.FOLOGY. [1S90. 

The latest proposition is that put before us to-night by M. de 
Eunsen, which, like that of Mr. Schwartz, is mainly based on 
chronology, but which suggests Amenhotep I as the king of the 
Exodus instead of Tahutmes III, and 1563 B.C. as the date instead 
of 1438. The author admits that the truth of his theory depends 
on the correctness of the following assumptions : — Firstly, that 
2360 B.C. was the year of the deluge. As M. de Bunsen places the 
deluge in the middle of his Egyptian chronology, I suppose he con- 
siders it to have been a limited and comparatively small one, but if 
it were so, the Hebrew accounts of it are so far erroneous as to 
the facts, that we cannot place any reliance on the number of years 
or generations which they state to have elapsed between it and 
Abraham, since facts are much more likely to be handed down 
correctly than figures. Secondly, that 928 b.c. was the year of the 
capture of Jerusalem by Shishak, in the seventh year of his sole 
reign, or the 20th from his association with Pisemkeb ; the capture 
of Jerusalem by Shishak was, however, placed in his 14th year by 
Mr. Bosanquet, who said the date was 949 B.C., and by Mr Schwartz, 
who says it was 924 B.C. ; either of these dates may be right, or all 
may be wrong, for anything I can now say to the contrary, but 
M. de Bunsen's assumption will evidently not be allowed to pass 
unchallenged, especially since he admits that it is based on vague 
statements in the Septuagint that Rehoboam became king two years 
after the death of Solomon. Thirdly, that the regnal years of the 
Pharaohs have been transmitted with absolute accuracy by Manelho ; 
in this matter the lists of Josephus, Africanus, Eusebius, and 
Syncellus not only differ from each other, but their totals, when 
given separately, do not agree with the additions of their own lists, 
and M. de Bunsen himself appears to differ from all of them. These 
three assumptions, which M. de Bunsen admits to be essential to 
his theory, certainly make a large draft on our powers of belief; but 
he says that all objections to them fall to the ground because, if his 
date of 928 B.C. be the right one for the capture of Jerusalem by 
Shishak, a period of 390 years, concerning which Ezekiel had a 
revelation, would evidently run from 928 to 538 B.C., the date of 
Cyrus' edict. I cannot think that Ezekiel's vision referred to 
Shishak's siege at all, but, if it did, there is still another period of 
forty years mentioned by the prophet in the same chapter, of which 
M. de Bunsen takes no notice, but which he ought to account for in 
some way. When we turn from these chronological assumptions to 

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Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

see what historical facts or probabilities there are in support of 
M. de Bunsen's views we find none, except the possibilities (which 
I deal with in my own suggestions presently) that Osarsiph and 
his lepers were Moses and his followers, and that the Amenophis of 
that story was Amenhotep I. M. de Bunsen, however, makes this 
king to reign only thirteen years, in opposition to his own authorities, 
the various versions of Manetho, which give either this king or a 
personage called Chebron thirteen years jointly with the Queen 
Ahmes Nefertari, and to Amenhotep twenty to twenty-four years by 
himself afterwards. How M. de Bunsen arranges this difference in 
his chronology I do not know. On the question of fact we are, 
moreover, entitled to ask how much of the Hebrew accounts of the 
life of Moses M. de Bunsen accepts, and how he fits them in with 
the facts which we know from the contemporary monuments of the 
history of the period he has selected, and why, if the Hebrews left 
Egypt in the reign of Amenhotep I, neither Tahutmes III nor 
Ramessu II found them in Palestine ? M. de Bunsen does indeed 
attempt to explain the latter difficulty, but I cannot think that the 
Egyptian armies confined themselves so closely to the coast, that 
they would not have come in contact with the Hebrews had they 
been in possession of the Promised Land. 

I must now explain the lines upon which I have worked myself. 
The general supposition has been that the Exodus was so supremely 
important an event in the history of Egypt, that some account of it 
must be found in its annals, and, failing any better guides, investi- 
gators have followed Manetho and the Shepherds into the wilderness 
on the one hand, or Osarsiph and the lepers into the quarries on the 
other hand, and have, as I think, lost their way altogether. In my 
opinion, however, the Exodus was to the Egyptian but one amongst 
an unending series of struggles with the Asiatic barbarians, and one 
which, as it ended unsatisfactorily, was as well forgotten as recorded. 
To the Hebrew, on the contrary, the Exodus was the beginning of 
his national life, an event to be remembered, commemorated, and 
perhaps embellished. The Hebrew accounts are, therefore, in my 
opinion, likely to be approximately correct, and, taking them to be 
so, I have sought to find a period of Egyptian history into which 
they would fit without difficulty. From Egyptian sources, indeed, 
we have practically no evidence, for the monuments give us no 
information on the subject, and, though the poor fragments which we 
possess of Manetho's history contain truth, they are so far from 

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Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.FOLOGY. [1890. 

containing the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, that no 
reliance can be placed upon them. 

And what is the Hebrew account of the matter ? Josephus, whose 
account is on the whole fuller than that of the Old Testament, says 
that the Egyptians, being envious of the prosperity of the Hebrews, 
set them to cut a great number of channels for the river, and to 
build walls for their cities, and ramparts to restrain the river, and 
pyramids. If, as I believe to be the case, all the pyramids were 
built before the Hyksos invasion, the last statement of Josephus is 
erroneous ; and as Josephus, on the other hand, does not say that 
the Hebrews built Pithom and Rameses, I am also inclined to regard 
that statement as an error, which, being in the first instance put as 
a suggestion, afterwards became incorporated in the text of the 
Pentateuch. Josephus next tells us that a sacred scribe prophesied 
to the king that about this time a child would be born to the 
Hebrews, who, if he were reared, would bring the Egyptian dominion 
low and would raise the Israelites, and that this was the reason that 
the king desired the slaughter of the Hebrew boys. If, as is generally 
supposed, this king lived through the life of Moses both in Egypt 
and in Midian, we should be obliged to conclude that he was either 
Tahutmes III or Ramessu II, since no other king of that period 
reigned more than fifty years ; but there is no evidence that there were 
not several kings between the birth of Moses and the Exodus.* 
Feeling that there was not time between Mer-en-ptah and Sheshonk 
for the events stated in Hebrew history to have occurred between 
the Exodus and the invasion of Judea by the latter, 1 sought for a 
more suitable period in Egyptian history for the Exodus than that of 
Mer-en-ptah, and my attention was attracted by the remarkable 
religious revolution in the reign of Amenhotep IV, or Khuenaten, 
and I now suggest that he was the oppressor of the Hebrews ; that 
he, as a religious fanatic, was much more likely to be influenced by 
the prophecy mentioned by Josephus than were such gallant soldiers 
as Tahutmes and Ramessu ; and that he, having weakened his 
kingdom by religious intolerance of the most bitter description, 
would have had much more cause to fear the growing strength of 
the Hebrews than would Tahutmes or Ramessu, who had raised a 

* As no king of the XVIIIth or XlXth dynasty reigned more than sixty-seven 
year-;, there must either have been more than one king between the birth of Moses 
and the Exodus, or the eighty years from his birth to the Exodus, namely, forty 
in Egypt and forty in Midian, must be shortened. 

172 



*eb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

united Egypt to the summit of its power. I suggest also that the new 
capital built by Khuenaten, the ruins of which are known as Tel el- 
Amarna, was constructed partly to find occupation for the Hebrews ; 
and, seeing that those infallible proofs — bricks without straw — are 
found, stamped with their respective names, not only at Pithom by 
the defamers of Ramessu, but at Heliopolis by the traducers of 
Tahutmes, I am not without hope that some may also be found at 
Tel el-Amarna, although the said bricks belong not to the oppressor 
king but to the king of the Exodus. 

Josephus next describes the birth of Moses, his rescue from the 
Nile, and adoption by the king's daughter, her bringing him up as 
heir to the throne with her father's tacit consent, and the unwilling 
toleration of all this by the Egyptians, because " there was no one, 
either akin or adopted, that had any oracle of his side for pretending 
to the crown of Egypt." This statement of itself excludes both 
Tahutmes and Ramessu from being the oppressor king, because 
both of them had sons who succeeded them ; but it is peculiarly 
applicable to Khuenaten, who was succeeded by his daughters and 
their husbands, who appear to have left no male issue. Had 
Josephus mentioned the names of the oppressor king and the king 
of the Exodus, we should have been spared much speculation, but, 
though these names are omitted, that of the daughter of Pharaoh, 
who adopted Moses, is said by Josephus to have been Thermuthis; 
Khuenaten had a daughter named Tii or Tia, and, if we add to 
this name the syllable Mut, or royal mother, so often met with in 
royal names, which Dr. Birch considered to be applied to Egyptian 
queens, whether mothers or not,* and which the adoption of Moses 
would in any case have procured for Tia, we get a name — Tia-mut — 
which resembles the Thermuthis of Josephus as nearly as any 
Egyptian name we are likely to find. 

Josephus, having given various particulars as to the childhood of 
Moses, says that the Ethiopians invaded Egypt and overran the whole 
country, and that the oracles having been consulted, declared that 
Moses should be called upon to lead the Egyptian forces, and that 
the father of Thermuthis commanded her to produce him for that 
purpose, I think, however, Josephus should rather have said her 
husband than her father, for Khuenaten must by this time have been 
succeeded on his throne, and probably in the royal tombs also, by his 

* " Records of the Past," Vol. X, p. 29. 

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Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890. 

sons-in-law Ra-sa-a-ka-kheper, husband of his daughter Aten-Mer-t, 
and Tut-ankh-amen, husband of his daughter Ankh-nes-Amen, who 
were in turn succeeded by Ai, the husband of his daughter Tii, 
whom I believe to have been the Thermuthis of Josephus. 

Of Ai we are told (in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical 
Archceoiogy, Vol. VIII, p. 300) that he was fan-bearer, royal scribe, 
and master of horse to Khuenaten, and also a priest in the temple 
of Amen, that he became king, and gained many victories, both 
in the north and in the south ; so that Moses might very well 
have distinguished himself in some of the southern campaigns of 
this king, though not perhaps to the extent claimed by Josephus, 
who says that, as commander-in-chief of the Egyptian army, Moses 
drove the Ethiopians back, and took their capital city by the help 
of their king's daughter, whom he afterwards married. The tomb 
of Ai still remains in the mountains west of Thebes, and Lepsius 
found there his granite sarcophagus broken up, and his name every- 
where studiously erased; a fragment of the sarcophagus is in the 
British Museum. 

Josephus next tells us that " the Egyptians, after they had been 
preserved by Moses, entertained hatred to him, and were very eager 
in effecting their designs against him, as suspecting that he would 
take occasion from his good success to raise a sedition, and bring 
innovations into Egypt, and told the king he ought to be slain," that 
the king came to the same conclusion, but that Moses, becoming 
aware of their plans, fled to Midian. My interpretation of this is 
that, as there was no heir apparent or presumptive to Ai, the nation 
was divided into parties, that "Moses was perhaps the hope and 
candidate for the throne, not only of the Hebrews but of the disc 
worshippers, who had already brought in so many innovations ; but 
that the priests of Amen and their followers adopted Horemhebi as 
their candidate, and did all they could to get rid of Moses ; and that 
he, having failed to bring the Hebrews to his support by the slaughter 
of the Egyptian (mentioned in the Old Testament, but not by 
Josephus) sought safety in flight. 

Horemhebi (of whom there are two statues in the British Museum) 
is called the last king of the XVIIIth dynasty, though it does not 
appear that he was descended from any of its kings ; his queen Mut- 
netem, or Netem-mut, was however probably of royal descent. The 
Museum at Turin contains a black granite group of two seated 
statues of this king and his queen, and the inscription upon it 

174 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

(translated in "Records of the Past," vol. x, p. 31) intimates that he 
was elected or selected as heir apparent, but not without opposition ; 
which agrees with what I have suggested as to a contest between 
him and Moses for the succession. It is known that Horemhebi 
restored the worship of Amen and his destroyed sanctuaries, and 
repressed the disc heresy ; there is monumental evidence of his 
2 1 st year. 

We next hear of the marriage of Moses in Midian, where it is 
stated that he remained forty years, but it is generally agreed that 
the biblical periods of forty years are not necessarily to be taken 
literally, and the episode of the circumcision of his son while on the 
way back to Egypt seems to indicate a much shorter residence there 
— say twenty years. Whether the return of Moses to Egypt took 
place in the latter years of Horemhebi, or on the accession of his 
successor, Ramessu I, the founder of the XlXth dynasty, I am not 
quite prepared to say ; yet upon this depends which of the two I 
shall suggest to have been the king of the Exodus ; but the statement 
that that king had but just received the government, seems to point 
to Ramessu I, who reigned less than two years. 

I have now to consider the chronological side of the matter. In 
the book of Kings it is stated that the foundation of the temple took 
place 480 years after the Exodus, but Josephus says 592 years, and 
the events recorded as occurring in the interval might be stretched 
out to fill up 700 years without difficulty ; but of these events or 
periods four have no duration stated, eleven are round or doubtful 
numbers of forty, or eighty, or twenty years, and only eleven have 
what may be called a definite duration given. Lepsius, having 
fixed a date for the Exodus 318 years before the accession of 
Solomon, took the definite, or, as he called them, the historical 
periods, as he found them, and found that the remaining years 
allowed an average of twelve for the indeterminate periods, which 
seems to me to be too short an allowance. The period which I 
suggest for the Exodus would give another century or more, thus 
allowing an average of nearly twenty years for the indeterminate 
periods. But this again depends upon what view is taken of the 
chronology as a whole ; it is generally considered that Ramessu II 
was succeeded by his son Mer-en-ptah in 1322 B.C., the date accepted 
by Lepsius, but we are now told by Mr. Schwartz and others that 
1322 b.c. was not the date of the accession of Mer-en-ptah but of his 
grandfather Seti, in which case the 318 years allowed by Lepsius for 

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Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

the events between the Exodus and the building of the temple would 
shrink up to little more than two hundred, so that the idea that 
Mer-en-ptah was the king of the Exodus would unquestionably have 
to be abandoned. The time which I suggest for the Exodus, the 
end namely of the reign of Horemhebi or of Ramessu I, would then 
be brought down to the date fixed by Lepsius for the Exodus, and 
would therefore be nearer the foundation of the temple than I like 
it to be. If, however, 1322 b.c. were the date of the death of 
Ramessu II, and we allow a century for his reign and that of Seti I, 
my Exodus date would be about 1422 b.c. It will be observed that, 
as Ramessu II is known to have reigned 67 years, I am only allow- 
ing 33 years for his father Seti, instead of 50 which are usually 
assigned to him. This is because we have no evidence for the 50 
years except that of Manetho, Seti's highest monumentally recorded 
year being his ninth, and because I think it highly improbable that a 
king having so extremely lengthy a reign as 67 years should be 
preceded by a father who had so unusually long a reign as 50 years, 
especially as Ramessu II was not an infant when he succeeded his 
father, but fought the battle of Kadesh in his 5th year. I naturally 
wish to shorten Seti's reign as much as is compatible with facts, in 
order that it and the earlier years of Ramessu II may fall within the 
period during which the Hebrews were, upon my hypothesis, in the 
wilderness and east of the Jordan, so that I may escape the objection 
I have urged against other theories, that, if the Hebrews had been 
in Palestine when Ramessu II was there he, or they, or both, would 
have recorded it.* 

The principal points in favour of the hypothesis I have now put 
before you may be briefly summed up as follows : — 

t. It accords with the known facts and with the probabilities 
both of Egyptian and Hebrew history better than any other theory. 

2. It is supported by the identification of Pharaoh's daughter. 

3. It does not violate any ascertained fact or reasonable proba- 
bility. 

I have now to submit to you a second set of suggestions which 
may be accepted or rejected without in any way affecting the 
acceptance or rejection of those already made. 

* If we allow fifty years for Seti, then 1322 + 67 for Ramessu + 50 for Seti 
= 1439 B.C., or within a year of the date fixed by Mr. Schwarz, though on a 
different system of chronology . 

176 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Firstly, as to Osarsiph and the lepers. The account, as taken by 
Josephus from Manetho, is that after the departure of the Shepherds, 
a certain king Amenophis, son of Rampses, desiring to become 
a beholder of the gods, like Horus, one of his predecessors, consulted 
Amenophis the son of Paapis, a very holy man, who told him that if 
he cleansed the r.ountry of the lepers and other unclean people, he 
would be able to behold the gods. The king collected all the lepers 
in Egypt, numbering eighty thousand, and set them to work in the 
quarries east of the Nile apart from the other Egyptians ; but amongst 
them were some priests, in consequence of which Amenophis the 
prophet killed himself, leaving behind a prophecy that the lepers and 
unclean would revolt and govern Egypt for thirteen years. Amenophis 
the king then allowed them to leave the quarries and settle in Abaris, 
the former town of the Shepherds, where they appointed Osarsiph a 
priest of On as their leader, and swore to obey him in all things. 
Osarsiph forbade the Egyptian form of worship, allowed the sacred 
animals to be destroyed, and prepared to fight against the king, 
sending for help to Jerusalem, to the Shepherds who had been 
driven out by Tothmosis (meaning Aahmes not Thothmes). 
Amenophis the king then retired with his army of 300,000 men and 
his son Sethos or Rampses into Ethiopia, where they were received 
by the king of that country for the thirteen years of the prophecy, 
that king also placing an army of his own on the borders of Egypt 
to protect Amenophis and his army. Meanwhile the unclean people 
tyrannised abominably over the Egyptians whom Amenophis left 
behind, until, at the end of the thirteen years, he returned with his 
son Sethos or Rampses and his army and drove them out. 

Josephus did not believe this account, but Lepsius thought it 
related to the Exodus, and that the king Amenophis was Mer-en-ptah, 
but it does not appear that that king retired into Ethiopia for 
thirteen years or any other period. Mr. Schwartz thinks the king 
Amenophis was Amenhotep III, and says that there was in his reign 
a great personage named Amenhotep-si-Hapi (son of Hapi or Apis), 
but the father of Amenhotep III was not named Rampses, nor was 
he, so far as I can discover, the grandfather of Ramessu I or of 
Seti I, though he might have been a more remote ancestor ; nor is 
there any reason to believe that he sought refuge in Ethiopia for 
thirteen years or any other period. It does not in fact seem possible 
to look upon this tale as it stands as being an accurate account of 
anything that really happened ; it seems rather to contain names 

177 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

and fragmentary accounts of occurrences of different periods brought 
together, perhaps long afterwards, for the purpose of connecting 
them with the Exodus, and annoying the Jews of a later age by 
representing their ancestors as lepers. 

The period of thirteen years seems to me to connect this tale with 
a personage named Chebros or Chebron, who appears in Manetho's 
lists as reigning for thirteen years between Aahmes and Amenhotep I, 
while these same years also seem to be assigned by monumental 
evidence to Amenhotep I, conjointly with his mother Aahmes 
Nefertari, and I therefore suggest, firstly, that the rebellious priest 
Osarsiph and the interloping ruler Chebros were one and the same ; 
and, secondly, that this Osarsiph Chebros, or Chebron Osarsiph, was 
no other than our old friend the viceroy Joseph, who had been 
appointed to that position by Aahmes. 

In suggesting this, it is not necessary to infer that the virtue which 
was proof against the temptations of a first master's wife, failed when 
exposed to the temptations of a second master's kingdom. Joseph (if 
he it were) may not have exceeded the limits of his original commis- 
sion ; he and the Queen Mother may have been appointed by 
Aahmes as guardians of or co-regents with Amenhotep I, and 
Amenhotep, disapproving of this, may have gone south of his own 
accord ; there may then have been a contest between Amenhotep, 
supported by the southern Egyptians and Ethiopians on the one 
hand, and Joseph, supported by the Queen Mother and her 
party, and by his own kindred, and the Hyksos population which 
remained in or returned to the Delta, on the other hand.* In 
this case it is probable that the Semitic wing of this alliance would 
sooner or later outrage the susceptibilities of their Egyptian friends, 
and drive them into joining hands with Amenhotep and his party, 
with the result that the king was recalled, and the Semites repressed. 
Some such transactions as these may well have formed the basis of 
the leper story, into which other names and circumstances were 
probably imported at a later date. 

If these conjectures be correct, Joseph and Jacob must have 
entered Egypt in the reign of Aahmes, and soon after the downfall 
of the Hyksos, when the detestation of the Shepherds by the 

* The Rev. H. G. Tomkins considers that traces of the Hyksos population 
may still be found in the Delta ("Journal, Anthropological Institute," Vol. XIX, 

p. 195)- 

178 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

Egyptians, which is dwelt upon in the Old Testament, was very 
strong. Assuming this to be so, and that the Exodus took place at 
the end of the reign of Horemhebi, or of Ramessu I, the Hebrews 
would perhaps have been rather longer in Egypt than the 215 years 
assigned to their stay by Josephus ; but Lepsius has shown that this 
215 years is a round number, being just half the 430 years said to 
have elapsed between the visit of Abraham and the Exodus, which 
he also considered to be a round or artificial number. The difference, 
however, would not be very great, and would allow more time for the 
increase of the Hebrew population. 

As I have already pointed out, these latter suggestions regarding 
Joseph may be accepted or rejected without involving the acceptance 
or the rejection of my suggestions respecting the Exodus ; but, 
taking them as a whole, I venture to submit them as a reasonable 
and consistent working hypothesis. 




179 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 



REMARKS ON THE TABLET OF THE THIRTY STARS. 

Part II. 
By Robert Brown, Jun., F.S.A. 



I. 




Line 2, Star No. II. 




Hf- & 1 Hf- 


Vr * 


bar - ra 'Ilu 


A - nu 


Hyaena. 1 The-god 


Anu 



Kakkab Lik 
The-Star of-the- Hyaena. 

The Akkadian Likbarra ("Striped-dog"), the Assyrian ayu{ahu) 
and Hebrew tf#x> is tne Hyaena, the oxzw being the " doleful 
creatures" of the A.V. in Isaiah, xiii, 21.* In W.A.I. II, 49, No. 3, 
line 38, the star Lik-bar-ra is explained as ^ *-^<] ^, a-khu-u ; the 
syllable ra is the phonetic prolongation, used in the emphatic. In 
W.A.I. II, 49, No. 4, line 41, the Star Lik-bar-ra occurs in a list of por- 
tents with the Stars of the Stag, Dog, Fish, etc. There is no " Star 
of the Fish " amongst the Thirty, for Fomalhaut\ seems to have been 
too far to the south to be included; and Pisces is a dark constel- 
lation, and one which certain " sage astrologers dubbed a most 
malignant sign. "J Okda (" the Knot," called Nodus, in Cicero's 
Aratos), a Piscium, which Ptolemy describes as 6 tV/ -rou awdeajaov 

* The LXX renders the passage, Kai tn-K\r]Qr\aoiTai 01 oIkicu yxov. Delitzsch 
and others translate oxim 'jackals,' but I prefer the view of the Rev. Wm. 
Houghton {Transactions, V, p. 328). 

t Vide Proceedings, Jan., p. 147. 

X Smyth. He refers to John Gadbury. The Schol. on Aratos, Phainomena, 
240, says of the Northern Fish, XaASaioi KaXovaiv 'l\9vi' xeAcrWiat'. Pisces is 
a dark constellation as connected in symbolism with the nocturnal sun (vide 
Proceedings, Jan., p. 145) ; but was not a malignant sign in Babylonia, for " If the 
Star of the Fish (return) justice is in the land" (W.A.I. II, 49, No. 4, line 46), 
the month Addaru, the month of Pisces, being under the protection of " the Seven 
Great Gods"; and when Mars was opposite to "the Star of the Fish, the 
presence of many fish in the land (is) reported" (W.A.I. Ill, 57, No. 2, line 3). 
Although Fomalhaiit is probably the star here specially referred to, yet the time 
was the same, for, as Aratos observes, — 

" With the Fishes comes 
The Fish which lies beneath the dusky- <7<Mtf" {Phainomena, 701-2). 
180 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

twi> ft \ivwv, "the one at the knot of the two cords," a third magni- 
tude star, is styled, by Aratos : — 

" both beautiful and large, 
And this men call the tail-connecting link ;"* 

but I think Okda, which is very near the Ram's forepaws, is included 
in Asterism No. Ill, and that we may identify the Constellation 
of the Hyaena with a 7, and £ Pegasi. My friend Mr. John T. 
Plummer, of the Orwell Park Observatory, who has kindly assisted 
me in this investigation, is of opinion that at least three stars of 
Pegasus would be included in the Thirty Stars (or Asterisms). 
Pegasus is a paranatellon of Aquarius and Pisces, and its stars form 
the 26th and 27th lunar mansions of the Arabians; for « Andro- 
medae, in the 27th lunar mansion, is Sirrah] (= Surra al Peras, 
" the-Navel-of-the-horse "). In the Tablet, Star No. XVII is called 
the Horse ; but this, as we shall see, is not Pegasus.% 

Line 3, Star No. III. 

Kakkab Gam Kakku sa kati D.P. Maruduk 

The-Star of -the- Scimitar \ The-weapon of the-hand of Merodax- 

Star No. Ill supplies an excellent instance alike of the difficulties 
and of the interest of the investigation ; I give several opinions, and 
the reader must decide for himself. 

The name has been read Papnu, and interpreted as "the Hero- 
of-setting," i.e., "Saturn, according to Oppert."§ This view may, I 
think, be safely rejected ; there is no planet amongst the Thirty 
Stars. Saturn appears in its proper place with the other planets in 
Part II of the Tablet. The Star occurs with others in W.A.I. II, 
49, No. 1, but not so as to enable us to identify it from that passage. 
The form, in Assyrian ^-^J^^Es^, Akkadian gam, zubu, appears 
in Professor Sayce's Syllabary, No. 15, with the Assyrian equivalents 

* Phainomena, 244-5. ^ s magnitude may possibly have varied. 

t A £wb(; artT)]p, common to both constellations (Aratos, Phainomena, 206). 

X The winged Demi-horse, described by Aratos {Phainomena, 205-15), is 
exactly shown on coins of Lampsakos and Skepsis (vide Lajard, Culte </e I Vnits, 
PI. XXIV, Fig. 18), where the wings show Phoiniko-Euphratean treatment. 
The Pegasos-myth is connected with Asia Minor, and the Winged-horse also 
appears on a Hittite gem (vide Proceedings, Feb., 1884 ; Lajard, Culte dt Mithra, 
PI. XLIV, Fig. 3«). 

§ Transactions, III, p. 173. 

l8l 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

gamlu, 'benefit,' and sicru, 'kindness.' The Rev. William Houghton, 
in his admirable Paper, The Birds of the Assyrian Monuments and 
Records, after noticing that Gain-gam is an Akkadian name of the 
Ostrich, and that gam "is in the syllabaries compared with gi-mil-lu 
('to recompense') and sikru, a 'reward,'" observes, "It is not easy 
to see the exact meaning of this expression as applied to the Ostrich." 
The expression, as we shall see, does not apply to it at all ; but an 
Assyrian name for the Ostrich is sa-ka-tuv, which " may be compared 
with the Arabic saka ', ' abiit, declivavit, deflexit a via recta,' and 
may allude to the well-known habit of these birds always running in 
circles when hunted."* 

Mr. Pinches, who at times has kindly assisted me in these 
investigations, wrote, " Perhaps it would be better to read gam, which 
is translated in Assyrian by sikru, and refer it to ' the weapon,' as 
'the drinker' (of blood.")f This is ingenious, but, I think, on the 
wrong track. The weapon gam, whatever it may be, is not regarded 
as a ' blood-drinker,' but is so valuable that it has come to be 
equivalent to ' benefit ' in a general sense. 

Mr. Bertin reads j^^jr^Es^ in this passage as the Assyrian 
gamlu, or sikru, and whichever of these is the correct reading, he 
regards as meaning ' ostrich.' According to him, therefore, the right 
translation is "the Star of the Ostrich." To this it may be objected 
that: (1) Not gam, but gam-gam {i.e., intensive — the Gam):}: is the 
name of the Ostrich, (2) The Ostrich does not appear on the 
monuments as a star or constellation. (3) It is impossible to 
understand how the Ostrich could be Merodax's weapon ; on the 
contrary, we find the god engaged in contest with this bird. Thus, 
a god, presumably Merodax, because armed with the saparu, or 
sickle-shaped sword, which " is always represented, both in the 
sculptures and inscriptions, as a weapon of Bel Merodach,"§ in the 
war against the dragon Tiamat, grasps a large Ostrich, which is 
evidently crying out, by the neck, and apparently is about to slay 
it. || The same divinity, four-winged in each instance, is repre- 
sented as standing between two great Ostriches, each of which he 

* Transactions, VIII, p. IOI. 

t He appears to connect Sikru, with the Heb. shothoh, 'drink,' 
% Cf. the Heb. peace + peace =" perfect peace." 
§ Smith and Sayce, Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 109. 
|| Lajard, Culte de Mithra, PI. LI, Fig. 8. 
182 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

gripes by the neck;* and Mr. Franklin T. Richards well remarks, 
" Very far-reaching were the connexions between animal life and the 
mythology of the Greeks and Orientals, and strange are the forms 
in which their mythology found expression in art — art sometimes 
carrying on a religious tradition, of which the meaning must have 
been quite lost for the sculptor. One of the best illustrations of 
this is the series of monuments put together by Dr. Keller to illustrate 
the various steps which connect the Boy and Goose of Boethos with 
Assyrian or Persian figures of deity strangling geese or other creatures 
as a symbol of the godhead controlling nature. The imagery was 
traditional ; its meaning was forgotten, "f 

We observe, then, that the Assyrian name for the Ostrich meant 
" the circle," an appellation suggested by the habits of the bird. 
Had the Akkadian ostrich-name gam-gam a similar meaning, and 
did gam mean, "to circle," "be bent," 'bent,' etc.? It did. 
Lenormant, in his Syllabary, gives, No. 1 8, " ^^J^cEs^, gam, aller 
en cercle, revenir periodiquement ; znbu, revenir periodiquement." % 
And the Rev. C. J. Ball compares the Akkadian "gam, gin, 'to 
bend,' 'bow,'" with the Chinese "yz'n, 'to bend a bow' (cp. 
Cantonese k'am, 'to lean over.')"§ But the comparison may be 
greatly extended, and here we see an instance of the advantages 
arising from the identification of Akkadian as a member of the 
great Turanian family of languages ; for, when we turn to the Turko- 
Tataric dialects, we find at once the root kom, komb, kun, ' round,' 
etc., whence the Uigur kom-av, 'amulet,' i.e., that which is round ;|| 
the Tchagatai kom, "camel's hump," kom-bul, 'knob,' etc. As 
w-final at times changes to n (e.g. kom-kun), and n into r,% the 
Akkadian gam and Turko-Tataric kom, komb, reappear in the Lapponic 
jo-r-ba, 'rotundus,' and the Magyar gor-be, 'curvus';** and so we 
find the Magyar gomb, "a sphere," gomb-bly u, 'round,' the Zyrianian 

* Lajard, Culte de Mithra, PI. LI, Fig. 9. 

t Academy, Oct. 13, 1888, p. 243. 

J Vide Lenormant, Etude sur quclques parties des Syllabaires Cimciformcs, 
p. 294: "gam, etre courbe." 

§ The New Accadian, in Proceedings, Nov., 1889, p. II. 

|| Vambery compares in illustration, the Tchagatai tom-ar, 'amulet,' with 
turn, 'round.' 

11" Vide Schott, Das Zahhvort, 20 ; R. B., Jr., The Etruscan Numerals, p. 2S. 

** Vide Budenz, Magyar-Ugor Oss. Szdtdr, p. 61. 

183 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1890. 

^Sr-byltny, 'bent,' etc., etc. Gam, therefore, "the weapon of 
Merodax," is that which is 'round,' 'bent,' or 'curved,' namely, the 
safari/, "sickle-shaped sword," or scimitar already referred to, and 
one of his principal weapons against the Dragon.* In line 26, 
Star No. XXII, is similarly described as mul-mid-la kakku sa kati 
D.P. Maruditk. Talbot rendered mulmitlla, ' falchion. 'f The 
ideograph is star + star + the phonetic prolongation (la) ; as mul 
means 'star' and 'brightness,' mulmulla = " the very bright one." 
The solar disk with its arrowy rays,:): lightnings, and stars are all 
weapons of Merodax against darkness and chaos. 

In line 49 we have the important information that the Ram is 

saku - sa - risi kakkabi Gam 

The-uppertnost-part of-the-Star of-the-Scimilar ; 

from which I conclude that the constellation of the Scimitar ex- 
tended from Okda% to Hamal ("the Ram," a Arietis), the Star 
"Ty, also called Kakkab A-nuv kakkab Lu-lim, || " the Star of Anu 
(i.e.,) the Ram." The curved blade of the Scimitar would consist 
of a, /3, and 7 Arietis, and would appear in heaven just over the 
head of Cetus, the Tiamat-monster, and next to Perseus, the analogue 
of Merodax, if not actually Merodax himself.^" We observe further 
that two lists of asterisms, solar and lunar, are evidently familiar to 
the scribe, who, in his notes on the archaic Akkadian lunar list, is 

* I shall not here discuss what the saparn represented. As to the weapons of 
Merodax, vide the Hymn W.A.I. II, 19, No. 2. Translated by Prof. Sayce in 
Rel. Anct. Babylonians, p. 480, et sea. 

t The Fight between Bel and the Dragon, in Transactions, V, p. 15. It is 
also translated "the shaft (of the sword)" (Smith and Sayce, Chaldean Account 
of Genesis, p. III). 

X Cf. Macrobius, Saturnalia, I, 17: " Sagittarum autem nomine non nisi 
radiorum iactus ostenditur." 

§ Vide sup. , p. 180. 

|1 W.A.I. Ill, 53, No. 1, Rev., line 30. 

% As to the Oriental origin and character of the Family-group of Constellations 
(Cpheus, Cassiopeia, Andromeda, and Perseus), vide R. B., Jr., The Unicorn, 
sec. vii ; Eri Janus, p. 69 ; The Heavenly Display, p. 90 ; Ttimpel, Die Aithiopen- 
lander des Androinedatnythos ; Gruppe, Der pkoinikische Urtext der Kassiepeia- 
legende. Perseus is also specially represented both in literature and art, as using 
this same particular weapon, the khereb, harpi, " portentous sickle," or scimitar. 

184 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

thus careful to point out that the Scimitar (in part) = the well-known 
and famous solar Ram, which, cir. B.C. 2540, became the "dux et 
princeps Signorum." 

Line 4, Star No. IV. 

6 + *= Hf %Y %Y -eT 

Kakkab Bar - tab - ba - gal - gal - la 
The-star of -the- Great- Twins. 

There are many great and little twin-stars in the heavens, and, as 
previously noticed,* the well-known " Great Twins " of the solar 
Zodiac are Castor and Pollux ; but here we traverse the same region 
(the ecliptic) from a different starting-point ; and as we know exactly 
where we have now reached, /. e., immediately to the east of Aries, 
we have no difficulty in recognizing "the Great Twins" as the two 
famous asterisms of the Pleiades and the Hyades, the 3rd Arabian 
moonstation, including Aldebarati (" He-that-follows " — the Pleiades), 
the 4th Arabian moon-station, so constantly coupled by the classic 
writers, from the UXijuicwi 6' \ «c H ? of the Iliad downwards. Speak- 
ing of Perseus, Aratos says : — 

" Near his left thigh together sweep along 
The flock of Cluslerers.f Not a mighty space 
Holds all, and they themselves are dim to see. 
And seven paths aloft men say they take, 
Yet six alone are viewed by mortal eyes. 
From Zeus' abode no star unknown is lost 
Since first from birth we heard, j 
They thus together small and faint roll on, 
Yet notable at morn and eve through Zeus, 
Who bade them show when winter first begins, 
And summer, and the season of the plough." § 

* Proceedings, Feb. 18S9, p. 151. 

t Vide Hahn, Tsuni \\ Goam, p. 147. I think this derivation is decidedly 
preferable to that which connects the name with a "sailing season." Note also 
the description of the Cluster, and cf. the Heb. Kimah (Job ix, 9; xxxviii, 31 ; 
Amos v, 8), the Pleiades, which "is evidently nothing but the Assyrian kir/itit, 
'family.' The stem is hamu, ' to tie,' the family being called kimtu because its 
members are connected by one common tie " (Delitzsch, The Hebrew Language 
viewed in the Light of Assyrian Research, pp. 69-70). 

X (Of anything. ) 

§ Phainomena, 254-60, 264-7. 

185 



Feb. 4] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.FOLOGY. 



[1890. 



Aratos does not include the Pleiades in Taurus, of which latter he 
says : — 

" The horned Bull, fallen near the Driver's feet, 
Behold. And very like him lie the stars ; 
Thus is his head distinguished ; other mark 
Is needless to discern the head, since stars 
On both sides shape it as they roll along. 
Much mentioned is their name, nor, soothly, are 
The Rainy-ones unheard of. They have place 
On the whole front of the Bull:'* 

The following diagram of the Ptolemaic Taurus illustrates how the 
original lunar Bullf was reduplicated in the constellational Bull, 
and shows the "Great" and "Little Twins "in the scheme of the 
Thirty Stars. 





J, Fig. II. 

\ The Lunar Bull 

(Hittite Symbol from 
Hamath). 



Fig. I. The Ptolemaic Taurus. 



The Gut-an-na (" Bull-of-heaven ") is in the kharran Samsi 
("Sun-path"), and is mentioned in connexion with rain.J As 



* Phainomena, 167-74. + Vide Fig. 2. 

J W.A.I. Ill, 53, No. I, Rev., lines 15-16. This well accords with the 
"pluviae Hyades " (Vergil, Aen. I, 744; III, 516), "tristes Hyades" (Horace, 
Car. I, iii, 4). " Ilyadas Grains ab imbre vocat " (Ovid, Fasti, V, 166). Thales 
said they were two in number, a northern and a southern star. 

186 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

noticed,* Sarnerra and Gallamta-uddua are regent divinities of the 
"Great Twins," together with 

Hf- <« < HP- fcTT 

D.P. Sin u D.P. Nergal 
The Moon and the Great-hero. 

The " Hero," Ner, Nerra, is the Death-god, called " Nergal of the 
Apparitions," f patron divinity of the Akkadian town Gudua ("the 
Resting-place "), Semitic Kutu, where was a famous necropolis. 
Hence, "the men of Cuth," when transplanted into the land of 
Israel, still "made Nergal "their special god.J The Moon-god is 
appropriately connected with the peculiarly lunar constellation 
Taurus ;§ and Bartabba is a title of Nergal. || Gal {ci. the Turkic 
kulli, 'great') + gal= "very great"; la, the emphatic prolongation 
So we find *-*-} £]>- t^>~- ^y,1T Akkadian Dingir-gal-gal-la, Assyrian 
Hi rabati, " the great gods." 

Line 6, Star No. V. 
jr>^ Y *f- »^ ^f ^Z *^Z 

Kakkab Bar - tab - ba - du - du 
The-Star of- the - Little - Twins. 

D.P. Si-du u D.P. Nin - sar 
The-goddess Sidu, and the goddess Lady-of-rising. 

Bartabba = (lit.) " The-double (t= , taba) half" (>f , bar.) 
"The Little Twins," as will be seen from Fig. 1, must be Nath 
(" Horn-push," (3 Tauri) and £ Tauri. Ninsar is a name of Istar** 

* Sup. (Jan.), p. 148. t W.A.I. Ill, 67, 70, ap. Sayce. 

X 2 Kings xvii, 30. Oi civSpiQ Xov6 t-woirjirav ti)v 'KpytA (LXX, in loc. ). 

§ Vide R. B. , Jr., Remarks on the Zodiacal Virgo, sec. viii. Cf. Porphyry : 
"The Moon, who presides over generation, was called by the ancients a Bull. 
Taurus is the exaltation of the Moon" {Peri tou Nymph. Ant., VIII). 

|| W.A.I. Ill, 68, 68. 1" Tablet S. 27, line 46. 

** " The true etymology " of the non-Semitic goddess-name Istar (or As -tar) is 
said to have been "buried in the night of antiquity " (Sayce, Rel. And. Babylonians, 
p. 257. Prof. Sayce regards Esther as a variant); but it at once appears on a 
comparison with the cognate dialects: — Sumero-Ak. Zr(-tar), Magyar /.r(-ten), 
Kamacintzi Esch, Arintzi Eisch ('God'), Yenissei-Ostiak Es (' heaven ') ; for, as 
Castren observes, "Allen altaischen Volkern am meisten den himmlischen Gott 

187 P 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S90. 

as connected with the planet Venus ; Istar -Venus is, however, 
generally called -^jEf >^k] *"H( >~<F>* Nin-si-an-na, " Lady-of-the- 
garden-of-heaven." 

Line 7 couples as also regent divinities of " The Little Twins," 
'/lu Si-du, "and the goddess Ninsar" whose name occurs, too, in 
the second part of line 6. "The goddess Sidu" appears to be 
"Siduri, the Istar of wisdom." f As Si-du = ' eye ' + "the goer," J 
we have here a lunar Istar, appropriately presiding over the stars of 
the Bull, and afterwards reduplicated in a planetary Istar. 

Line 8, Star No. VI. 

© ^ I Hf- d*T 

Kakkab Sar | D.P. Maruduk 

The-Star of-the King. \ Merodax 

Prof. Sayce remarks of the Akkadian Pantheon, that " its several 
personages, mostly forms of the Sun, were identified with [or, rather, 
as I should prefer to express it — were reduplicated in] the planets 
and the stars." § Thus, in W.A.I. Ill, 53, 2, we find that Merodax, 
who is primarily the Sun, was reduplicated in various stars in 
different months, and in the month Tebet was Sarru, " the King," 
a word used by the Akkadai in the borrowed form Sar, = Akkadian, 
Un-gal, " Great-man," = ' King." 

Es verehren " {Die Finiiische Mytliologie, p. 228). He gives Asa and Yzyt as 
south Siberian forms {Ibid., p. 186). It reappears in the well-known Etruscan 
Ais-ax ('god,' or, rather 'gods.' Vide Suetonius, Augustus, c. 97 ; Hesychios : 
Ai'irof Otol virb Tvpprivwv). The tar in Is-tar = the Ak. tier, 'small,' 'young' 
(cf. Ak. tur-rak, -rakki, " little-woman "=' daughter '), Finnic tar, ' son,' 'child,' 
ty-tar, 'girl,' Mordvin tsora, 'son,' Magyar der, 'girl,' Asiatic Turkic tura (vide 
Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, pp. 300-1), Etruscan etera, 'child.' Is-tar = 
"Heaven-child," " Daughter-of- Heaven. " Tar is the most common ending for 
the names of the female mythological personages mentioned in the Kalcvala, the 
great epic poem of Finland, e.g., Etele-tar (a daughter of the South-wind), Ilma- 
tar { Daughter of the Air), Ka.leva.-tar (the Daughter of Kaleva = ' Hero '), Lowya- 
tar (the Daughter of Tuoni, the god of death ; cf. the Ak. god Tu, 'Death'), etc. 

* Vide W.A.I. II, 57, 20. 

f W.A.I. IV, 58-9, Col. iv, line 2, ap. Sayce. Mr. Boscawen reads "the 
goddess of wisdom " ( Transactions, VI, p. 540), ' Istar ' being used at times in the 
general sense of goddess. 

% Cf. the Hellenic moon-name 16, "the Goer." t^j also="to wax" (as 
the moon). 

§ Transactions, Til, p. 166. 

188 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Now the Tablet of the Thirty Stars has some special connexion 
with three particular months, Kisleu, Tebet (December-January), 
and Sebat * We may, therefore, identify the Star of the King 
with the upper part of Orion, Betelgeux (a Orionis) and Bellatrix 
(7 Orionis), and the stars adjoining. Of these, X and form the 
5th Arabian moon-station, and the warrior Merodax well corresponds 
with the mighty giant hunter, f Meroda^, as a sun-god, " was 
identified with the ancient [Akkadian] Gudibir ("the-Bull-of-light "), 
and astrology taught that he was one and the same with each of the 
twelve zodiacal signs." \ This Euphratean doctrine appears in full 
development in late classical times.§ 

Line 9, Star No. VII. 

^HJ ^ JU W til I Hf- 5=Atf -TTTT T 

Kakkab I - ik ai | D.P. Gibil nun-lal 

The-Star the-River of -waters. The- Fire-god, the prince. 

The Akkadian i-ik ai, = Assyrian iku mie. Ik = Assyrian nam 
' river,' and " the River " in question will be the famous Eridanus, 
which now begins at Kigel ("the. Foot" of Orion, /3 Orionis), and 
which perhaps begun at the £e/t-stars in this scheme.|| 

The regent-divinity of the Hirer is the Fire-god, often identified 
with the Sun-god, and the connexion between the latter and 
Eridanus, I have fully illustrated elsewhere. The name of the 
Akkadian Fire-god Kibir. the Sumerian Gibil, according to Lenor- 
rnant, reappears in the name of the Emperor Ela-gaoai-us ; and, as 
has been remarked by Prof. Lacouperie, is found in the Mongolian 
ghel, and other Turanian words for ' fire.' In an " Incantation to 
Fire," Gi-bil or Bil-gi is addressed as " The Fire-god, the prince who 
(is) in the lofty country." ^[ 

* Vide Part III, line 54. 

+ For a full consideration and analysis of the mythological and non-Hellenic 
Orion, vide R. B., Jr., The Great Dionysiak Myth, II, p. 270 el sea. ; Eridanus 
p. 9-10 ; The Myth of Kir M, p. 146 et seq. 

X Sayce, Rel. And. Babylonians, p. 107. 

§ Vide Macrobius, Saturnalia, I, 21, where the connexion between the Sun 
and the Signs is set forth at length. " Nee solus Leo sed signa quoque universa 
zodiaci ad naturam solis iure referuntur. " 

|| Vide R. B., Jr., Eridanus, River and Constellation. 

*i W.A.I. IV, 14, Rev., line 3, ap. Budge. 

189 P 2 



Feu. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

Line 10, Star No. VIII. 

e -<t* ih in hf- -m ^r w 

Kakkab Pal - lik - a | D.P. Na - na - a 
The-Star of-the Crossing-dog. | The-goddess Nana. 

The next remarkable star near the ecliptic is Procyon (Cam's 
Minor). Nana ("the Lady"), is in origin a phase of Istar ; and, 
according to Lenormant, she was called Nin-ka-si (" the-Lady-with- 
the-horned-countenance "), = the Moon.* 

Line 12, Star No. IX. 

Kakkab Mu - sir - kes - da D.P. A - nim 
The-Star Yoke - of- the - enclosure of Anu, 

IT- ^TTT- ¥ -HP- m Hf- %h 

rabu - u sa same rabi 

prince of the-heaven great. 

As regards the star-name, I follow the reading kindly given me 
by Prof. Sayce, but, for obvious reasons, cannot agree with him that 
the constellation Draco is intended. " The enclosure of Anu " 
would seem to be the ecliptic. As to the idea of a ' yoke,' vide 
Proceedings, Jan., 1890, p. 146 ; and for the latter part of this line, 
vide the remarks of Mr. Bertin, The Pre-Akkadian Semites, p. 4. 
Taking the ecliptic-stars in their order, we may identify the Yoke-of 
the-enclosure with Pollux (/3 Geminoruni), the 7th Arabian moon- 
station. 

Line 13, Star No. X. 

Kakkab Tur-us mal ma% D.P. Danu 

The-Star Son-of-the-supreme-temple. \ The divine Judge. 

This Star will be Castor (a Geminoruni). The Pole-star was 
called, in Akkadian, Tir-anna, Assyrian, Dayan - same, " Judge-of- 
heaven " ; but the original " divine Judge " is the Sun-god. 

* For illustration of the mythological connexion between the Dog and the 
Moon, vide R. B., Jr., The Unicorn, Sec. vi. 

190 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Line 14, Star No. XI. 

Kakkab Gis-bar namru sa pan Bel - me - khi - ra 
The-Star Wood-qf-light the shining which before Bel-the-Confronter (is). 

" Bel-the-Confronter " is Ursa Major* Prof. Sayce recently 
supplied me with the reading, " The fire of light which (is) before 
Bel the voice of the firmament " (mo sdrra) ; but I do not think that 
any part of the line, except the name of the Star, is in Akkadian. 
Mr. Bertin reads, " Which before Bel is going in front " ; and 
renders the line, "The shining disc which goes before Bel" remark- 
ing that the group tf >f- "is a kind of weapon, or disc, which was 
thrown at the enemy." In a Hymn to Meroda^ the god Anu is 
made to exclaim : — 

" In my right hand the god who binds the hosts of the firmament 

I bear. 
The Sun-god of fifty faces, the falchion which proclaims me as 

Anu I bear."t 

The sun is the original disk hurled at darkness by the heaven- 
power, and here the solar disk is reduplicated in a stellar disk, which, 
being next on the list and opposite the Great Bear, there is no 
difficulty in identifying with the upper part of the Sickle, in Leo, 
the stars of which form an excellent circle, while the whole of it 
exactly represents in form the " sickle-shaped sword " of Meroda^- 
Perseus.J The Sickle forms the 10th Arabian moon-station. What 
the actual name of this Star was, is very doubtful : for Gisbar is 
merely, like fcf ^TT^y *{-, Gis-dhu-bar, a phonetic reading, and the 
name may be written ideographically. At one time Prof. Sayce 
thought the Akkadian pronunciation of £| HT^y »|_ was Kibir-ra . § 
^y is the determinative prefix for 'tree' and 'wood,' and >\-, as 
Mr. Boscawen has pointed out, || "appears to contain the elements of 
the primitive fire-stick." The Akkadian Fire-god, like the Vedic 
Agni, is doubtless the Son of the Two Sticks. 

* Vide R. B., Jr., On Euphratcan Names of the Constellation Ursa J. 
{Proceedings, March, 1887). 

+ W.A.I. II, 19, No. 2, Rev., lines 8, 10, ap. Sayce. 
X Vide sup., p. 184. § Vide sup., p. 189. 

|| Transactions, VI, p. 275. 

191 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

Line 15, Star No. XII. 

Kakkab Gub - ba(-ra) mes - su - tu E - kur 

The-Star Fire-flame, time of-the-House-of-the-East. 

Prof. Sayce renders Gubarra, " Fire-flame," and observes that 
the Sumerian Gubarra is an older form of the Akkadian Afubarra, 
and that the form gis-bar (' fire ') shows that the original name was 
Gnsbarra ; gus, "the sky," gus, "fire," and gus^qin, "the yellow 
metal " (gold) being connected words. Kibir-ra and Gibil are 
" dialectal forms of Gubarra." With gus compare the Uigur kis, kiz, 
' fiery,' 'warm,' the Tchagatai kizi, 'warm,' the Kazan kizil, 'red,' 
the Kirgish kizil, 'beautiful,' the Aderbijan kizil, 'gold,' 'red,' the 
Osmanli kiz-mak, the Koibal-Karagass kezel, 'red,' etc. "The Star 
Fire-flame" will be Regulus (a Leonis). Kur =" mountain (the 
east)." " Le e-kur cosmique est la terre et la region souterraine . . 
le e-kur est assimile a l'arali comme region infernale."* "Beyond 
the mountain, and to the north-east, extended the land of Arali, 
which was very rich in gold, and was inhabited by the gods and 
spirits.""!" The regent divinities of this Star are Sin and Nergal. 

Line 16, Star No. XIII. 

Kakkab 'ilu Ku - a mes-su-tu E - kur 

The-Star of-the-god Kua, time of-the-House-of-the-East. 

Kua is an 'oracle,' Merodax is called Kua as the oracle-god, and 
his special sanctuary "went by the name of E-kua, 'the house of the 
oracle.' ?J The next stars in order are Zosma (" Back hair," c Leonis) 
and 6 Leonis, which form the nth Arabian moon-station, and the 
regent divinities are Anu and Bel. 

Line 17, Star No. XIV. 

Kakkab Lamas - su mikid-isati ilu Ba - u 

The-Star the Colossus, the-buming-of-flre ofthe-goddess Baku. 

* Lenormant, Les Origines de V Histoirc, II, p. 232, note I. 

t Ibid., Chaldean Ma^ic, p. 152. As to Arali, vide Proceedings, May, 1888, 
P- 355- The Rev. E. G. King, Akkadian Genesis, p. 22, has some interesting 
remarks on E-kur. 

X Sayce, Rel. And. Babylonians, p. 95. 

. 192 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

The lamma, primitive form lamas, Assyrian lamassu, was the 
symbolical, human-headed, winged bull, the guardian of a temple- 
entrance. As to the goddess Bahu, identical or identified with the 
^>J_ £^ ^y, *tf u Gu-la, " the goddess Gula," who is mentioned in 
the second part of the line, vide Proceedings, May, 1888, p. 351. 
The next Star in order is Denebola ("Tail-of-Lion "), which forms 
the 1 2th Arabian moon-station. The solar Lion, it will be observed, 
is not represented in this scheme. 

Line 18, Star No. XV. 

*b tf@ ^n < -4- **] -0j bh 

Kakkab Nin - sar u D.P. Ur - ra - gal 
The-Star Lady-of-heaven, and the-god-of-the-Great-city. 

HF- fctf ' '< * ~ *£ 

D.P. Nergal u U - bi - turn 

Nergal and the Double-one-of-evening. 

We now come to the zodiacal Virgo* the two leading stars in 
which, fi and 7 Virgin is, forming part of the 13th Arabian moon- 
station, and described by Ptolemy as " the one at the top of the 
southern and left wing," and "the foremost of the four in the left 
wing," will answer to the Lady-of-heaven and Urragal (= Nergal). 
" A punning etymology connected his name with ' the great city ' 
{uru-gal), as if it had been Ne(r)-uru-gal, 'the Ner of Hades. '"f 
Ubitum or Ahbitum is "evidently the same as Istar,"J in her 
planetary phase as " Star of the morn and eve." The two stars 
Ninsar and Urragal are elsewhere named together. 

Line 19, Star No. XVI. 

*H *Hr Hf- ^TT ^ 

Kakkab Dannu 'ilu Da - mu 

The-Star of-the Hero (i.e.), the god Sky -furrow. 

This Star seems to be Zavijava (' Angle,' 7 Virginis), which 
forms part of the 13th Arabian moon-station. "My hero the god 
Darau," is alluded to in W.A.I. IV, 30; da has the meaning of 
'furrow,' and mu of 'sky,' Assyrian, samu. 

* Vide R. B., Jr., Remarks on the Zodiacal Virgo (in the Yorkshire Archaeo- 
logical Journal, 1S86). 

f Sayce, Rcl. Anct. Babylonians, p. 195. J ^ r - Pinches to R. B., Jr. 

193 



Hf- 


T? *• 


D.P. 


A - nu 




Ami. 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

Line 20, Star No. XVII. 

Kakkab D.P. (Ansu) Kur - ra D.P. Ramanu icabbid 

The-Star of-the-Animal-from-thc-East. | The-god Rimmoji-is-terrible. 

"The Animal from the East" is the Horse.* In W.A.I. Ill, 53, 
No. 1, lines 26-7, we meet with the Star «~| ^^f| KEE*" ^TI » 
translated by Prof. Sayce, " Rimmon-is-terrible," but in Akkadian, 
Iin-dugud-khu, ' Storm ' -f ' much ' + ' bird,' " the Great Storm-bird," 
that is "the Bird of the divine storm-cloud," "the Giant-bird," etc., 
which appears in Euphratean legend f as Lugal-tudda, " the Lusty- 
king." The constellation in question is Corvus. Of the Water- 
snake, Aratos says that " the end 

" Bears a Crow's form which seems to peck the fold ; " \ 

and true to its original mythological connexion with the storm-cloud, 
we read of Im-dugud-khu, "that star for mist (and) tempest is." § 

Line 21, Star No. XVIII, 

Kakkab Lu - lim Bel - me - khi - ra 

The-Star of-the-Stag. \ Ursa Major. \ 

As to Lxdim, vide Sayce, Transactions, III, p. 172; Rel. And. 
Babylonians, p. 284. Mr. Bertin is inclined to read "r^f ^f*~, dassu, 
"translated by some 'Gazelle.'" The next Star in order is 8 Vir- 
ginis, which is below the Great Bear, and forms part of the 13th 
Arabian moon-station. 

Line 22, Star No. XIX. 

^EE Y r ^ <&k*\ < Hh -If Spfl tM 

Kakkab Mulu izi u D.P. La - ta - rak ] 

The-Star Ma?i-qf-fire, and the-god Latarak. \ 

Hf- <« < ~f £5\ 

D.P. Sin u D.P. Nergal 
The Moon and Nergal. 

* Vide Transactions, V, p. 51. 

t Vide R. B. , Jr. , Eridanus, pp 69-70. 

X Phainomtna, 449. § W.A.I. Ill, 53, No. 1, line 27. 

|| Vide Star No. XI. 

194 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

The next Star is Vindemiatrix* apparently formerly brighter 
than at present. " The god Latarak " is named on a Planisphere, 
and in W.A.I. IV, 21, No. 1, we read (ap. Sayce) ; — 

"Against all evil that cannot be faced (set) the Honey-god and 
Latarak [/. e., their images] in the gate." 

And in W.A.I. IV, 58, 59, Latarak is called "the divine king of the 
desert (Eden)." 

Line 23, Star No. XX. 

Kakkab Bilat j Emuku Tin - tir - ki 
The-Star the-Lady, \ Might of-the-Abode-of-Life. 

The Lady is Belat (Beltis), the wife of Bel ; Tintirki is a common 
name for Babylon, and the Star in question is Spica (a Virginis), 
which forms the 14th Arabian moon-station. 

Line 24, Star No. XXI. 

Kakkab En - te - na - mas - luv D P. Ip. 

The-Star of-the-Tip-qf "-the- Tail \ The-god the- Creator 

Whatever might be the exact meaning of the Akkadian name 
Entenamasluv, or Entemasmur,\ it is explained by the Assyrian Sir 
etsen-tsiri,\ "the Tip of the Tail," a name suitable to various stars, 
e.g., to Denebola.% The star Entenamasluv is equated with the As- 
syrian Khabatsi-ranu, "a Lily," which, Prof. Sayce observes, "grows 
up like a tail." In a list of animal-names or of names more or less 
connected with animals, || we meet with the >-t^£^^[ >f- ~feiz, 
Sa^-masiuv, explained by the Assyrian t-t-] *] *JJ1 S^YfTcr, ap-par- 
ru-u, which, according to Delitzsch, is a variant of the Heb. opher, 
"a gazelle." Be this as it may, we now come to a very curious 
piece of corroborative evidence. It will be obvious to anyone who 
has read the foregoing remarks, that the Star (or Constellation) 
Entenamasluv must be, or be in, or near the Constellation no\v| 
called Libra. The Rev. Wm. Houghton having remarked, "I am 

* Vide Proceedings, Feb., 1889, p. 150. \ W.A.I. Ill, 57, line 55. 

X Ibid., II, 49, 47. § Vide Proceedings, Feb., 18S9, p. 150. 

|| W.A.I. II, 6. % Vide Proceedings, Feb., 1S89, p. 146. 

195 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

unable to give any explanation of the Assyrian word apparru," Prof. 
Sayce adds in a foot-note,* " Arabic dictionaries give afr as 'statio 
quaedam lunae ' or ' tres stellulae in Libra ' [italics mine], but I do 
not know on what authority." Whatever the authority it appears to 
be perfectly correct, and of very ancient date ; what animal may be 
represented by sax-wasluv, apparru, and afr, whether bear, boar, 
gazelle, or any other, does not specially concern us in the present 
investigation, but it is clear that the three stars of Libra (formerly 
the Claws) which = Afr, are Zuben-el-goiubi (" The Southern-claw," 
a Librae), Zuben-el-chemali ("The Northern-claw," y3 Librae), and 
Zuben-cl-hakrabi (" The Claw-of-the-Scorpion," 7 Librae). " The 
Constellation of the Tail-tip," then, will be these three stars, or 
some, or one of them, placed at the end of the tail of the enormous 
Hydra : — 

" The Water-snake they call it. As alive 
It crawls far-stretching, for the head extends 
'Neath the Crab's midst, the main coil 'neath the Lion ; 
Whilst even o'er the Centaur hangs its tail." + 

The Great Serpent is a familiar Euphratean emblem. J A and (3 
Librae form the 16th Arabian moon-station. 

Line 25, Star No. XXII. 

MB ^ =wT ^^T ^T B ¥ HF- W Ml 

Kakkab Gis - gan - gusur kakku sa D.P. Ea 
The-Star the Tree, Light-of the-hero, 7ceapon of -Ea, 

¥ - m ~ 1 HT ~T <T- m 

sa ina lib - bi - su absi iskun 

which in the - midst ofthe-abyss he-placed. 

2 6. e © ^T m 11 ? %M\ HF- d*T 

mul - mul - la kakku sa kati D.P. Maruduk 

Tlie-falchion, the-weapon of t he-hand of Meroda^. 

Prof. Sayce renders Gan-gusur, " Light-of-the-hero," and Gis, as 
noticed, §= ' tree,' 'wood.' But, as gan is also an 'enclosure' or 

* Transactions, V, p. 334. + Arato.s, Phainomena, 444-7. 

% Vide Stone of Nebuchadnezzar I (W.A.I. V, 57); R. B. , Jr., Eridanus, 
Fig. 4, p- 77- 

§ Vide sup., p. 191. 

196 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

'garden,' and gusur = As. nuru, 'light,' Gis-gan-gusur might be read 
"The-Tree-of-the-Garden-of-Light." This radiant Tree is further 
described as being the 'weapon' (power) of the gods Ea and 
Merodax, and the mulmulla * is one of the weapons of Merodax in 
his fight with the Dragon. The Tree is placed " in the midst of the 
abyss," and it is impossible to avoid comparing it with the " Tree-of- 
life " placed " in the midst " of the Biblical Gan-Eden. Without 
any intention of trenching upon other meanings and beliefs which 
may be connected with the subject, I may observe that "the Garden 
of God," whatever else the expression signifies, is the star-lighted 
splendour of space, the calm abode of "the moving gems of night," 
as Aratos calls them. It has some central point, the heart of the 
universe, the special abode of life, whether, as has been thought, 
hard by Alycone, or whether, as seems here suggested, in Scorpio, 
type of primaeval darkness and a starting-point and foundation;! 
for the stars which form the " Tree-of-light " are evidently those 
which Ptolemy calls " the three bright ones in the face " (of the 
Scorpion), ft, 8, and -n- Scorpionis, which are fixed in line, and might 
well represent the trunk of a tree or the stem of a plant The 
ideograph -|y^, Ak. zi, As. napistu, 'life,' "originally represented 
a flower growing up with open leaves ";| and the mystic Flower, 
Plant, or Tree of Life, of which there are so many representations 
on the monuments, reappears in many mythological systems. We 
find it in the Aryan Soma-Haoma, the Irminsul, the Winged Oak of 
Pherekydes, the Tree in which Europa (= Ereb, "the West") 
appears on Kretan coins, and the Norse Yggdrasil. The very 
similar ideograph >~yy^, Ak. gi, "a reed," shows in the linear 
Babylonian form, a good representation of the gigantic reed of that 
country ; and this plant had a mystic significance, for an Incantation 
reads : — 

" The huge reed of gold, the pure reed of the marsh, 
The pure dish of the gods, 

The reed of the double white [divining] cup which 
determines favour." § 

The three stars ft, 8, and tv Scorpionis form the 17th Arabian 
moon-station, called El Iklll, "the Crown " 

* Vide sup., p. 1S4. t Vide Proceedings, Feb., 1SS9, p. 145. 

% Prof. Sayce, in Transactions, VI, p. 473- 

§ W.A.I. IV, 5, 6, Col. V, lines 37-9, ap. Sayce. 

197 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890. 

Line 27, Star No. XXIII. 

Kakkab Masu (?) sar | 
The-Star the-Hero, the king 

Bilu sa ziri (ina) arakh Tasritu D.P. Lugal - tud - da 
The-lord of seed ; {in) t he-month Tisri the Lusty-king. 

The reading of *{{*%], an almost unique form, is very doubtful; 
but there is no uncertainty as to the JCing-stai, which is, in the 
words of Ptolemy, "the centre one of the three bright ones in the 
body [of the Scorpion], a reddish-yellow, called Equal-to-Ares " 
('AfToypiys), Mars being "the red planet." It is named Sar, Ak. 
Lugal, "the King," and, similarly, Ul Saru, " the-Luminary-of-the- 
King," is one of the titles of Mars. This star, Cor Scorpionis, is 
described by way of explanation as " the lord of seed " in connexion 
with "the month Tisri," the 7th month, September-October. Now 
the original Sign of the seventh month, as I have elsewhere en- 
deavoured to show,* was the Altar ; and in art the Signs of the 
seventh and eighth months were at times represented by a Scorpion 
with its claws (afterwards the Sign X*/Aa/) grasping a circle t (circular 
Altar), originally the solar circle. A variant phase of the Scorpion is 
the zodiacal Cancer, the Crab, the Sign of the fourth month, which 
is called Su Kulna, " the-Seizer-of-seed." The original golden seed 
of heaven is the Sun, which, as in various mythologies, is seized and 
swallowed up by the Darkness, symbolized in monstrous and dra- 
kontic form. This is the primary meaning, and it is in the month 
Tisri that the waning autumn Sun begins to succumb to his foes. 
There may or may not be also a secondary reference to agricultural 
operations, but these do not form the basis of archaic symbolism, 
inasmuch as man's observation of nature preceded any regular 
agricultural course. The reader may remember in this connexion 
the gigantic bicorporeal Scorpion-couple of sun-guarders, encountered 
by the hero Gisdhubar; and on the Stone of Nebuchadnezzar I. the 
Scorpion stretches out its Claivs towards the solar Lamp.% When 

* Vide R. B. , Jr., The I.azv of Kosniic Order, Sees, xiii, xvi, xvii ; The 
Heavenly Display, p. 65. 

+ Vide Lajard, Culte de Mithra, PI. XLV, Fig. 14. 
X Vide R. B., Jr., The Heavenly Display, Fig. 77, p. 84. 

198 



Ffb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

the principle of kosmic harmony is grasped, the Scorpion which 
slew the Sun, becomes its guardian ;* Darkness receives the Sun 
into its care, and safely reproduces the solar Circle, Egg, or Lamp. 
Similarly, in the Egyptian religious-mythology the Scorpion is styled 
"the Daughter [i.e., mythologically speaking, the 'Successor'] of the 
Sun."f The Star Antares is, moreover, identified with Lugal-tudda,J 
patron divinity of Marad near Sippara, and regarded by the Semites 
as their Zu (= 1. "Stormy-wind," and 2. a kind of vulture), whom 
ancient legends show as hostile to the other gods, and as stealing 
"the tablets of destiny," the god of the lightning and giver of fire to 
man; and it is interesting to find that the ideograph >-£^yyy, gtr } 
pictorially representing 'blade,' 'sting,' or "pointed tail," means "to 
strike," 'scorpion,' 'plough,' and 'lightning.' As the Ak. tab is "to 
seize," Girtab ("the Scorpion") is " the-Seizer-and-stinger," "the 
torment of a scorpion, when he striketh a man," being compared 
with the burning of lightning. Cor Scorpionis forms the 18th Arabian 
moon-station, called El Kalb ("the Heart"). 

Line 28, Star No. XXIV. 

Kakkab Nitax-bat pa - gar a - sig 

The-Star Man-of-death ; the corpse, the fever. § 

This group will be e Serpentarii ( Yad, " the Hand ") and £ Serpen- 
tarii. In modern astrology, which contains some singular survivals, 
the Hand of Ophiuchus is said to be a star "evil in influence." 
Representations of serpent-holding divinities are common on the 
monuments. || In W.A.I. IV, 3, Col. I, 1, we read (ap. Sayce) : — 
" The disease of the head coils (like a serpent) in the desert." The 
Man-of-death would seem to be " Ophiuchus huge," who stands on 
the Scorpion and holds the Snake. 

Line 29, Star No. XXV. 

Kakkab Tsir | 'Uu Nin - ki - gal 

The-Star of-the-Snake. \ The-goddess Queen-ofthe-Great-Region. 

* Vide Lajard, Culte de Mithra, PI. LIV, C, Fig. 13, which shows a Scorpion 
on each side of the leonine Sun. 

t Funereal Ritual, Cap. LXXXVI. J Vide sup., p. 194. 

§ For the rendering of the latter part of this line I am indebted to Mr. Berlin. 
|| Vide R. B. Jr., The Heavenly Display, p. 85. 

199 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1S90. 

30. Hf- s2f= < HF- ^ I- «f *T < HP- ^#- 

D.P. Nabiu u D.P. Sar | D.P. Samas u D.P. Ramanu 
Nebo and The- King (Merodax). \ The-Sitn-god and the-Air-god. 

The Star of the Snake, which will be ?/ Serpentarii, as we should 
expect, is next to the Snake-holder ; and, in the Phainomena, Ophis 
and Ophiouchos form but one constellation, which is thus described : — 

" By his head* 
" Seek the Snake/10/der's head ; and then from it 
You may behold his shining form itself; 
So bright the gleaming shoulders 'neath his head 
Appear. These, even when the moon is full, 
Can be beheld ; the hands are quite unequal, 
Fcr feeble glitter flickers here and there. 
Both of them grasp a Snake, which round the waist 
Of the Snake-ho.der twines ; but he well-fixed, 
With each foot presses on a monster huge, 
The Scorpio?t, o'er eye and breast scale standing 
Upright, the Snake, meanwhile, in both hands writhing : 
Less in the right, most holds the left on high."t 

The regent divinity in Ninkigal, in Semitic Allat ("the Un- 
wearied,") also called Ninlil (" Queen-of-the-Ghost-World,") and 
Ninge (" Queen-of-the-Underworld "), the "Great Region," being 
Scheol-Hades. As Mr. Gladstone; has pointed out, Ninkigal 
possesses the prominence and dread character of the Homeric 
Persephoneia, a phase and aspect which the latter goddess has 
borrowed from her Eastern sister.§ We have seen|| that the Akkadian 
Okeanos is sometimes compared to a snake ; and the " River of 
the Snake " is also called " the River of the Sheepcote of the Ghost- 
World," a line of thought which connects the Snake with the 
Underworld and its goddess-Mistress. But the Snake has so many 
aspects in archaic thought, beneficial and honoured, as well as 
malignant and dreaded, that it is not surprising to find various and 
highly different divinities connected with it. Snakes, it may be 
observed, are very prominent in Etruscan Underworld-scenes. 

* I.e., the head of Engonasin ("the Kneeler"), originally the Kneeling- 
Gisdhubar of the monuments (vide Smith and Sayce, Chaldean Account of Genesis, 
Frontispiece, " Izdubar in conflict with a Lion"). 

t Phainomena, 74-87. J Homeric Synchronism, p. 235. 

§ Vide R. B., Jr., The Myth of Kirkc, p. 117 et seq. 

i| Vide sup. (Jan.), p. 149, n. 

200 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Line 31, Star No. XXVI. 

fc Q ~* *= - 1 ~f arc fi[< i^r *r *£> 

Kakkab Gir - tab D.P. Is - kha - ra tarn - tim 

The-Star of-the- Scorpion. | The-goddess Iskhara of-the-sea. 

We here return to the Scorpion, the Star in question being X 
(Lesat/i, 'sting,') and v Scorpionis, A being described by Ptolemy as 
"the hindennost of the two in the sting," and forming with t 
Scorpionis, the 19th Arabian moon-station. In Scorpio, as in Taurus, 
the stars of the constellation strongly suggest the Sign, but this is 
quite exceptional ; in almost all instances the stars of a constel- 
lation have been adjusted to a previously-conceived figure. Iskhara 
is identical with Istar, and, the latter goddess being primarily lunar, 

Iskhara, "the mistress of mankind,"* is, suitably enough, "the 
goddess of the sea." The Kakkab Girtab appears on the fragment 
of the circular planisphere S. 162, now in the British Museum, and 
"which once contained the names of the twelve months with the 
signs of the Zodiac which ruled over them." It is connected with 
"the 8th month." 

Line 32. ->f- ^Tjy < ^f_ ^ £<*g J 
D.P. Sar-ur u D.P. Sar - gas 
The- Director-of- Fire and the-Director-of-Sacrifice. 

These two gods are elsewhere found together, and Mr. Pinches 
suggested to me that Sarur means "the Director of fire," as "ur = 
araru, to burn " ; Mr. Bertin regards tir as being the Assyrian kalbu 
' dog,' in which case Sar-ur = " the Leader of the Dog." I think that 
thes.e two, which are elsewhere described as "double stars" {i.e., 
stars close together), are names for \ and v Scorpionis, that is, for 
Girtab ; and we obtain from Aratos a very possible explanation of 
what may be the meaning of the title " Leader of the Dog " as 
applied to Girtab. The poet tells the old legend how Orion (the 
Sun) insulted Artemis (the Moon), whereupon she sent the Scorpion 
(Darkness), which slew him ; and says, when speaking of the Signs 
of the Zodiac and their paranatellons : — 

" The Riveras windings when the Scorpion comes, 
In the full flowing deep will straightway fall ; 
And great Oridn, two, his advent fears." 

* W.A.I. IV, 58-9, Col. IV, 1, ap. Sayce. 
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Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.LOLOGY. [1P90. 

Then follows the Artemis-legend, and the poet continues : — 

" And so 'tis said that, when the Scorpion comes, 
Orion flies to utmost end of earth." 

And when the Bow-stars, which are next to Girtab-Lesath, appear : — 

" Then, too, the glitterings of the mighty Dog 
Set, and descends Orion s whole extent."* 

The "mighty Dog" is, of course, Kaksidi-Sirius, and "the Star 
of the Dog" the Kallnc Samas (" Dog-of-the-Sun "), the fiery Dog, 
the Kuon Seirios,t the Homeric kvv 'Cipi'wvos, appears amongst 
Euphratean constellations.^ 

Line 33, Star No. XXVII. 

MS IH ^ Hh at «HTT ! «f * ir- 

Kakkab Ur-bat D.P. Ku - su | D.P. Kur-gal 
The- Star Beast-of -death, the god Kush, \ god of-the Great-Country 

The Star Urbat appears next to the Star Girtab, but in an outer 
circle on the planisphere S. 162, above referred to; that is to say, 
the Beast-of-death lies south of the Scorpion, and so we shall find it. 
Thus, Aratos says of the solar Centaur, a reduplication of Sagittarius, 
that it 

underlies two Signs ; 
Its human past beneath the Scorpion rests, 
The hinder-horse-part is below the Claws. 
But his right hand he ever seems to stretch 
Before the Altar's circle.§ The hand grasps 
Another creature very firmly clutched, 
The Wild-beast j so the men of old it named." || 

This Therion becomes specialized as Lupus ; the Wolf, a familiar 
mythological type of Darkness as the devourer and swallower, is 
called in Akkadian Likbiku (" Greedy-dog "), and in Assyrian, Akiluv 
("the Devourer"). The regent divinity of this creature of night and 
death 1T is Kusu (' Sunset,' ' Eclipse '), an Akkadian god of sunset 
and night, and a god of the Underworld or " Great Country." 

* Phainomena, 634-6, 645-6, 676-7. t Aischylos, AgamemnSn, 967. 

X As to the Dog, vide R. B. , Jr., Eridamis, Sec. iv ; The Heavenly Display, 
p. 78. 

§ A reduplication of the original zodiacal Altar, now Libra (vide sup., p. 198.) 
|| Phainomena, 436-42. 

If Cf. the Norse demon-wolf Feurir (" the-Dweller-in-the-depth "). 

202 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Line 34, Star No. XXVIII. 

Kakkab A - nu - ni - turn u kakkab Si - nu - nu - turn 
The-Star of - Anunit and t he-star of Sinuntu. 

The Akkadian divinity Aniina (= an nuna, "the great god") of 
Sippara was made by the Semites into the female Anunit (" Great- 
goddess "), and identified with Istar. She is described by Nabu- 
nahid (Nabonidos) as " the mistress of battle, the bearer of the bow 
and quiver, . . . who made omens favourable at sunrise and sunset ;" * 
and this represents her in a planetary phase, as the star of morn and 
eve, Venus. But she is further reduplicated in a stellar form, and 
Anunitum is called "the Star of the River Mas-gu-gar " f ("the 
Current "), i.e., "rapidus Tigris." The Star (constellation) in question 
will consist of the Bow-st^xs of Sagittarius, which are thus appro- 
priately connected with the goddess of the bow, and are described 
by Ptolemy as " The star at the point of the arrow (7) ; the star at 
the grip of the left hand (c) ; the one in the southern part of the bow 
(e, Kaus, " the Bow ") ; the more-southerly of those in the northern 
part of the bow " (A) ; and " the more-northerly of those at the end 
of the bow " (/(). The Kakkab Sinuntu is " the Star of the Purattu " 
(" the Curving-river "), the Akkadian Puranunu, Egyptian Puharta, 
Hebrew Perath, Median Uprato, Old Persian Ulratu, Classical 
Euphrates. The stars composing it will be a and £ Sagittarii ; and 
the combined group of Anunitum and Sinuntu forms the 20th 
Arabian moon-station. 

In the first part of this Paper I described Stars Nos. I, XXIX, 
and XXX; and we have therefore now gone round the heavenly 
circle. 

II. 

Lines 54-6 in Part III of the Tablet also occur, in a slightly 
different form, in W.A.I. Ill, 61, 2, lines 19-20, a translation of 
which has been made by Prof. Sayce in the Transactions, III, p. 291. 
As this translation appeared more than fifteen years ago, the learned 
author would doubtless now make some alterations in it ; but, at the 
same time, it is by means of the assistance obtained from it and 

* Vide Sayce, Rel. Ami. Babylonians, 1S2-4. 
+ W.A.I. II, 51, 58. 

203 Q 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S90. 

from Mr. Bertin, that I am enabled to offer the following rendering 
of the passage, which I venture to think much more nearly expresses 
the meaning of the original. 

54. <«J &£ <«{ £^T <<<J £N ?£\ 

Arakh Cuzallu arakh Dhabitu arakh Sabadhu karan 
The-month Kisleu, ihe-month Tebet, t he-month Sebet. The-horn 

«f «< TT<« r m tl 4Bf - HfR 

D.P. Sin sumelu itsabbat - va itti as - ri 

of-the-Moon the-left-hand occupies, and with the-stations 

55- *- W -11 *! « ^f Sf 
nu - ukh - khu - tu u - di - e 

a - leading - back is - shown. 

56. y TTT WM Hf- * *H *T <V^ HP- 4H HP- V- 

Sa 3 arkhi an - nu - ti yumu 15 'ilu itti 'ilu la 
iw these three months on-the-fifteenth day god with god is not 

<«% *- ^m ^ 

30 la khalabu 

30th day (it is) * not clouded. 

Notes. 

54. yy«< = As. T<T<y, Ak. gub, As. sumelu, "left hand."f The 
Euphratean North = our N.W., and the right hand being towards 
the East, the left would be towards the West, our S.W., Ak. Mer- 
martu ("the-point-of-the-road-of-sunset),J the S.W. and S.E. being 
the part of the heavens occupied by the Moon. 

'Occupies.' Lit. 'seizes.' The same expression ffi| >-<, itsab- 
bat, is applied to Mars% when entering a zodiacal Sign. Such 
passages explain the meaning of the Hindu term for 'planet,' i.e., 
Graha ('Seizer '). 

*— *ff^' as ~ r ^ Ak. hi, 'place,' etc. This word gives the key to 
the meaning of the passage. The 'places 'are obviously the thirty 
moon-stations or lunar mansions previously enumerated. 

* I.e., the combination of Sun and Moon. t Bertin. 

% Vide R. B., Jr., The Myth of Kirke, p. 99. 
§ W.A.I. Ill, 53, No. 1, line 21. 
204 



<Hft 


m 


¥ *T 


innamar 




Sa yumu 


seen. 


Ditto. 


For the 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

55. Nuukhklmtu. Acutely connected by Mr. Bertin with a roct 
which appears in Heb. as HTO, "to lead back."* 

Udie. Mr. Bertin thinks this word might be a Pael form of idu, 
"to know," used as passive, and therefore meaning "is known." In 
his translation of the B.M. Tablet Sp. 41, Mr. Pinches renders u-di-e, 
'furniture,' the passage being "The tablet of his sonship we wrote 
and 2 mana 10 shekels of silver and the furniture (u-di-e) of a house, 
the dowry of Nubta, my daughter, we made known. "f He remarks 
on the word, " Ude, ' furniture ' (the meaning is implied by the 
context). Perhaps connected with the Heb. fTP ." Now i"TT . " to 
cast," appears to mean " to show or point out with the extended 
hand," and the Pael form of a connected Assyrian verb might mean 
"is shown." Nor are we, I think, obliged by the Sp. 41, to under- 
stand u-di-e as meaning 'furniture.' The account relates to litigati >u, 
and we find that "the tablets and contracts the judges discussed ": 
and u-di-e seems to mean the ' evidences,' " documents of title " 
(tablets and contracts), i.e., that which shows (to whom the property 
belongs). I do not understand what is meant by "the furniture of 
a house we made known." In line 14 we read, "by my tablet made 
(it) known"; it was the documentary evidence which made known 
the facts. 

56. >->f- .jJB] *->f-. In Ak. an ki an, i.e., "the (sun)-god with 
the (moon)-god." In W.A.I. Ill, 61, 2, after the insertion of the 
three lines 54-6, as mentioned, the next line reads, "The Moon its 
path directs, and the Sun during the day goes"; so that the Sun and 
Moon and their respective paths are the matters in question. 

The general sense of lines 54-56 is : — Observations made during 
three particular months : the moon completes its course " there and 
back" through the various moon-stations. On the 15th days of 
these months, sun and moon were not seen together : on the 30th 
days they were so seen. 

An Assyrian Cylinder of great interest, figured in the Chaldean 
Account of Genesis, p. 112, exactly illustrates this circling lunar 
course. At each end, i.e., in east and west, is a Palm-tree, represen- 
tative of the Grove of the Underworld, eastern and western, and 
reduplicated in the Homeric t'iXoca Ucpaetpoven]^ Next to the 
eastern Palm-tree, on the back of a Leopard, which, as it could be 

* Cf. Job xii, 23. t Transactions, VIII, p. 2S4. 

J Od., X, 509; vide R. B., Jr., The Myth of Kirki, p. 106-7. 
205 Q 2 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

trained to hunt, was a'fit symbol for the Hunter-sun, stands the Sun- 
god Merodax, armed with bow and arrow and the saparu, and lifting 
his right hand in solemn oath. Above his head is the solar star, 
which explains the symbolism. In front of him stands the unarmed 
Moon-god, also lifting his right hand in oath ; for the two are 
making a solemn covenant to preserve kosmic order against the 
demons of darkness and storm. Behind the Moon-god, and standing 
on their hind legs, are two Unicorn-goats, counter-salient, with their 
heads regardant ; and in the air, between them and the Moon-god, 
is the lunar crescent, the key to the symbolism, and divided into 
three parts, illustrative of the three parts of the month and the triple 
lunar aspect, by what seem to be handles. The Unicorn, or any 
animal represented with one horn only, is, as I have shown, a 
distinctly lunar symbol ; and the remarkable position of the two 
Unicorn-goats — counter-salient, I think clearly indicates the monthly 
cycling progress of the moon "there and back." 

Such, then, is the general scope and import of the Tablet of the 
Thirty Stars. 




206 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [189c. 

THE NEW ACCADIAN. 
By the Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A., Oxon., 

CHAPLAIN OF LINCOLN'S INN ; FORMERLY CENSOR AND LECTURER IN 
KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 

(Continued from page 80.) 

I omitted to suggest any Chinese equivalent for ^Jf-^, gi, gin, 
gimru, "all," "the whole" (p. 53). The Mandarin h'ien, Cantonese 
ham, Amoy ham, Shanghai ye", "together, all, jointly — totally, com- 
pletely — -always," goes back to this primitive. Cp. also nigin, "all 
together," universum {vide p. 219 infra). The dialectic ham = gam, 
ye" = gin. (This fluctuation between M and n as the final sound is 
parallel to that between m and n as initials, in mu, nu, and similar 
forms. It may be further illustrated by the fact that a single Accadian 
sign does duty for both ban and bam, and the like.) So h'ien, han, 
han, he", " a bar, fence — an enclosure — a fold, corral — to obstruct, to 
close," is plainly identical with ^f, gan, gimi, eklu, "enclosure," 
"garden," "field"; gi(n), sanaku, "to shut in," ga (or gi), kali"/, 
"to close," "restrain" (p. 53 sq.); and h l ien, " sincere "= gin, kcnu, 
do.; and h'ien, "anything fine, volatile, minute, impalpable" (of 
the motes in the sunlight) = gi(n), sahru, "small, minute," and 
£jt f> gina, sirru'", "little," sihru'", "small." 

Another Chinese synonym is kiln or kiiin or chiiin, "all, altogether, 
all these," said of preceding items. This term is pronounced kwan, 
kun, kiln, in the three dialects. It is natural to compare it both with 
cm, gimru, ni-gin, nap ham, "all together," "the whole," and with 
^y^y, uk-kin, puhru, "gathering, assembly, total." This latter 
sign has also the sound of kin, which probably means "gathering"; 
and the disappearance of the first syllable uk- (i.e., uku, "the 
people ") in Chinese is accounted for by the fact that the accent lay 
on the second. The same Accadian term is also the original of 
chiiin = kwan, kun, kiin, "an army," "a legion." Chiiin = khaan, 
k'un, k'un, " to collect in crowds," agrees in meaning exactly with 
ni-gin, pahdru, sich versammeln ; and when we note that the 
Chinese term also means "to bind," "to seize," we can hardly avoid 
recalling gi(n), ga, with the same meanings (p. 53 sq.). Chiiin, "to 

207 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

put to rights, to complete " = gin, kunnu, mullii, ga (or gin ?) sullumu. 
A further Chinese offshoot of the same stock is kHiin or ckHiin, 
"a flock of sheep, a herd — a concourse, a company, a multitude — 
all men of the same kind — the whole of, entire"; meanings which 
may all be referred to uk-kin, puhru, ni-gin, napliaru. The corres- 
ponding M-form is man, 'the common mandarin particle for all' 
(Summers, Handbook, p. 54), or, as Dr. Wells Williams calls it, 
' the sign of the plural of persons ' {e.g., wo-mdn, " we, who are 
together") = Accadian me (men ?), me-s, "multitude," a sign of the 
plural. Cp. also mei, "each, every," wo-mei, "all of us"; ni-min, 
"multitudes"; min, "the people " ; min, "a multitude"; man, 
" full, complete, entire, the whole — to fill, to complete." 

To the same series as kiln, kiiin or cliiiln, "all," belong kai 
dialectic koi, kai, ke, "all — the whole — abundant"; cp. Accadian 
£^y, ga, in ga-ga puhru ; gin, gimru; g'a, g'e, g'u, "abundance" 
(the other meanings of the Chinese character, viz., "to prepare "= gin, 
kunnu — and "fit," "just," " right " = gin, kenu, further corroborate 
these comparisons): ki or chi, "to finish — all — entirely "= gi or 
gin, gimru, ga or gi, sullumu: k l i or ch'i, "full, abundant— large — 
numerous — multitudes "= gi(n), malu, "to be full," and forms cited 
above: kiai or chie = dialectic kai, kia, "all alike — the whole, 
altogether (said of things preceding), but often simply a sign of the 
plural"; 'all' in company, in universum, comprehending the whole class 
(Summers) ; cp. kiai or h'ie, dialectic kai, kia, " together, with," of ac- 
companiment = Accadian ki, itti, " along with," and kien, " moreover, 
and, along with — and also — to join several together "= gin, sanaku, "to 
join together," just as kien, "stable, firm — to establish "= gin, kenu, 
kunnu. For this last term the Cantonese is kin, Shanghai ki' 1 ; and 
Dr. Edkins gives kin, gin, as the older forms — an exact coincidence 
with the Accadian gin, kin, which is all the more valuable because 
unintended. The Chinese series of <£-terms for " all " further com- 
prises kill, chi = Mt, gut, chih, "to close or desist — to finish — 
entirely, all — ended" (old sound kit); cp. kud, para.su, "to cut off, 
to decide, stop, hinder," and kueli, Cantonese kilt, " to cut off, 
decide, settle — decidedly, certainly, finally": king, clung, "to exhaust, 
to finish, at the close, the end — adv. at last, finally, after all " = gin, 
" to finish": ko, dial, kok, kck, kbk, " each, every, all " = ga-ga, puhru, 
" all together," etc. : kii, cli/'i, " all, the whole " — " altogether, at once," 
and kii, " to raise or lift — to begin — all, the whole, of persons " = uku, 
" men, the people, the crowd"; kur, napharis, " in sum;" gin, gimru, 

208 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [189a 

"all"; ga, gal, gur, nasfi, "to raise or lift," gal, mal, pitu, "to 
open": ku/ig, "generally, all, altogether, collectively — and, with, 
together " : and one or two others. 

I have already pointed out that shu, " a multitude, the whole, all, 
the people," answers to Accadian shu, " multitude," shiti, " to 
count," to which also shu, " to count," belongs. Shu, " a book, 
record, document — to write — a clerk, writer," answers to ^, sHu, 
dupsarrutu, " the office of a dupsar or scribe " (the same sign ^ has 
also the value ge, sataru, " to write "). 

Chung, Cantonese chung, Amoy chiong, Shanghai tsung, "a com- 
pany of at least three — a sign of the plural of persons— much, many, 
all — the people, as apart from their rulers," is an example of the 
d-form of gin, "all," going back probably to an original dun (din, 
dim) or dug (dig). But this brings us to the Accadian ^- A^, DIM, 
dial, dig (or ding) surbu "great," rabu, "great," sanaku, "to press 
together" (= gin, sanaku). For the interchange between final m (v) 
and g, compare nag and nam, "fate," nig and nin, "who." The 
Shanghai form tsung answers exactly to zun, which is the syllabic 
value of the Accadian -^$, ma'du, "much," a common sign of the 
plural. 

The character called dtjgu, ^, has the values dug, g'a, g'i, and 
sar. g'a and g'i mean "multitude," "abundance," and sar is 
denned " multitude " (kissatu), " much " (rnddu), " perfect " (git/nalu), 
"great" (rabu). It is probable that the principal sound dug (=dig; 
also originally included these values. 

^f£>, dugud, kabtu, "heavy," appears to be a compound of 
this dig or dug, and gid, "^>~, kabtu, "heavy," sanaku, "to press 
together"; thus duggid — duggud = dugud, with vocal harmony 
and normal neglect of duplication. This accounts for the Chinese 
chung, "heavy," "crowded, near together" (cp. sanaku), which 
in the three dialects is pronounced chung ( = dug), Hong, and 
dzung ( = zun). The Amoy tiong, which is a cognate of ///, to, 
"abundant, full— all, altogether — also, together with," and of// in 
the phrase ta-ti, "on the whole, generally," and of other terms 
(e.g., fien, "to fill up, complete," fien, "abundance," which pre- 
suppose an ancient tin), may be compared with Accadian til, 
gimru, "completeness, all" (=*tin, dim, gin, kin). Thus, in both 
languages, we find /-forms side by side with ^-forms, just as we find 
&-forms side by side with ^-forms. And it is evident from the 

209 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

Chinese dialects that the initial / for d in Accadian is as much 
a dialectic distinction as k for g. The Accadian forms >~<, edim, 
kabtu, and < ^>-t?<t»- , elim, kabtu, (/from d, as often: vide infra), 
show that we are dealing with modifications of a single root. 

I will now consider the other homophones spelled 'r/i in the 
Chinese lexicon. £, " the sides of the mouth," in Cantonese 
mi, and at Shanghai e, may be compared with c, "the whiskers." 
In Cantonese, the character bears the meanings "to shut." "to 
close," = Accadian gi(mi); "the last," cp. gi, gimru, "all," "the 
whole;" ga, "to finish, end;" and "small, minute " = gi, sahru ; 
all of which identifications confirm our view that etymologically 
this sound ought not to be regarded as independent, but as closely 
related to i, being, like that sound, simply a worn form of terms 
with initial ^ (;//, 11). A similar remark applies to e, "water flowing" 
(e.g., tears) ; and " warm water." The three dialects have i, ji, e. 
The term is to be compared with (g)a, me, "water;" gu-r, 
g'a-l, "to flow"; and the other Accadian synonyms already given. 
E (/, ji, e), " a car for carrying a coffin," recalls gi or ga, nasu, " to 
carry"; ga-r, ma-r, "a car," "chariot." E, ni, "to eat" = Accadian 
u, gud, ku, " to eat," gu, lasu, " to sip." E, " an emphatic particle 
implying a certainty," in the dialects /, ji", e, is identical with gin 
( = dim, den), "thus" (=z/ian). E, dial, i, jin, e, "near," "at hand," 
= ga, gin, dahu, "to approach. E, "to turn the head towards," 
is, of course, gi(n), ga, saha.ru, nashuru, which is so frequent in 
the sense of a god turning towards his suppliant. E, " woven 
feather and hair work," recalls the terms already specified denoting 
clothes, hair, and to weave; while the meaning "coloured hair 
used on flags " suggests besides ga, " to dye." Lastly, e (/, ji, e), 
"the blood of a fowl offered in sacrifice," "to cut off or pull out 
the hairs of a victim's ears (Accadian ^ ge, uznu, " ear ") before 
killing it, intimating that the officers wished the gods to hear 
them" — takes us back to gus, gud, "blood," Chinese A'i/e/i, hi'eh 
(dialectic hut, hint, hiiiJi), old sound giet = Accadian gud. 
(There is in this instance a perfect correspondence between the 
Chinese and Accadian, for both possess the M-form also : HMf-*^ 
mud, damn, " blood," is mieh, mit, " blood," " gore.") The meaning 
" to smear" (to stain with blood) = ga, sarapu, " to dye or stain." 

I confidently appeal to Chinese scholars to say whether a 
reduction of all the principal sounds and meanings, grouped under 

210 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

'RH in the Mandarin lexicon, to similar Accadian terms with 
identical meanings, is not, even when taken alone, enough to 
establish the closest relation between the two languages. To my 
own mind, taken in conjunction with all that I have said besides, 
and all that I have still to say, it establishes the relation of identity.* 

Dr. Edkins has assigned ni, n'ip, as the old sounds of the 
terms grouped under 'rh ; and, as we have seen, the same authority 
considers that the Mandarin j has displaced an earlier ;/. I have 
ventured, in view of the Accadian evidence, and from comparison 
of the Chinese dialects, to suggest that the #-forms are rather 
variants which coexisted with, not preceded, the /-(j^-forms. It 
will be convenient at this point to institute a comparison between 
words with initial n in the two languages. 

Both in Accadian and in Chinese we find that initial m and n 
are to a certain extent interchangeable, mu, "a male," is common 
to both tongues ; while the Accadian has also nu, " a male," " a slave," 
and the Chinese has nu, "a slave." In Accadian, {££ ne and -^»ff 
ni are equivalents of the Assyrian emuku, " strength," " power," 
" skill," and may be compared with the Chinese ncmg, older neng, 
"power, ability, skill," nu, "great strength," nung, "thick, heavy, 
strong," nung, " luxuriant " = Accadian nun, "great." With these 
compare the related forms mu, rabii, "great, strong," meu, "vigorous, 
strong, luxuriant," ma, "clever, skilled," etc. (p. 76). 

In Chinese vicing is "a fierce, violent dog"; "strong, cruel, 
violent"; and ning is "long hair of dogs" {cp. mang, "a long 
flowing mane"); "fierce," "repulsive;" while another ning is said 
of "hair in confusion" or "any tangled growth" such as thickets 
or brambles.f That there is a connexion between such forms is 

* Perhaps a would be a better symbol for the sound than e ; for it appears to 
be really the same vowel as is heard in mang, English u in " purr." 

t I suggested (p. 74) that the horse, Kls, kur, ma, got these names from 
his long hair, kis (' Pferdehengst,' according to Jensen) answers to Chinese ki, " a 
steed of noble blood " ; k'i, "a dappled horse" ; k'i, "a mane." ki§ and Pis, 
the two values of JJJ^K, denote another hairy animal, viz., the pig : cp. the 58th 
radical, ki (Mandarin chi), "a hog turning up his snout " ; kia, chia, dialectic ka, 
kia, "a boar." (So also kia, "ahorse in harness"). With Accadian Sac;' or 
§ig', "a swine," cp. the 152nd radical, ski, dialectic c/i'i, si, szc, " a hog or pig." 
The dialectic sig' = tsung, "a yearling pig." As to Pis, cp. fan (pun), "a 
gelded pig " ; pa, pb, " a sow " ; pin, the name of a hill where many wild hogs 
were found. With dam (in dam-Sig'), cp. chtt (du), "hog"; t'un, dang, 
" sucking-pig." 

211 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

self-evident. So we have ma and na (Cantonese) for "an old 
woman," "a mother"; ma and nao for veined stones, such as the 
agate, opal, carnelian, onyx, jasper ; ma, "to rail at, scold," "gabble" 
(tsiu ma, " to gabble over one's wine "), and nan, " gabble," nao, 
"noisy wrangling," nao nao, "babbling, nao, "to scold, to rail"; 
mao, "bewildered, confused," and nao, "perturbation of intellect," 
"beclouded," nao, "to disturb, to vex''; mieh and nieh, "to pull 
out" (hairs); mi and ni, "hidden"; min and nin (now z/iau), 
"a cord"; mu, "small, inferior," nu, "a child," nil, "young," nun, 
"small, young"; mo, "the pulse," "the blood running in the veins," 
and no, "to bleed at the nose"; met, "flowing water," man, "an 
overflow," mi-mi, "full," mien, "a flood," and ni, "many, abundance 
of," "rising, overflow" (the same character is also read mi, in the 
sense of "a vast expanse of water"). Many other instances of 
this phenomenon might be adduced from the Chinese ; and, as 
I have observed, it is present also in Accadian, where we find 
na, nab, samu, "heaven," as well as mu, me, "heaven"; na, ni, 
nu, zikaru, "male," "servant," as well as mu, zikaru ; nu, salmu, 
as well as mi, salmu; nun, radii, rubu, as well as mu, rabii, umun, 
rubu; nu-gig = mu-gib, "not sick," an epithet of the goddess Ishtar 
and the Kedeshah ; nin and mulu, beltu, "lady." 

But we have already seen that Accadian possesses G-forms 
corresponding to these m(n) forms, e.g., gi-s, gi-n, "male," gig, 
ge, salmu, *jE? ugunu = umun, belli, beltu, "lord" or "lady." The 
case is thus exactly parallel to that of the Chinese, which presents 
us with the three forms i, ji, ni, as the pronunciation of one and 
the same character in three different dialects. In some instances 
Chinese has preserved the M-form, where our existing documents, 
so far as yet known, supply only the N-form for the Accadian, and 
vice versa. Thus the negative particles in Accadian are nu, na, 
nam ; while in Chinese we have the M-forms me, mei, mieh, mo, 
mu, wei, wu. In a solitary instance, however, the Accadian exhibits 
the alternative M-form of the negative, viz., in the epithet of Ishtar 
just now specified, mu-gib, the softer equivalent of nu-gig. Even 
if we had not this curious instance of correspondence with the 
prevailing modern use, the variation between the two vocabularies 
would present no more difficulty than the fact that in Accadian 
itself both mu and nu were used in the sense of zikaru, " male." 

The common negative puh or pu, which appears in the three 
dialects as pat, put, peh, presents no difficulty, if we bear in 

212 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

mind the fact that a Chinese p or b may be a double of m. In 
Accadian also there are B-forms as well as M-forms corresponding 
to those with initial g; both bal and gal mean "to be strong" 
(abdrit), and we find aba = aga, la-bar = la-gar, tag = dib, and 
so on. Pieh (= bit), Cantonese ///, "do not ! ", is a close relation 
of puh, and to be accounted for in the same way. This view is 
borne out by the fact that the Mandarin mo or mi, which in 
Cantonese is pronounced mut, in Chifu mu, and at Shanghai meh, 
is but in Amoy. Similarly, wu, " without," the Cantonese mb, 
Shanghai vu, is in Amoy bu (a very interesting example for tha 
exchange of the labials) ; and mieh, old sound mit, the Cantonese 
mit, Fuhchau miek, Shanghai mih, is the Amoy biat. On the other 
hand, the Mandarin mo, mu, " do not " ! old sound mak, is in 
Cantonese mok, in Amoy mo//, and at Shanghai mbk. 

A very remarkable instance of the equivalence of m and B in both 
languages is the following. We saw (December Proceedings, 1889 
p. 80) that in Accadian J^f (g)us or gis was defined by the Assyrian 
muttatu, "hair," "whiskers" (a term which is also used for the 
explanation of ^ff^y kisi, or kis " hair ") ; and we compared these 
Accadian terms gi-s, ki-s, with the Chinese i, ji, e, "the whiskers," 
"hairy," Jan, "the whiskers," "the beard" (p. 55). With kis cp. 
also chi, dialectic ki, "tufts of hair, a girl's coiffure"; chi, kei, ke, ki, 
"to do up the hair"; chi, kei, ke, kih, "a Chinese woman's tuft"; 
chi, "a hair fishing net"; chi, "a camel's hair rug." We also saw that 
in mao, dialectic mb, mo (= ma), the general term for "hair," "fur," 
"wool," "feathers," "down," and in met, "eyebrows," which in Can- 
tonese, Amoy, and Shanghai, is pronounced mi, bi, me, respectively, 
the Chinese possesses corresponding M-forms. The compound term 
mun-sub, sarin'", "hair," sarat zumri, "hair of the body," seems to 
contain an Accadian equivalent in mun. But we also find in 
Chinese the series pa (pat), " hair on the thigh," "the short hair on 
the flesh "; pacing, "dishevelled hair " = p i ung, hong, pung, in the 
three dialects; p'dng = dialectic pang, p'eng, pang, "loose hair," 
etc. ; p l ei in p l ei sai, " a bushy beard " (sai = dialectic sot, su si' ; cp. 
sii = dialectic so, su, sii, "the beard," "whiskers of animals"; 
Accadian su, " beard " ; sig, or sing, " hair ") ; p'i, " furs " ; piao (the 
190th radical, or as it would be called in Accadian "determinative," 
of characters relating to human hair), " locks hanging down ; bushy 
hair "; = Cantonese piu, Shanghai pio ; p'ieh (pit) a classifier of 
moustaches ; pieti, "a cue"; pin, "tresses," "curls," "whiskers," 

213 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

fa (pat) " hair," Amoy hwat = gut, gus, Shanghai feh = pit ; and 
other terms with initial / ( = p, b). The starting point of this 
development is to be seen in the Accadian i^ ba, muttatu m , " hair," 
"whiskers" (5 R 37, Col. I, 46).* 

Another instance of the equivalence of m and b is seen in the 
Chinese poh, "a great junk," as compared with mang, and the 
Accadian ma, " ship." The old sound of poh was probably bak or 
bag = mag. Cp. p'a, dialectic pa, pb, " a bridge of boats " ( = ba) ; 
san pan, " a row boat " ; pal, "a^.raft " = Cantonese pat, Amoy pat, 

* Another meaning of this Accadian ba, is might" 1 , "half" = Chinese pan, 
"half"; see BAR. If any one still doubts a connexion between the Chinese and 
Accadian terms for "hair," let him consider the following facts. In Accadian 
sag, or SANG, is "the head," and in Chinese sang is "the forehead." In 
Accadian sanga, Assyrian skangii, is a priest of some kind, and in Chinese sang 
is a Buddhist priest (the Sanskrit samgha, sanga, " assembly of priests," is clearly 
no more than a coincidence of sound). The 59th Chinese determinative /// 
san, " hair " (dialectic sham, san, se"), resembles the Accadian \\\, BA, " hair " ; 
a sign which also has the value sin. The Chinese sang (older seng) means " short 
hair," and the Accadian sig, or sing, means Sdrtu, "hair." The Chinese s//a, 
dialectic ska, sa, so, old sound shak, is "long, fine hair;" cp. the Accadian SAG, 
"head," SU, "beard." I have before compared ZAG, "the head," with shan, 
dialectic siu, sh, "the head." Further, Gis, "hair," implies a df-form, dis ; 
which explains the Chinese ti, "hair," dialectic t'ei, t'e, di, and ti, t'i, "to 
shave." Sha, " feathers," old sound shap ( = shab), comes very near to Accadian 
shub (in munsub). The dialectic forms sap, ck'iap, seh, show the hesitation 
between sh and s common to both Accadian and Chinese, and ring the changes on 
the vow r els in the way that Accadian teaches us to expect {ck'iap is Accadian dub, 
" hair," in DUB-SAG, do. ; seh, Accadian SIG, "hair"). For SHUB, "hair," we 
have also the cognate skit, "horse-hair rug," with the dialectic skit, ju, sit, of 
which the second form recalls (g)us or Gis ; and skit, dialectic skit, sit, sit', 
1 ' garments of camel or yak's hair. " 

I think it likely that SAG (in dubsagga) also means "hair" (=sig) ; so that 
the two halves of the compound are, as usual, synonymous. So in the much 
discussed uan-sur we have ban = p'an, " platter, basin, deep dish " (old sound 
ban); p'an, "a tray"; p'an (ben), "bowl, basin, cup"; + SHU R = skang 
(older shung), "a cup, goblet, bumper, feast, banquet"; skang (older shing), 
" a dish for holding food "; skivan (older shon = shun ?), "a cup or small bowl "; 
shu, "a vessel on its base," etc. TIMMEN, again, appears to mean "records," 
" documents," if we compare tien, Cantonese tin, " written documents, records," 
and wan (old sound, men), Cantonese man, Amoy biin, Shanghai viing, " litera- 
ture ; a text, despatch, writing." In this case, men, "writing," is an M-form 
answering to GE, "to write," gin, "a reed for writing," KIN, "a letter"; and 
TIM (tiv) is an easy variant of dub, tub, "tablet": cp. tim-sar, " record - 
writer," a title of the god Nebo. 

214 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Shanghai pa (primitive ba) ; pang, a class-prefix of fleets ; pang, " a 
double boat" (primitive bag); pang-jdn, "a boatman"; p'ang, "a kind 
of scow;" also/tf (pat) "a raft,"///, "a float," and other terms in the 
f series. Compare, again, Accadian ba, pitii, "to open" (cp. bal, 
" to split "), with ma-l, pitii = gal, pitfi ; or the Chinese pat, poh, " a 
hundred — the whole of a class — many — all — everybody "= Cantonese 
pak, Amoy pek, with Accadian me, " many," " a hundred " (probably 
deflected from ma), and mag', " great," " much." The Chinese pei, 
"the back, rear," =piii, pbe, pe, as compared with Accadian A-r;.\, 
arku, " the back, rear, behind," arkatu, " the rear," " the back," " here- 
after," "the future" (dialectic of a-ga), and >f- bar, arku, arkatn, 
and this last, again, with J^Tt31 e-gir, arku, arkatu {e.g., egir-mu, 
" behind me " ; egir ma, arkat elippi, " the hinder part of the ship " ;) 
supplies another interesting example of the relation between initial 
G and b, which is parallel to that between g and m. The e of egir 
is dropped in Chinese, as is the e of edin, "field," in becoming 
t'ien = Cantonese fin, Amoy tian, Shanghai di", and the 1 or e of >-<,, 
ipiM, or edim, samu, "heaven," in becoming t'ien, the Cantonese 
Pin, "heaven." In DTffcJ, gir, mer, iltdnu, " the north," as compared 
with Chinese /<?//, /<?/, "the north," of which the sign represents two 
men standing back to back, we have again an instance of the 
equivalence G = m = b. Pei, " back," is represented by a character 
composed of the signs for flesh and north, to indicate that one ought 
to face the south. 

The fluctuation between t and k (primitive d, g) for the final 
sound is parallel to the Accadian zid = zig, bad = bag. So in 
nu-gig = mu-gib, sag = sab, we have final g alternating with final 
b ; just as k and p (primitive G, b) alternate as final sounds in so 
many ancient and dialectic forms of Chinese. 

I will now give a table of terms in which both Accadian and 
Chinese present initial N. 

Accadian. Chinese. 
na, nu, utulu, rabasu, salalu, "to na read ?w, "to rest," "peace- 
lie down," "to rest;" nad, ful ";«/," to recline, as a sick 
ditto; "a bed." man." 

na, ni, pronominal suffixes of na, nai, "that," or "those," ni 
third person (both singular (Cantonese), "this." 
and plural), ne, annu, "this." 

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Feb. 4] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY, 



[1890. 



Accadtan. Chinese. 

ni as an adverbial termination nang (neng), an adverbial termi- 
( — "ly" = like = gin, dim, nation; h'ien-h'ien-ndng, "dan- 

" like as"). gerously" (Shanghai). 

na-nam, annu, kictm, umma, "this," na, a colloquial final particle used 

in replies; "so," "certainly." 
ni, an affirmative particle. 
nan (nam), "now," "at this time"; 
nan mo, " then " (Shanghai). 



"in this way," "so." 
nam, annu, "this." 



ana, minu, "who, which"? 



na, "which"? "where"? "how"? 



nin-nam, minima, manman. 



nin-name, minima basu, "what- 
ever exists." 



na-me, aiu, "who? which"? ma, me (mi), mie, Cantonese mat, 
minu, "who, which," manman, "who? what? how"? before 

mala, " whoever," "whatever," a negative, "why"? "where- 
"all that"; "any whatever"; fore"? 
quicunque, quoties, quilibet. mei, " each, every, any." 
nin, ni, ^ dialectic AMA,mimma, nai, "how"? "in what way"? 
"whoever, whatever." nai hoi "what next"? (ho = 

who ? which ? what ? how ?) 
na?i (nam), as an interrogative 
particle, in the phrase nan tao. 
ni, an interrogative particle. 

?igan, Mandarin an, " how " ? 

"why"? 
ning, "how"? "why"? (cp. nin, 

nig values of ^). 
(hg)o, dialectic 0, 0, eh, " who " ? 

"what"? 

nam-, nag-, as prefixes of abstract nouns, e.g., nam-men, 
sarrutu, "royalty"; nam-tag annu, amu, "sin," segu, "error"; is 
also probably of pronominal (demonstrative) origin ; and so related 
to nam, " this," and nam, nin, nig, " who," " which " ; cp. the 
history of the Greek S<?, and, further, the abstract to cIkihov, "what 
is just," "justice." nam-tag is to a/iapTwXov (cp. with tag the 
Chinese fell, older t'ek, "error," "to err"; dialectic fik, fek, 
tak). We might also compare the Chinese nang (neng), "power, 
ability, skill " ; " duty, function " ; as though nag-tagga meant 
"sin-craft," and nam-lugal, "king-craft." 

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Feb. 4] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1S90. 



Chinese. 

nan, " to force a man to do 
something''; nan, "adversity,'' 
" calamity." 

na, " to be appointed " ; Can- 
tonese ?iap (nab = nam). 

ning, "to direct" (= ming). 

nam-tar, araru, " to curse " (pray nan, "to mutter, perform incan- 
tations " ; tao, " to pray to the 
gods." 
nan (nam), a species of bird ; 
ni-nan, "twittering, as swallows" 
(;;/ = " twittering "), cp. nan, 
"incessant talking." 



Accadian. 
nam, nag, simtu, "appointment," 
"decree," "fate." 

pihatu "governorship." 



against). 



nam (g'u) sinuntu, "a swallow." 

nam, hadu, "to be glad." 
na, abnn, "a stone." 

ni-ni, a kind of precious stone. 



nao, now read nung, "pleased," 
"glad"; nao, noh, "to play 
with." 

nao, generic name for veined 
and coloured stones, like agate, 
onyx, jasper, etc. {cp. ngao- 
ngao, "stony ground "). 

nu, a kind of flint. 



nim, zumbu, "a fly or insect"; nan, name of an insect; in Can- 



nim-lal,* znmbi dispi, " flies 
of honey"; nim-ni-nuinna, 
zumbi himeti, "flies of curds 
or butter" ; vid. infra. 

nim saku, "high." 

na, elii, high." 

na samu, "heaven," "the sky." 

{vide ana, do. Proc.,Nov., 1889, 

p. 40.) 



tonese, bites of gnats or fleas ; 
ni, insects on leaves ; aphides. 
nan, unfledged locusts; niang, 
( = nim) is a term often applied 
to insects. 

ning, " the top of the head " 
ning, "to carry" (Cantonese) 
ni, "to carry" (Cantonese) 
nien, Cantonese nun, " to pick 
up," "to carry"; ni, a fabulous 
tree a thousand feet-Jjiigh. 



* »J*!^y LAL = dispu, "honey." and tdbu, "sweet"; ga-lai.k = Sa 
tit/nsa tabu " (a nurse) whose breast (milk) is sweet." Cp. la (lap or lat), "wax," 
especially of bees. 

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Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

AccADtAN. Chinese, 

nab samu, "heaven" (or nap) nieh, Cantonese nip, "to ascend"; 

ni, "rising" of waters.* 

na, zikaru, "male," "man," nan, "the male of the human 

"slave"; ana, amclu, "man." species." Shanghai «*? n ( = NiN). 

ni, nu do. do. do. nu, "slave"; ni, "slave-girl." 

■jV^y nin, ni, ahattu, sister," niang (niung), Cantonese neung, 

beltu, entu, rubatu, "lady" "girl," "young lady"; " fe- 

(nam-nin, Mliitu, "lordship," male"; "goddess"; »',"anun"; 

implies nin, bclu, "lord.") ni, "slave-girl"; nil, "woman," 

"girl," "lady," "wife"; niu, 

(nu) "a lass." 

ninni, nina, nana, a goddess niang-niang, title of the empress ; 

(Ishtar), the Great Mother; the a goddess (used like 'Our 

Lady par excellence. Lady'); nai-nai, "an old lady," 

"a grandmother" (nai is " a pet 
word for mother " ; "a lady ") : 
Am. nai"-nai", Sh. na-na. 
na, "a dam," "granny," "mother," 
"female of animals" (Canton- 
ese). 
no (na) "the elegant bearing of 
a lady." 
^ Jft- ni, zumru, " body," " belly." nei, " the viscera" ; nan, " flesh on 

the belly," "a fat abdomen" 
(Cantonese). 
ni, ramanu, "self" net, "near to," "personal"; per- 

haps ni, " thou," " you," in 
Kiangsu "we," "us." Cp. 
nei chih, " my own nephew." 
ni, piiluhtu, "fear," "awe," ning, "fierce"; "repellent, like the 
"reverence," "worship." guardian images in temples"; 

ngoorb," to shudder," "startled," 
Cantonese ngok, Amoy gok. 

* Add ngo, 0, dialectic ngok, gok, "a cliff," "a precipice" (ngak) ; ngb, 
"high"; dialectic ngo, ngb, ngu ; ngo-ngo, "very high" (of a peak); older 
nga; ngao,"ta\\" ao, "high"; ngan, an, "a high cliff " ; forms which show 
the relation of initial N to initial G: cp. GA, uasil, "to lift," "carry"; na, 
C'lA, " high." 

218 



Feb. 4] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[189c. 



Accadian. Chinese, 

nina, adir, "fearing," in the nan, "to venerate"; "rever- 
proper name Samas-adir. ence"; puh nan, "not terri- 

fied." 
ni, emuku — ^E, ne, emuku, nang, "power"; "skill"; "to 



"depth," "skill," 
"force." 



be able"; nu (no = NA), "to 
exert the utmost strength." 
ni, "many"; nu, no, "great 
strength." 

ni, "greasy," "fat," "oily" = 
Cantonese ni, Amoy ji, Shan- 
ghai ni. 

ni-nunna, himetu, "curds, butter" neu, oldnu, Shanghai nu, "milk." 
(= ni, " fat" + nun, " milk "). nai, nai n , " milk." 



power, 

>-|yyy, nun, rabu, rubu, "great." 
J^:, ni, samnu, "fat," "oil." 



ne = gunni = kiniinu, " oven, 
" furnace," " fire-place " (?). 



nwan, " heat " ; " to warm " ; 
Cantonese nun, Chifu nan, 
Shanghai nb'n ; nieh, " to burn 
in the fire," as pottery ; nieh, 
" a little warm," Cantonese nip, 
Shanghai nth; (ngao) ao, "a 
griddle"; ao, "warm"; ngao, 
"to boil," "to parch"; ao, "to 
warm or bake in a close 
vessel"; an (ngan), "to boil 
flesh"; ai (ngat), "warm air." 

nan, " the south ; it belongs to 
fire, and is the region of heat 
and vegetation"; "summer." 

"EL "Till en-nun, "to watch, yen, "a night-watch or guard"; 
keep, guard; a watch (of the niu, "to escort or guard," dia- 
night), watch and ward" (na- lectic nau,nu; nang(p\der nung 
saru, massartu). =nun), " to ward off" = nan, 

Fuhchau nang, " to push away, 
or off." 

iCCjj ni-gin, ni-gi, paharu, "to na n Cantonese "with," " to- 

gather together," sich ver- gether with," cum ; na, " to 

sammeln ; nap/jaru, " all to- collect " ; nang, " to connect 

gether/' " the whole." with," "to accompany"; ///, 

219 R 



Feb. 4] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1890. 



ACCADIAN. 

Cp. na, ina, adi, "with," and 
gin, aldku, "to go"; gin, 
sandku, "to press together," 
etc. (p. 53); nin, "all" 
{mala), and gin, "the 
whole " {gimru. 



nigin, sahdru, "to turn round," 
"go round," "surround" 
(=/«;«??); cp. gin, tarn, "to 
turn," sandku, " shut in"; ga 
or gi, kahi, sahdru (pp. 53, 
54). Chinese has not only 
the #-forms opposite, but 
also ^-forms corresponding 
to -gin in the term nigin ; 
e.g.', Men, kiln, kwan, M", 
"to roll up as a scroll, to 
seize, to gather, to whirl 
about," etc. K'-ilen, " to en- 
circle, to surround, a ring or 
circle" (old sound of both, 
gin)- 

nigin, sddu, " to hunt." 



<$<, nimin, *kissatu, " multitude," 
(ni + min) = nigin, napharu ; 
cp. me, "much"; and perhaps 
ni or ne, " a force," " host." 



Chinese. 
"many," "abundance"; ni, 
"to follow another"; "near"; 
ni, "to stick to," "associate 
with"; ni, "to adhere"; nien, 
"to connect"; "to tread in 
another's steps"; ning, "gather- 
ing," of clouds; nung, "thick, 
dense," of trees, corn; ning, 
" plants growing thick and like 
a jungle"; niang, "mixed, 
blended"; nan, "to join to- 
gether." 

niao-niao, "curling, like smoke"; 
niao, " winding," of a way ; nao, 
"to twist"; nien, "to wring, 
twist, roll up, turn the fingers"; 
nien, "to roll; a stone roller"; 
nin, now zhdn, "to twist a 
thread"; ning, "to twirl, whirl, 
turn"; niu, "to twist or turn 
with the hand"; ngo (nga.), Can- 
tonese ngo, Amoy ngo, Shang- 
hai ngu, "to make a thing 
round"; "a ring." 



na, "to seize," nien, "to pursue"; 

nieh, "to track, to pursue a 

trail." 
ni, "many"; min, "a multitude"; 

jd'/i min-min, "a mass of 

people" (gin + min). 



* nimin is also arb&, "forty." Is this ni(s), "twenty," min, "twice"? 
Cp. Chinese shih san, " thircy," (s/ii/i, "ten," sdn, "three"). 



220 



Feu. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Accadian. Chinese. 

X~*£~, ninda, ittii, a measure of >ian, " to measure by spanning 
length (gi-ninda, "measuring the fingers"; "a span," "a 
reed").* finger's length." 

ner, niru, vijpo<i, "six hundred." Ta Nao, a statesman who esta- 
blished the sexagenary cycle 
in b.c. 2637. 
nam, btttUy a kind of dress (Arab, na, Cantonese nap (nab = nam) 
cL-»j ?) "padded, quilted"; "priestly 

garments"; na, "tattered 
clothes." 

Ni, "body," and ni, "self," are really the same term ; for words 
meaning "body" are common in the sense of "self" (Selb and 
"self" are said to mean "body"; and the Chinese f/ian, shim, 
"the body," also means "one's self " = Accadian su, shi, "body."). 
This character -^Jpf, when pronounced tu, means saru, "the wind "; 
and it is a striking fact that we find in Chinese both tu, "the belly,'' 
and tui, Shanghai dc, " a gust of wind " (cp. Accadian te = tu). 
The Accadian i^\J\ lil (= li + li) saru, zakiku, "wind," is amply 
represented by the Chinese liu, " the sighing of the wind," liu-liu, 
"the motion of the air," li-li, "a driving blast," lien, "the wind 
raising ripples on the water," liao-liao, "the continuous blast of a 
gale," and also "a steady breeze," la, leh (lab, lib), "the sound of 
the wind," and other cognates. Thus the Assyrian lilit, lil'tlii, Hebrew 
Lilith, would seem to be distant relatives of the Irish Banshee. 

The common Chinese term for "wind, air, breath," is fang. Fis 
only a very modern modification of p, and the older sound is pong. 
But this is evidently not the simplest form of the root. To 
get at that, we must, as usual, compare an entire series of related 
sounds, supplied by the wealth of the Chinese dictionary. And first 
we note the phrases fa-shan, "a spiritual body," and fa-tun, "wind, 
wheel," i.e., "praying-machine." The old sound is pap (= pa-pa?). 
Then we have fan (pan) "to flutter about" (which is applied to the 
wind in phrases like yih fan-fang, "a gust of wind ") ; fan, "the wind 
fluttering a flag"; fan, read ping, ''the soughing of wind through 
trees" ; fan, "driven to and fro by the wind" ;fan, "a sail" {cp. ma, 
ba, "ship") ; fan-fan (pun), "soaring and flying" (Amoy hun =±: gin) j 

* DA = '' V ii spread oul "? or merely an afformative. 

22 1 R 2 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890. 

yrtwo- (pung), "fragrant"; ft (pi, pu), "to fly," " airy," lien-ft, "the Wind 
God," and ft-ft, "fragrant," ft, dialectic fi, hui, fi, "the lungs"; fau 
(pu), dialectic/?/, Jut, vu (= pu, gu, mu), "a storm," fu-fdng, "a great 
tempest ";fuh, dialectic fat, k&t, feh, " a light breeze." pa (pi, pu) is 
obviously the simplest form of the root, which has ramified thus 
widely in the Chinese. Cp. under the letter p, pi, "the nose," pHao, 
"a spiral gust of wind," p'ei, "flying and wheeling about," of swallows, 
p l ei, "misty vapour," pok, " mist," p'iao, "a whirlwind," and other 
members of the same series. The ultimate root is seen in the 
Accadian ^$~, pa, which occurs in pa-pa, mehic, "a storm," and 
pa-pa, sdru, "the wind"; cp. also pe-s, napdsu, "to breathe, blow." 
Another value of ^fz is sig, which appears in the senses of zik/ku 
{cp. papa, zakiku), "wind," sakummu, sakammatu, "sorrowful," 
" grief," pasdhu, "to be at rest." Now the Chinese sih, older sik, 
means " a full breath — a gasp — to breathe — to sigh, pant, sob — to 
rest, repose." Another sih is "to compassionate"; another yields 
sih-sih (sig-sig) " to blow gently," of the wind. 

When, finally, it is remarked that the Chinese k% dialectic hi, 
k% chH (= gi, ki, di), "steam, breath, air," and kHen, "to pant," in 
Mandarin, and the Amoy hu, hui, hun, hut, and Cantonese hi, point 
to original g(k) ; while the Accadian sign i^\\ (lil, " the wind ") 
actually has also the values ge, ki, kid ; and that the M-form, 
implied by the Shanghai 7>u " a storm," and the Mandarin mo, mei, 
ming, mang, " rain," " mist," is actually extant in the Accadian -^»ff 
imi, sdru, "wind," zunnu, "rain": enough perhaps has been said, 
though more might be added, in proof that the Accadian and 
Chinese terms for " wind, breath," etc., are identical. 



Addenda. — It is clear from the Assyrian texts that isansur sometimes 
means "table," or perhaps rather "feast," "banquet": vid. Phillipps' Cyl., 
I, 27 ; II, 34, and Haupt's remarks, Beitrage zur Assyriologie, p. 161. In 
Chinese, fang-si is "a plenteous table." This fang combines the meanings 
"a large goblet, a full cup, abundant, plenteous"; while si is defined "a mat to 
sleep or eat on before tables were used, a table, a repast, to spread out, a chair." 
So yen is (1) "a mat spread out"; (2) "a feast"; and i/idng is "a dish tilled 
with food," and "a plentiful table." With ninunna, cp. also the Chinese 
niu-nai-ping, "cheese," lit., "cow's milk cake," which has quite as much right 
to be regarded as a single word ; and niu-yiu, " butter," lit. " cow's fat." 



Feb. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 9, 
Conduit Street, Hanover Square, W., on Tuesday, 4th 
March, 1890, at 8 p.m., when the following Paper will be 
read : — 

Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S., &c. — "The Bronze and Copper of 
Ancient Egypt and Assyria." 

E. B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S., etc.— "On the Winged Figures 
of the Assyrian and other ancient Monuments." 




223 



Feb. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 



THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Botta, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847-1850. 

Place, Ninive et l'Assyrie, 1866- 1869. 3 vols., folio. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler Vols. 

I— III (Brugsch). 
Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publies par 

H. Brugsch et J. Diimichen. (4 vols., and the text hy Dumichen 

of vols. 3 and 4.) 
Dumichen, Historische Inschriften, &c, 1st series, 1867. 

2nd series, 1869. 

Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1886. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1862. 2 vols., folio. 



Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele. Folio, li 

Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c, 1880. 

Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 

Wright, Arabic Grammar and Chrestomathy. 2nd edition. 

Schroeder, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Haupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 

Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 

Burkhardt, Eastern Travels. 

Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1873. 

Le Calendrier des Jours Fastes et Nefastes de l'annee Egyptienne. 8vo. 1877. 

E. Gayet, Steles de la XII dynastie au Musee de Louvre. 

Ledrain, Les Monuments Egyptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 

Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

Lefebure, Les Hypogees Royaux de Thebes. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Lefebure, Le Mythe Osirien. 2nd partie. "Osiris." 

Lepsius, Les Metaux dans les Inscriptions Egyptiennes, avec notes par W. Berend. 

D. G. Lyon, An Assyrian Manual. 

A. Amiaud and L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 

et Assyriennes. 
2 PARTS, Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 
Robiou, Croyances de l'Egypte a l'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologie des Lagides. 

POGNON, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. * 



224 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS, 

Uhc Bron3e ©rnaments of tbe 
palace Gates from Balawat 

[Shalmaneser II, b.c. 859-825.] 



Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus, the price for 
each part is now raised to £1 10s. : to Members of {he Society (the original 
price) £1 is. 



Society of Biblical Archaeology. 



COUNCIL, 1890. 



President. 
P. le Page Renouf. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Lord Halsbury, The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Ven. J. A. Hessey, D.C.L., D.D., Archdeacon of Middlesex. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

The Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, G.C.B., &c. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles T. Newton, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c, &c. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c, &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 

Cow, ril. 

W. A. Tyssen Amherst, M.P , &c. Rev. Albert Lowy. 

Rev. Charles James Ball. Prof. A. Macalister, M.D. 

Rev. Canon Beechey, M.A. Rev. James Marshall. 

Prok. R. L. Bensly. Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 

E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. J. Pollard, 

Arthur Cates. F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. E. Towry Whyte, M.A. 

Charles Harrison, F.S.A. Rev. W. Wright, P.D. 

Honorary Treasurer— Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary — W. Harry Ryi.ANDS, F.S.A. 

Honoiary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, P. A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



HARRISON AND SONS , PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTINS LANE, 



VOL. XII. Part 5. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

m 

VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION. 

Fifth Meeting, March 4th, 1890. 

#oe>— ■ — 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

J. Ii. Gladstone, Ph.D., F. R.S. — On Copper and Bronze of 

Ancient Egypt and Assyria 227-234 

Prof. G. Maspero.— Sur le sens des Mots Noult et Halt 235-257 

Dr. A. Wiedemann. — A Forgotten Prince 258-261 

Prof. Karl Piehl. — Errata 262 

F. L. Griffith. — Notes on Egyptian Texts of the Middle 

Kingdom —II 263-268 

Rev. C. J. Ball. — The New Accadian [continued) 269-287 

$'.*• 

PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

11, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1890. 



[No. xc] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

ii, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



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PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OK 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTIETH SESSION, 1889-90. 



Fifth Meeting, 4th March, 1890. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq., President. 



IN THE CHAIR. 



-3C&<&€>- 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, J. Menant : — Le Cylindre de Urkam, au Muse"e 
Britannique. 8vo. 1889. 
Revue Archeologique, 1889. 

From the Baron de Cosson : — Congres Provincial des Orientalistes 
francais. Compte-rendu de la Session inaugurale. Levallois. 
1874. 8vo. Paris. 1885. 

From the Baron de Cosson : — Indication succincte des Monu- 
ments e'gyptiens du Musee de Florence, par le conservateur, 
A. M. Migliarini. 8vo. Florence. 1859. 

From the Author, Rev. S. Kinns, Ph.D. : — Moses and Geology, 
or the Harmony of the Bible with Science. 8vo. London, 1889. 

From the Author, Dr. C. F. Lehmann : — Ueber das babylonische 
metrische system und dessen Verbreitung. 

Verhandl. der Physikal. Gesellsch. zu Berlin. 22 Nov., 1S89. 
Jahrg. 8, Nr. 15. 

[No. xc] 225 s 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

From the Author, Dr. C. F. Lehmann : — Das Verhaltniss des 
agyptischen metrischen Systems zum babylonischen. 

Aus den Verhandl. der Berliner Anthropol. Gesellsch. 19 
Oct., 18S9. 
From the Author, Napthali Herz Imber : — Topics of to-day in 
the Talmud. London. 1890. 

Reprinted from the Jewish Standard. 

Purchased by the Council for the Library of the Society: — 

Keilinschrifte Bibliotek. Sammlung von Assyrischen und Baby- 
lonischen Texten in Umschrift und Ubersetzung .... heraus- 
gegeben von Eberhard Schrader. Band I, 1889. Band II, 
1890. 8vo. Berlin. 

The following Candidates were elected Members of the 
Society, having been nominated on 4th February, 1890 : — 
Rev. Frederick H. J. McCormick, F.S.A. Scot., Whitehaven, 

Cumberland. 
Rev. J. C. Bradley, B.A., Queen's Coll., Oxford, Rector of 
Sutton-under-Brails. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 
The Lancashire College, Whalley Range, Manchester. 

The following Candidate was nominated for election at 
the next Meeting on 6th May, 1890 : — 

Edward Oxenford Preston, West Lodge, Cookham, Berks. 

3& 



A paper was read by Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S., on 
" The Bronze and Copper of Ancient Egypt and Assyria." 

Remarks were added by Rev. C. J. Ball, Rev. A. Lowy, Mr. J. 
Offord, Prof. Roberts-Austen, Thomas Christy, Dr. Kinns, Prof. 
Gladstone, and th'e President. 



A paper was read by E. B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S., on 
" The Winged Figures of the Assyrian and other Ancient 
Monuments," which will be printed with illustrations in a 
future number of the Proceedings. 

Remarks were added by Rev. A Lowy, Rev. J. Marshall, Mr. J. 

Offord, and Dr. Kinns. 

226 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 



ON COPPER AND BRONZE OF ANCIENT EGYPT 
AND ASSYRIA. 

By J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.RS. 

Mr. Flinders Petrie has kindly permitted me to examine the 
Copper and Bronze tools which he was fortunate enough to find 
during his excavations in Egypt last winter. He had holes drilled 
in a number of these tools, and gave me the metal which was thus 
obtained from the interior of them. The specimens, therefore, were 
in a fairly fine state of division, but they contained small quantities 
of workshop dirt and grease, which had to be removed by washing 
in ether. Some of the specimens also, if not all, are oxidized 
superficially more or less : in one case, that of the handle of the 
mirror from Kahun, the fine powder has thus become dark in 
colour ; and when the specimen was heated in a stream of hydrogen 
gas it yielded water equivalent to 29 per cent, of oxygen. Most 
probably the whole of the oxygen was not obtained by this method ; 
and whether any part of this 2-9 per cent, was in the original alloy 
it is impossible to say. 

Tools of the Twelfth Dynasty. 

The very interesting find of tools at Kahun consisted of a variety 
of implements, which were in a remarkably good state of preserva- 
tion. Of these I have examined a large hatchet found in the basket, 
a round chisel, the handle of a mirror, and a knife. 

The Hatchet. — The borings from this, when submitted to analysis, 
proved to be copper mixed with a little of those substances which 
usually accompany it in its ores, especially arsenic. The most 
interesting point to determine was the presence or absence of tin, 
but unfortunately it is one of the most difficult problems in chemical 
analysis to separate properly tin, arsenic, and antimony ; and in this 
case it was rendered all the more difficult by the small amount of 
material at our disposal, and the small percentage of these metals in 
that material. The analysis which my assistant, Mr. Hibbert, who 

227 S 2 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

performed most of the actual work, has the greatest confidence in, is 

as follows : — 

Copper ... ... 93*26 

Arsenic ... ... 3*90 

Tin ... ... ... 0-52 

Antimony ... ... o - i6 

Iron ... ... ... o - 2i 



98-05 
The amount of tin is rather doubtful, though there is not much 
doubt that a very small quantity of it is present in the hatchet. 

The Round Chisel.- — The borings from this were nearly free from 
arsenic, but there was no doubt about their containing some tin. 
The reactions of it were unmistakeable. The following proportions 

were obtained: — 

Copper 96-35 

Arsenic ... ... 0-36 

Tin ... ... ... 2-16 

98-87 
The deficiency in this and the other analysis may well be due to a 
little oxide ; but some portions of the metal seemed to contain a 
little sulphide, while others did not. 

The Mirror Handle. — The borings from this, excluding the 2-9 
per cent, of oxygen already referred to, gave approximately 95 per 
cent, of copper, and a decided amount of tin and arsenic, with a 
little iron. 

The Knife. — The borings from this were of much the same 
composition, the tin being comparable in amount with that found in 
the large hatchet. 

In none of these specimens was any zinc detected. It is evident 
therefore that these earlier alloys have no right to be called brass ; 
and probably they should be designated rather as imperfectly puri- 
fied copper, than as bronze. It is difficult to imagine that such small 
quantities of tin were purposely added ; it is, however, easy to sup- 
pose that the ancient Egyptians found certain ores of copper more 
suited for their purpose than others. 

As phosphorus is known to have the effect of hardening copper, 
and is supposed to have been used in ancient times for that purpose, 
it was sought for carefully in the material from the round chisel, but 
no trace of it was detected. 

228 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Before leaving these most ancient tools, it may be interesting to 
compare the first analysis given above with one made by Dr. Percy 
of a supposed knife which was said to be found below a statue of 
Rameses II, and thirteen feet from the surface, viz.: — 

Copper ... ... 97 "12 

Arsenic ... ... 2*29 

Tin ... ... ... 0*24 

Iron ... ... ... o - 43 



ioo'oS 
The date of the knife was probably long anterior to that of the 
statue. 

The metal of these tools is said to be rather soft, and at first 
sight it would appear improbable that such small impurities could 
do much for hardening copper, and making it available for cutting 
purposes ; but Professor Roberts-Austen, whom I asked about the 
matter, writes, " without question either two per cent, of tin or three 
per cent, of arsenic would have great influence in hardening copper, 
and even such small quantities as two-tenths per cent, of either 
element would have a very sensible effect." He thinks it probable 
that the tools were hardened by hammering, and adds that " they 
may have been originally much harder than they appear to be now, 
as alloys of copper undergo molecular change by time and exposure." 
As these tools are supposed to date back to about 2500 B.C., a period 
when the majority of tools were still made of flint, there is ample 
time for any change that might occur. 

Tools of the Eighteenth Dynasty. 

Mr. Petrie kindly gave me similar borings of some of the tools 
which he had found at Gurob, and which belong to the eighteenth 
dynasty, about 1200 B.C. The following analyses were obtained : — 





Small hatchet. 


Large hatchet 


Copper 


... 89-59 


9C09 


Tin 


... 6-67 


7-29 


Arsenic 


... 0-95 


0'22 


Antimony . . . 


. . . trace 


trace 


Iron 


... 0-54 


— 




9775 


9 7 60 




229 





Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1S90. 

Traces of sulphur were also found in the large hatchet, but no 
phosphorus. 

The main interest of these analyses consists in the much larger 
amount of tin. There can be no doubt that by this time the value 
of an admixture of tin was recognized, and these tools may fairly 
be described as bronze. 

Bronze Figures. 

Mr. Joseph Offord, jun., to whom I owe the inception of this 
work, some time ago placed at my disposal a bronze figure of Osiris 
which was rapidly falling to pieces in his cabinet of Egyptian 
Antiquities. I found that it consisted of a solid metallic statuette 
covered with a light green coating that disintegrated very easily. 
The metallic portion was like copper in colour, but as analysed by 
my assistant, Mr. T. A. Rose, it gave : — 

Copper... ... ... 87*1 

Tin, with silica ... 6-3 

Lead ... ... ... 4*4 

Iron and alumina ... traces 



97'8 
The outside crust was evidently far from homogeneous. It was a 
mixture of hydrated oxides with a little carbonate, and, what is more 
remarkable, a large amount of chlorides and oxychlorides. In one 
portion analysed the amount of chlorine was as much as 17*7 per 
cent. : the lead was proportionally greater in this crust than in the 
alloy itself, about 6 per cent., which means about 9 or 10 per cent, 
of the metallic constituents. 

I am informed by Mr. Petrie that ancient bronzes which have 
laid long in the soil of Egypt are very apt to be corroded by the 
chloride of sodium or ammonium present in the soil. The materials 
may then set up a continuous electro-chemical action, more and 
more of the metal being converted ultimately into the oxide, while 
the liberated chlorine attacks fresh portions of the metal. In the 
case of Mr. Oftbrd's statuette, the action seems to have been 
peculiarly energetic. 

Mr. Offord also gave me a head of Pasht which was disinte- 
grating, but more slowly. It was found to be copper mixed with 
iron and a little lead, with mere traces of tin, arsenic and alumina. 
It also contained a small amount of chloride. 

2;o 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

A broken image of Horus in my own collection was covered with 
a hard, irregular coating of greenish matter, something like the pre- 
ceding ; but it was not suffering actual disintegration. It was found 
to consist of copper, with a little iron and alumina, and only traces 
of lead. There was no chlorine in the outer crust. 

A small ordinary image of Osiris which I had by me, and which 
showed no signs of active deterioration, was also examined. It 
consisted of copper and a little tin ; but there was no lead or earthy 
matter. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Rylands I also received two small 
pieces of bronze, much corroded, from the collection of Mr. F. ('. 
Hilton Price. They came from Bubastis. As this town was 
destroyed B.C. 352, they must be of an earlier date than that, and 
probably are some centuries earlier. The piece of an image con- 
tained copper, a fair amount of lead, a little tin, and traces of iron 
and alumina. The small bar consisted of copper, with a little tin, 
and traces of iron and alumina, but only a very minute trace of lead. 

These observations seem to suggest that the copper alloys that 
contain lead are more liable to corrosion than the others. 

Assyrian Bronze. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Rylands I have also had the op- 
portunity of examining the bronze of the gates of the palace of 
Shalmaneser II, b.c. 859-825, found buried at Balawat. The 
authorities at the British Museum could only spare two small frag- 
ments : one of a metallic band, the other of one of the bolts which 
attached it to the wooden framework of the door. The metallic 
band was corroded almost entirely through, presenting an appearance 
of dark red and of white streaks, as though the components had 
separated from one another. The dark red portion owed its colour 
to the presence of a mixture of metallic copper, sub-oxide of copper, 
and black oxide. The alloy consisted of copper and tin with 
small quantities of arsenic, iron, and alumina. These were for the 
most part in the state of oxide, but there was also a notable quantity 
of chloride present. The sample analysed gave the following per. 
centages of the two principal metals : — - 

Copper 73-9 

Tin ... ... ... 9-04 

which would indicate 1 1 per cent, of tin if these two metals constituted 
the whole of the original alloy. 

2 3 r 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

The bolt was also much corroded, and covered with a light 
green crystallisation. When this was scraped off the interior was 
found also to consist of copper and tin, with small quantities of iron 
and arsenic. Chlorine was also present in the crust. The pro- 
portions of the two first in the scraped sample were : — 

Copper ... ... ... 707 

Tin 7-T5 

or a little more than 9 per cent, of tin in the original bronze. 
These proportions resemble those usually found in ancient bronze, 
and those of modern gunmetal. 

Ancient Ores. 

It is well known that the ancient Egyptians had large turquoise 
and copper mines in the Sinaitic peninsula. Those at Wadi Nasb 
appear from the inscriptions to have been worked before the Xllth 
dynasty, and practically ceased to be worked after the reign of 
Thothmes III of the XVIIIth dynasty. I was anxious to see 
whether there were any indications of tinstone in the ores from these 
mines, and through the kindness of the Rev. Prof. Bonney I have 
been enabled to examine some small specimens of mineral and two 
pieces of ancient slag from the workings at Wadi Nasb, Igneh 
(Magharah), and Ragaita, but I have not succeeded in finding any 
indications of tin in them. 

General Conclusions. 

The interest of these observations appears to me twofold — 
Biblical and archaeological. 

In the older books of the Bible, the name of a metal occurs 
which is generally translated " brass." This word at the time of 
King James' translation was applied indiscriminately to the various 
alloys of copper; the word bronze, of Italian origin, having been 
only recently applied to the compounds of which copper and tin are 
the principal elements. The furniture and ornaments of the taber- 
nacle, and other things mentioned in the book of Exodus, were 
made by artificers who had learnt the art of bronze manufacture in 
Egypt under the XVIIIth dynasty. Bronze, indeed, seems to have been 
used at that period by the Israelites to the total exclusion of iron. 
The two metals are both spoken of in the later history, though 
bronze was used for most purposes for which iron was afterwards 
employed : for instance, the arms and armour of Goliath and Saul 

232 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. r i890. 

(1 Sam. xvii, 5, 6, 38); fetters were made of it (Judges xvi, 21, etc.) ; 
as also were the bars of the cities of Argob (1 Kings, iv, 13). More 
remarkable still is the allusion to bows of bronze in the book of Job 
(Job xx, 24) and the song of David (2 Sam. xxii, 35). So unsuited 
for this purpose did brass appear, that the translators of the authorized 
version have rendered it a " bow of steel " in both cases. The 
revised version gives the more correct rendering : " He teacheth my 
hands to war, so that mine arms do bend a bow of brass." The 
" doors of brass," at Babylon, referred to in Isaiah xlv, 2, were 
probably similar in composition to that given above for those of 
Balawat, which were contemporary with the Israelitish King Jehu. 

The analyses of the metallic implements of the Xllth dynasty 
strongly confirm the view held by many archaeologists, that in the 
latter part of the stone age there was what has been termed a pre- 
bronze age in which copper ores were smelted and the metal used 
for implements. It could scarcely have been otherwise. The metal 
thus obtained was harder than refined copper would have been on 
account of the impurities which were left in it. It seems highly 
probable that such ores as those that produced the copper found at 
Kahun would be preferred, and that gradually the workers in metal 
would find out why they made better tools, and a demand would 
arise for the ores of tin. Of course as tin was a rare and costly 
material, they could afford to add it to the copper only in small 
quantities, as in the bronzes of the XVIIIth dynasty which Mr. 
Petrie found at Gorub. When, however, tin was imported in larger 
quantities it could be used more freely. 

We find indications of this process in other places. Berthelot* 
examined the " sceptre " of Pepi I, of the Vlth dynasty, and found 
it to consist of copper, without any tin or zinc. He also gives an 
analysis of a small votive figure found at Tello, and belonging 
to about the most ancient period of Mesopotamian history, which 
was nearly pure copper without any tin whatever. He found 9 per 
cent, of tin in an Egyptian mirror of the XVIIth or XVIIIth 
dynasty, and 10 per cent, in a votive tablet from the palace at 
Sargon, about B.C. 706. 

The ancient metallic tools described by Dr. Schliemann in his 
work entitled " Ilios," tell the same tale. In the older buried city, 

* Annates de Chimie et Physique. Serie 6, XII, p. 129 : and Academic des 
Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, C. R., 18S7, p. 472. 

233 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

specimens of copper pins or nails analysed by Roberts- Austen gave 
in one instance no tin, and in another 0*22 per cent. But in the 
third city at Hissarlik, battle axes and other implements found in 
the " treasure " gave a larger amount of tin ; one examined by 
Damour gave 3*84 per cent., another by Lyons, 8*64 per cent., while 
two others by Roberts-Austen yielded respectively 4*39 and 57 per 
cent. Zinc was entirely absent. 

All these observations indicate how the stone implements were 
gradually replaced by those of copper, and how, by increasing the 
amount of tin, this was changed into the more valuable alloy of 
bronze.* 



* For the composition of ancient bronzes occurring in different countries, and 
a summary of what was known upon the subject up to 1883, see Professor E. 
Reyer's " Die Kupferlegirungen, ihre Darstellung und Verwendung bei den 
Volkern des Alterlhums," Archiv fiir Anthropologic, vol. xiv, p. 357. 




= 34 



MAR. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

SUR LE SENS DES MOTS ® t NOUIT ET [] ^ HAlT. 
Par G. Maspero. 

Les mots ® t nouit et [J ^ hait entrent tous les deux dans 
la composition de la formule par laquelle les scribes expliquent 
les scenes oil Ton voit le mort recevant le tribut de ses domaines 

I "fk "TL © © /WWW 

funeraires. La version la plus ordinaire est ^ \s\ \s\ 

XI Maa nouitou nti pir-zotou, " voir les nouitou de la 

_>% Ik *f^Oe o 



maison eternelle. ' — ^ \\ V\ ~ ^ ^ ._, A A/Wv/W ?\ 

3^ CD "*-=*. A/wwv <jVi> -"I 

c» 1 d ^ ^IT |sh, maa nouzit-hir turn, paoutou 

/WWW I . — ^ : — 'V ' ... ' r\ "t 

arpiou, torpou, roou, e/ieou, annit m nouitou^ nou pir-zotou nti 
to-mihi rhi, " voir l'hommage en pains, gateaux, vins, oies, bceufs, 
apporte de ses nouitou du pays du Nord et du Midi " - 

J\ \ <©> H &> a\Anit nouzit-hir turn, paoutou, 

arpiou an nouitou pir-zotou, " apport de l'hommage en pains, 
gateaux, vins, par les nouitou de la maison eternelle,'" 3 etc. On 
trouve parfois la vanante I ~ 1 Y7 I\ ~ww. w\ 

o © © o ^^ c=? ^ = <,yr> <\ 07 _ . . _ . 

o<=< ^1/ |4^ ofcnqpit nouzit-hir ron- 



pitiou nibou annit m haitou-/ nouitou^" nti to-mihi rhi, 
" Defile de l'hommage de tous les produits de l'annce, apporte 
de ses haitou et de ses nouitou du nord et du midi,"' 
011 le mot [J ^ hait est insere a cote du mot ® t Nouit. On 

rencontre meme quelquefois la variante v\ *!+ in 



haitou/ nti rhi, oil ® t a ete entitlement supprime. 6 Si on etudie 
les noms des personnages qui s'avancent processionnellement derriere 
ces titres, on verra que le mot [J ^ hait y figure assez souvent, 
meme quand la formule du debut n'annonce pas de y r-^ haitou 

1 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 317. 2 Mariette, Mast abas, p. 275. 

3 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 353. 

4 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 380; cfr. Lepsius, Denkin., II, 1)1. 64, 102 a. 

5 Lepsius, Dcnkm., II, bl. 104 /'. 

235 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY*. [1S90. 



u^J[o]pT®-ll=' 



parmi les nouitou : ainsi 
^ 1 

0\T© hait Haraqaou Rasankhit, hait Asst Ramiriankhit, etc. 1 

Les personnages ainsi designes ne different en rien des autres, et appor- 
tent au mort les memes ofifrandes que leurs compagnons ou leurs 
compagnes qui repre'sentent plus specialement les ®, nouitou. On 
me permettra de resumer ici en quelques pages les tres longues 
recherches que mes etudes sur la constitution politique de PEgypte 
m'ont oblige' a. entreprendre a propos des deux mots qui entrent 
dans cette for mule. 

i . ^| nouit sert a. designer un domaine rural d'etendue plus ou 
moins considerable, portant ou ne portant pas de village ou de 
maison d'habitation. Ce domaine a un nom, par lequel il etait inscrit 
sur les monuments et dans les ecritures, c'est-a-dire sur les registres 
du cadastre et de I'impot. II etait done une personne reelle, 
formant un corps complet en soi, et e'est pour cela qu'on le 
represente sous la forme d'un homme ou d'une femme, apportant des 
produits agricoles et des offrandes. II ne se fondait pas avec un 
domaine voisin, quand raeme il appartenait au meme proprietaire, 
mais lapersonnalite de chacun des domaines persistait. Un homme qui 
reunissait, par heritage ou par acquisition, vingt de ces domaines n'en 
faisait pas un domaine unique ; il etait le maitre de vingt parcelles 
de terre distinctes, dont chacune conservait son nom, ses limites et sa 
vie propre. Les domaines etaient separes par des steles portant le 
nom du proprietaire, et aussi la date de l'erection de la stele. 2 Le 
proprietaire etait appele [ ^®| hiqou nouit, avec le meme titre [hiqou 
qui sert a marquer la propriete du Pharaon ou du grand seigneur 
feodal sur l'Egypte entiere ou sur une partie du territoire egyptien. 3 

1 Lepsius, Denkm., II, bl. 76, et So. 

2 Cfr. V Inscription de Beni-Hassan, 11. 36-53, 131-156 ; j'ai eu l'occasion de 
citer deux de ces steles (Mariette, Monuments Divers, Texte, p. 30). 

3 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 145, 246. Le chef du nome d'Ounou est appele, 
dans l'Ancien Empire jj^ <==> @® J? Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 112, />, c, sous 

le premier empire thebain A \ov ©©© — -^ {Inscription de Beni-Hassan, 

rr\y ' 1 1 1 "^ 1 

1. 69), oil j'avais cru d'abord que J? , & est un chiffre, la forme hieratique 

rcdress^e du chiffre neuf qu'on rencontre si souvent aux epoques posterieures 

236 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

Le mot employe nous montre qu'il s'agit bien d'une propric'te reelle, 
et non d'une location ou d'une condition analogue a celle du colo- 
nat : le maitre d'un domaine en etait f hiqou, de la meme maniere 
que le Pharaon etait [ hiqou des deux terres d'Egypte. Xous 
savons en effet que le Pharaon, dans ses courses le long du Nil, 
distribuait a ses fideles des terres prises parmi les terres libres de son 
domaine, et qui devaient leur servir a les nourrir eux et leurs families : 
ils devenaient ( Jf, hiqou nouit, comme le montre l'inscription de 
Beni-Hassan, et ils devaient au Pharaon, outre l'impot en nature, le 
service militaire contre ses ennemis. Les grands seigneurs faisaient 
de leurs terres des liberalites analogues a celles que faisait le 
Pharaon : si certains de leurs domaines etaient administres directe- 
ment par eux et cultives par leurs propres esclaves, d'autres etaient 
aux mains de petits tenanciers libres, qui etaient eux aussi [ ®\ 
hiqou nouit, et que je n'ose appeler colons de peur d'amener une con- 
fusion entre les donnees de la loi romaine et la constitution politique 
de l'Egypte. Ces Hiqou nouit payaient naturellement des rede- 
vances en nature, reglees selon l'etendue de leur domaine. Une paroi 
du tombeau de Sabou nous les montre amenes devant les scribes 
greffiers pour rendre leurs comptes J] ™^ [ ^^ ^ © 2 I PJ . * ■ > 
dans les registres on voit denier des boeufs, des gazelles, des volailles 



(E. de Rouge, Chrestomathie, II, p. 109). Dans le nome voisin de la gazelle, le 

fk V : fffff 

chef etait Ms- g. linn (Lepsius, Denkm.. II, pi. m, (/, i). II aurait done 
< — :>,— >•*-! Ill 

resulte de ces exemples, qu'au moins dans cette partie de l'Egypte, le prince ou le 

chef du nome avait soit a lui en pleine propriete ? a ^k jr. soit comme adminis- 

|v V ' ©©© TFFff 

trateur pour le compte du Pharaon tf^s- ^> , neuf domaines ou ; 



cet emploi du nombre neufa.ura.it ete analogue a celui qu'on voit dans l'expression 

les Neuf arcs HI III pour exprimer les Barbares. Toutefois on trouve au 

III 
tombeau de Pahournofir (Nestor Lhote, T. Ill, fol. 338-341) la mention d'un 

j^. / qui ne me permet pas de maintenir cette supposition. Quoiqu'il 

en soit de / le sens de nouit est certain dans le passage de l'inscription de 
Beni-Hassan qui a donne lieu a cette discussion. Dans un autre endroit 
(11. 184-192) Nouhri [ ^ . ^T ®i ^ — rigit son domaine dhs I'enfance, et 
est choisi pour le roi «cz^> | z: ■ ^-^ pour rigir son domaine. 

237 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

de diverses especes, avec des chifFres indiquant le total des tetes de 
betail pour Fensemble des domaines. 1 Leurs comptes sont rendus 
sous la menace et parfois sous l'application du baton, 2 mais il ne 
faudrait pas que la vue du traitement qu'on leur inrlige nous inspirit 
le moindre doute sur leur condition. Le baton etait en Egypte un 
moyen de gouvernement qu'on maniait du haut en bas de l'echelle 
hierarchique, et un grand seigneur etait expose a recevoir la baston- 
nade comme un simple esclave. II faut meme croire qu'on y 
ecnappait rarement, car un des fonctionnairs enterres a. Saqqarah 

nous dit en maniere de panegyrique y* 1 1 ^ tit y-q ~ W T ft 

& 



/■ , ', Fk v ~^ / <z*-\ ^S " J e su * s l' am i des homines, 

et jamais je n'ai ete batonne devant aucun magnat depuis ma 
naissance." 

La plus grande partie des renseignements que nous possedons 
jusqu'a present sur les ® t nouitou nous sont fournis par les repre- 
sentations funeraires. Mais ainsi que j'ai deja eu l'occasion de le 
remarquer, 4 les coutumes de la vie mortuaire ne sont que la trans- 
position des coutumes de notre vie, etce qui estvrai des unes est vrai 
egalement des autres : nous pouvons nous servir des tableaux que 
nous voyons dans les tombeaux en toute securite pour en deduire 
ce qui se passait dans le monde des vivants. L'examen des noms 
domaniaux est des plus instructifs. 6 On peut les diviser en deux 
categories : i° ceux qui contiennent le nom d'une des denrees qu'on 
donnait aux morts, et qui etaient enumerees tout au long dans la table 
d'offrandes ; 2° ceux qui renferment un element historique ou agricole, 
etranger a la table d'offrandes. La premiere cate'gorie forme une 
serie bien determinee qu'on rencontre plus ou moins complete dans 
tous les tombeaux oil la procession des domaines est representee. 
L'ideal eut ete de prendre tous les noms de toutes les provisions 
enoncees dans la table ; et de former avec chacun d'eux le nom d'un 

1 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 149-46 ; cfr. Lepsius, Denkm., II, 42, a, b, 63-64 a. 
I )'apres l'analogie des autres scenes les personnages innommes qui defilent clans 
Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 15 b, 51, appartiennent a la classe des hiqou nouit. 

- Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 9, ou sont des | ^| de ce genre. Les | tenanciers 
libres places devant les scribes sont introduits chacun par son nom. 
• f Mariette, Mastabas, p. 417. 

4 Maspero, Les Hypogies royatix de Thebes, p. 32 sqq. 

La formation generate en a ete indiquee par Erman, Aegypten, p. 146 sqq. 

238 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

domaine particulier, mais cet ideal n'a jamais ete atteint, et les 
tombeaux qui nous fournissent les listes de domaines les plus longues, 
sont encore loin d'arriver au total qu'on obtiendrait avec la table 
d'offrandes. Voici, autant que j'ai pu les recueillir ceux de noms de 

domaine ainsi formes qu'on rencontre: 0© Shait, le gateau 

conique l ffi^ © pait, 2 le gateau en forme de boule avec impres- 

AfVvvM III ti 

sion des doigts du patissier, "W nepahou, 3 grains, § j^ ©' 

pokha, autre espece de grains, |^. " c © 1^~2 \ © masitou, s 
autre especes de grains, a © shaou, autre espece de grains, 

OOO 

n bbt> « H ftAAAAA -^ 

^-^ © agai'tou, 7 orge, JJ Q q © anit ti, apport du pain, 

W /%AAAAA 9 A ft < T" "^> 

J\ ^ \ ^q © anit haqit, apport de la biere, 8 1|q q® arpou, 9 le 

J A AAAAAA 

y © tobou, 10 le figuier, la figue, | [1 Q noubsit, 11 le 

jujubier, le fruit du jujubier, |l @ sokhit, 13 sorte de grains dont 
on signale deux especes, l'une verte, l'autre blanche : J^JJ^^® 
babaitou, 13 sorte de fruit ou de graines jlj'f'r© habninit," 
\ I 7^ \ ©, I \ -^ fTo © ouHA'iTou, houaitou, 13 sorte de 



I Mariette, Mastabas, p. 185 ; Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 46. 

~ Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 185, 353. 

8 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 185. 4 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 1S5. 

s Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 185, 186, 328. 

6 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 185. 

7 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 186, 196, 324, 398 ; Lepsiu?, Denkm., II, 46, 50 a, 
47 ; le domaine inutile de Mariette, Mastabas, p. 185, me parait devoir se retablir 
bbb 

a o © • 

8 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 196 ; Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 46, 47. 

9 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 185, 325 ; Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 46, 47, 50 a. 

10 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 185 ; Lepsius, Denkm. II, pi. 46. 

II Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 306, 353, 398 ; Lepsius, Denkm., II, pL 47, Ci. 

12 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 196, 276, 325, 353. 

13 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 276, 324. 

14 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 1S1, 186, 196, 276, 306, 324, 353, 398 ; Lepsius, 
Denkm., II, pi. 47, 50a, 61. 

15 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 181, 324. 

239 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

fruit ou de graine, [1 c-=^ » (j ashdou, l l'arbre ashdou et son fruit, 
3=^© zosirit. 3 le koumi, le lait fermente et alcoolise, ^ |l riTo ® 
snoutir 3 l'encens, ^ n ^ ^ II Q. ^ aoufou r-shit, 

la viande pour le tombeau, © haha, 5 le feu, _*_ ^ posni, g le 
^ateau. La forme que plusieurs de ces noms prennent J\ ^ q © 
anit ti, J] ^ a ^ © ANIT haqit, montre que dans l'esprit des 
Ecryptiens certains des domaines etaient destines a fournir au mort 
la denree dont ils portaient le nora : c'est un usage qu'on retrouve 
ailleurs qu'en Egypte dans le monde antique, et qui s'explique fort 
bien dans des pays et dans des temps ou, la monnaie etant encore 
inconnue, les revenus des particuliers et les impots d'etat etaient 
payes en nature. Le domaine appele les Jtgues c=^i JO © tobou, 
pouvait done fournir les figues du mort quoi qu'il produisit d'ailleurs ; 
le revenu des terres dont il se composait servait a assurer au mort son 
approvisionnement de figues. Cela dit, on peut se demander s'il portait 
reellement, dans l'usage ordinaire de la vie, ce nom de tobou qui in- 
dique sa destination? La reponse ne me parait pas douteuse, car 
les monuments se chargent de la faire pour nous. L'accord entre 
le nom du domaine et la matiere qu'il est charge de fournir n'est pas 
aussi constant qu'on serait tente de le croire. Ainsi le domaine 
^^ ®^ le poisson latus de Khouit-hotpou, apporte non pas du 
poisson, mais de la biere \ ^ CZi. 1 Certains des noms etaient done 
reels, d'autres ne l'etaient point, et n'avaient d'autre objet que de 
repondre a une des prescriptions du Rituel Funeraire egyptien. 
Reels ou fictifs, ils avaient pour le mort un interet serieux. J'ai deja 
eu souvent l'occasion de montrer que la representation d'un objet 
ou d'une scene suffisait pour valoir au proprietaire d'un tombeau la 
possession de cet objet dans l'autre monde ou le benefice de Taction 

1 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 324, 353, 398, peut-etre a la p. 1S5 [1 
est-il une faute de copiste pour [| _^ y © . 
- Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 185, 325. 

3 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 353. 4 Lepsius, Dcnkm., II, pi. 28. 

B Mariette, Mastabas, p. 186 ; Lepsius, Dcnkm., II, pi. 46, 61. 
6 Lepsius, Dcnkm., II, pi. 46. 7 Mariette, les Mastabas, p. 70. 

240 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

figuree sur la scene. La peinture d'une procession de domaines, 
apportant a l'image d'un mort les divers produits necessaires a la vie, 
donnait eternellement au double de ce mort la jouissance reelle de 
chacun des produits representees. Le domaine avait beau etre fictif, 
du moment qu'on mettait sur le raur un personnage le representant, et 
qu'on ecrivait un nom a cote de ce personnage, le mort recevait 
perpetuellement l'espece particuliere de fruit, de graine ou de legume 
que ce domaine etait cense lui devoir, et lui apporter comme rede- 
vance. Comme c'etait apres tout un procede des moins couteux 
pour les survivants, on ne se faisait pas faute d'y recourir liberalement : 
autant on avait de place, autant on pouvait figurer de ces domaines 
fictifs. 

Les noms de la seconde cate'gorie representent toujours ou 
pretendent representer quelque chose ayant une existence reelle. 
Une bonne moitie d'entre eux est empruntee a la nature egyptienne, 
comme beaucoup de nos noms de villages le sont a. notre nature : 
"^□"oQ© nouhit, 1 le sycomore, (j^g^Yix^ iarou, 2 les 
palmes, U ^fctih kanou, 3 la treille, J 



o l°U KANOU ' ia treme - JLW! 

J ^| benzouitou, benzouit, 4 le vignoble (]'v\<^r=> "W*© 

iarorit, ialolit, 5 le raisin, p=s=i W © soshshni, 6 le lotus 
i—rc-i 7 fi pi pi ■— ii — ' 1 <o< 

J ^=-_ f\ U UU © shafit, 7 le champ de pieds d'alouette' Anit 8 

^ V i n - n ' " ' i o © 

le poisson latus, v\ ¥\ *N«^ mimou, 9 l'hyene, Q «cz=> ^° 

1 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 186, 276, 325 ; Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 46, 47. 

2 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 28. 

3 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 61. ^\ W\ 1 rnot non signale jusqu'a present, 
se retrouve sous la forme ^ T^lX N0UKA > d ans un ^ inscription du tombeau 
d'Amten (Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 7, b, 1. 3). 

4 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 181, 186. Benzouit, au pluriel BENZOUITOU, est 
un mot nouveau. 

5 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 46. 6 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 47. 

7 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 1S1. 

8 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 153, 186, 196, 300, 306 ; Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 
28, 46, 47. 

9 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 306, 474. 

241 T 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

hazourit 1 l'ichneumon, le rat de pharaon, ^ v v?()© toritou, 2 



les saules, la saussaie. D'autres sont empruntes aux accidents 
divers du terrain ou a des constructions, ^ N @ shit, 3 le bassin, l'etang, 

9. 1 — ( Ro-shonou, 4 la bouche de l'ecluse, jL © 

I /www © £^ 3> 

I \\ I 00c 

shit-risit et oc>* shit-mihtit, 5 le lac du Sud et le lac du 

o © 

J "^ SOKHIT-AMENTIT et I U U U 7TC SOKHIT 

i? ® 1 ,0^1^ 1 © 

abtit, 6 le pre de l'Occident et le pre de l'Orient, jhU^ ^^ D © 
sokhit Anou, 7 la prairie des fleurs Anou, ( ) ^) © 

ait azdou, 8 l'ile verte (?), ( > T <=> ait nofir, 9 l'ile du bon, 
a'it-sovkou, l'ile du crocodile ou du dieu Sovkou, 



Nord, (1 






^>^>© ait rokhitou, 11 l'ile des blanchisseurs (?), _§^jt| = ^, 
\ ^ 12 ahait, ha'it, le champ, I oA-jj- @ ait sokhit, 13 

l'ile du filet ou des chasseurs au filet, (I v\ /j-A „ iai't, la porte, 



& 

1 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 28. X <^^> a ete traduit par cheval, malgre son 

determinatif, et M. Lefebure a conclu de cette interpretation que le cheval etait 

connu en Egypte des l'Ancien Empire. C'est une forme dialectale du mot a 

khatour, &[<L0OtX ou M. Lefebure reconnait avec grand raison l'ichneumon : 

le determinatif jj^Ko represente l'animal lui meme. On trouve X <^> 

o ^ Ac 

hazourit, \ < _-~ > hatour, et avec chute de < — > finale t ° * , dans les noms 

propres de l'ancien empire : c'est un nouvel exemple a joindre a ceux que nous 

avons deja du passage de ) a e^^> , ° v et O . 

2 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 23. 

3 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 196, 276, 306, 353, 398, 474 ; Lepsius, Denkm., II, 
pi. 28, 46, 47. 

4 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 181, 481, 484. 

5 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 317. 6 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 300. 

7 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 481, 484. 

8 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 474. 9 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 300. 
10 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 181. H Mariette, Mastabas, p. 300. 

12 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 474 ; Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 28, 32, oil le mot est 
inutile. 

1:1 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 317. 

242 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



o © 



I I J asit, 1 le «renier voute, le silo, ^~^ Mr V^ ^ 

shit ouahouou, le lac des pecheurs, IT JJJ 

sha smiritou, 2 le verger des amies. Le caractere tout local que 
presentent ces noms nous montre qu'on a ici des domaines reels. 
lis faisaient partie des proprietes du mort, et auraient droit a figurer 
tous sur la carte de l'Egypte, si des renseignements certains nous 
permettaient d'y retrouver les parcelles de terrain auxquelles ces 
noms divers etaient attaches. Je crois bien que la plupart d'entre 
eux etaient assez petits : si riches qu'on suppose leurs maitres, its 
avaient a cote d'eux beaucoup d'autres personnages de rang et de 
fortune a peu pres egale, dont les tombes ou sont detruites ou sont 
encore inconnues, et qui possedaient chacun une certaine quantite 
de territoire. Or la superficie du norae Memphite, ou tous ces gens 
avaient leurs proprietes, n'est pas telle qu'on puisse y trouver place 
pour quelques centaines de grands domaines : il faut done se 
resoudre a admettre que si quelques uns de ces biens-fonds etaient 
considerables, beaucoup etaient de dimensions restreintes. 

Les noms de la seconde serie dont je n'ai pas encore parle 
sont formes avec des cartouches de pharaons, et sont les plus 
interessants de tous. Le cartouche qu'ils contiennent est en effet 
une date qui nous apprend le moment ou chacun d'eux fut con- 
stitue : il ne prouve pas necessairement que le Pharaon donna a un 
particulier le terrain nomme d'apres lui, mais qu'il etait encore 
sur le trone quand le domaine recut son titre. Or cette observation 
a une importance capitale pour nous prouver que le domaine, une 
fois etabli, conservait longtemps sa personnalite : si en effet nous 
trouvons sous un roi de la VP dynastie des domaines oil se ren- 
contrent les cartouches des rois de la V e et de la IV e , il 
faut bien admettre qu'ils avaient conserve leur nom depuis le 
moment ou les rois qui portaient ces cartouches avaient cessd 
de regner. Ainsi Phtahhotpou, qui vivait sous l'avant-dernier roi 

Assi de la V e dynastie, a des domaines nommes d'apres ( © W ^^, ] 
Didifri dela IV e dynastie f^lP^"] OusiRKAF TofflT^j 
Sahouri (UUI] Q A Q Ai (kT^J \ ] Haraqaou Qz^j] 

1 Mariette, Mas/abas, p. 353. - Mariette, Mas/abas, p. 181. 

243 T 2 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

de la V 6 ; 1 ces rois couvrent un espace de plus de deux siecles 

pendant lesquels le domaine ( O ^ h^— I 1 Q *= @ Fetoile Sahoud, 

de Didifri n'avait cesse de porter le nom de l'obscur pharaon 
Didifri. Les elements qui entrent dans la composition des noms de 
cette espece ne sont pas tres varies. Dans quelques uns c'est un dieu 
ou une deesse qu'on dit aimer le roi, vivifier le roi, ou proteger sa 



vie : CHHlil ] I JJ \^ © Hika miri Ankh assi, ( WlJ^J 
"T^VIt©! 2 Safkhit-aboui miri on kh Haraqaou ( f| ~~l~ \\ ] 

^[W© Safkhit aboui sankh Assi 3 (Ikfl U V[ J?) I^g @ 
Haraqaou Mati miri. 4 Dans d'autres, le nom du roi est 
accompagne" d'un terme qui exprime une qualite du roi ou 

du terrain qui porte le nom du roi : ( Q ll\ ^ J J Q g 
Sahouri bahit, la richesse de Sahouri T () Z^Z I] J J 8 S 
Assi Bahit, (Az^zf)] X CXj © Assi MAN HABI » Assi 

a des fetes durables, f l)—^~/| J I© Assi-aa-nofir, Assi est 

tres bon 5 ( Q ~^~ 1 T [I |(| Assi nofir habi, Assi a de bons 

poissons de fete 6 (o ^ J , .. ™ .© Khafr! oir kaou, Khafri 
est riche (ou grand) en doubles 7 f®^^!^)"^®^© 
Khoufoui ouakhou 8 Co 3Q J jT) Q^ © Khafr} ouakhou 9 



1 M-iriette, Mast abas, p. 3153. 2 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 74^. 

3 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 76 a et b. 

4 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. So : ^ \ J£^ mati est ici le nom du dieu lion. 

5 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. So ; cfr. Mariette, Mastabas, p. 306. 

6 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 76 a, £. 

7 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 12. 8 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 23. 

9 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 42; a la planche 74 d, se trouve un domaine 

0M jQ O ifP © oil le cartouche est soit Haraqaou, soit Kakai ; 
WM&fc-m Ola 
peut-etre doit-on lire dans ces noms Ouakhou Khoufoui, Ouakhou Kiiairi, 

le pre de Khonfoui, le pre de Khafri. 

244 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

le roi Khoufoui, le roi Khafri verdoie, ( O I <2>- \ J | ff 1 ^yb* g§ 

V ° ' — J r^v- 1 Ju\ ^ 

NOFIRIRKERI OUASH-BAIOU, 1 ( j[ J j[ J (j J JPl r^X- i ^kfift KaKI OUASH- 

ba'iou, le roi Nofirirkeri, 2 le roi Kaki, ont des ames pleines de volonte, 
( ® y ^\ J ^"1 K^v® Khoufoui-aa-zofaou, 3 Khoufoui 

a beaucoup de provisions. Je pourrais continuer cette enumeration, 
mais je prefere me borner a indiquer quelques cas oil Ton pent 
reconnaitre une survivance assez longue du domaine et de son nom. 
Phtahhotpou avait sous Ounas deux domaines portant le nom de 

Snoufroui, fjj^g^et ( U^Y] «=» ^ »■ ™ » 
nom de Khe'ops, ® V\ ^ | hat-khoufoui un au nom de 



Sahouri, I 0^. ^ \\> T < hat-sahouri miri nofirit, et plusieurs 

au nom de Kiki et d'Assi : les plus anciens retenaient done leur 
nom depuis au moins quatre siecles quand il mourut. 4 Shop 
siskafankhou, ne probablement sous Shopsiskaf comme son nom 
l'indique, mais dont la vie se prolongea sous Nofirirkeri, avait 

deux domaines portant le nom de Khoufoui, f <fi ~^j§ ® y> *^=^ I 
S@0 ^ et S@ l©, un au nom de Shopsiskaf ffl^l 
■¥■ , un au nom de Sahouri f O ^\ P ] x ) ^) > un au nom 

de Nofirirkeri ( O ! -cs>- 1 )| "H *SSn> © ; 8 les plus anciens de ces 

V ' — 'A ' " ' IIaI 

domaines, ceux qui contiennent le cartouche de Khoufoui, avaient done, 
a sa mort, porte leur nom pendant pres d'un siecle et demi. Mihtinofir, 
qui vivait sous Sahouri au debut de la V e dynastie, avait un domaine 

qui portait. le nom de Snofroui ( P I <=> p J ' £T" Snofroui 

Saou-hit, et un autre qui portait celui de Didifri, I O 7? ^^ J 

I [jjjll © Didifri sokhit: 6 le domaine appele d'apres Snofroui 

avait done conserve son nom pendant un siecle et demi au moins. 
Sabou, qui mourut dans les premiers temps de la VI e dynastie, 

1 Lepsius, Denkm. II, pi. 50 a. 4 Diimichen, Rcsitltate, T. I, pi. xviii. 

2 Lepsius, Denkm., pi. 74^/. 5 Lepsius, Denkm., pi. 5o</. 

3 Lepsius, Denkm., pi. 23. 6 Mariette, Mast abas, p. 300. 

245 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

possedait a cote de domaines appeles d'apres Assi, Ounas, et 
Teti, une propriete dont le nom renfermait le cartouche de Khafri. 

f O a ^ I <x0^ © : ce domaine avait conserve son nom pendant 

pres de trois cents ans. Quelques uns des domaines ainsi con- 
stitues se developperent peu a peu et s'eleverent au rang de ville: 



ainsi, dans le nome de la Gazelle /rf) fflTF , le domaine nomine 



( ® v k — \> I wwva <=>&Q® Monait-Khoufoui. ^^ <=> (W) monait 
la nourrice, etait un des mots qui entraient dans la composition des 
noms de domaine : nous avons par exemple y /www o (W) © 



oA^ D. 
Monait ptahhotpou, et q m) Monait 3 a Meydoum. Monait- 

Khoufoui fut d'abord un domaine a qui son proprietaire donna 
le nom du roi Khoufoui; puis il devint une ville, non pas Minieh, 
comme on le dit depuis Champollion, mais l^o^*]^ el-Anbage, appele 
aussi Medinet Daoud ^\j &>.<**>, ou la Commission d'Egypte 
a rencontre des ruines considerables. 4 Cette ville, importante 
pendant le moyen empire, fut, sous la XII e dynastie, la capitale 
de la principaute orientale de la Gazelle. Elle avait probablement 
disparu ou change de nom pendant la seconde periode thebaine, 
car les touristes de la XX e dynastie qui visitaient les tombes de 
Beni-Hassan ne savaient plus ce que c'etait que Monait-Khoufoui, 
et, appliquant ce nom aux tombes meme, y voyaient le souvenir 
d'une ville, d'un temple de Khoufoui. 5 Beaucoup des vieux do- 
maines ont du avoir une destinee analogue. 

De tout ce que j'ai dit, il resulte que nous avons, pour la 
propriete egyptienne, une constitution analogue a celle que nous 
avons, pour la propriete romaine, a l'epoque imperiale, et aux premiers 
temps au moins de l'epoque barbare. Le domaine y est une 
personne ayant son nom independant de celui du proprietaire actuel 
et persistant a travers les ages. L'examen des processions funeraires 
nous apprend que, comme le domaine romain, il pouvait comprendre 

1 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 383. 2 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 353. 

s Mariette, Mastabas, p. 474. 

4 Description de ViLgyple, Antiqftitds, T. IV, p.. 347 sqq. 

' Maspero, Les peintures des tombeaux igypHens et la Mosaique de Pa/eslri/ie, 
p. 49. 

246 



Mar. 4] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[189c. 



des pres, des vignobles, des terres en labour, des etangs, des 
herbages marecageux, des terrains de chasse : on voit en effet tel 
de ces domaines qui amene un boeuf, un veau, une gazelle, une 
chevre, ou qui apporte des fruits, des legumes, du raisin, des paquets 
d'oies et de volailles, du poisson, ce qui montre la variete de leurs 
produits et par suite la variete des terrains qu'ils embrassaient. 
Comme dans l'empire romain, la grande propriete n'etait pas formee 
d'un seul domaine s'etendant et s'elargissant a l'infini : elle etait 
constitute par dix, vingt, trente domaines et plus, quelquefois 
groupes dans un meme canton, quelquefois disperses sur plusieurs 
cantons eloignes '■ (ceux de Sabou, par exemple, etaient dans cinq 
noraes differents), quelques uns contigus, quelques autres isoles au 
milieu de proprietes du meme genre appartenant a des maitres 
differents. Ces domaines souvent ne renferment que des groupes 
d'habitations rurales trop insignifiants pour etre ce que nous appelons 
un village ; souvent aussi ils renferment une maison seigneuriale, 
autour de laquelle peuvent se former des villages et meme des villes. 
Ceci me conduit a examiner ce que signifie exactement le mot 

LJ £T3 H ^ IT > Qui echange avec le mot ®, nouit, ou le double, et 
qui parait a premiere vue designer ces maisons seigneuriales et les 
bourgs qui les entourent. 

2 . Je ne me rappelle pas qu'on ait explique de facon certaine 
ce que represente le signe I . Cest n'est pas, comme on l'a dit, 
une chambre avec un siege, mais, si on le compare au petit croquis 




que voici qui represente la Shounet ez-Zebib a Abydos, on reconnaitra 
sur le champ que I et ses variantes , F~|, P~~q> [""3' sont 
le plan abrege d'une forteresse egyptienne. Cest une enceinte 
rectangulaire, posee tantot sur un des cotes longs, tantot sur un des 
cotes courts ; dans un des angles on a dessine le trace de la porte 

1 Mariette, Mastakas, p. 383. 
247 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1890. 

principale et de la place d'armes qui la defend, quelquefois merae 
on a indique a deux angles opposes deux grandes portes P~~T], 
cotnme c'est le cas pour certaines forteresses, ainsi pour celle de 
Kom el-Ahmar (Hieraconpolis) en face d'el-Kab. 

Aujourd'hui encore, en Egypte, les maisons seigneuriales qui ont 
ete baties avant qu'on imitat les modeles europeens presentent un 
plan analogue a celui de la Shounet ez-Zebib. Les unes sont isolees, 
les autres placees au milieu d'un village plus ou moins considerable ; 
toutes sont de ve'ritables forteresses, offrant pour la plupart l'aspect 
d'un rectangle plus ou moins regulier selon les contours du terrain 
qu'elles couvrent. L'enceinte exterieure est assez haute pour mettre 
les habitants a. l'abri de l'escalade, epaisse de deux metres et plus, 
construite en briques crues recouvertes d'un crepis blanchatre ou 
jaunatre. La porte, encadree de briques cuites et parfois de pierre, 
est assez etroite ; deux ou trois poternes basses, dissimulees sur les 
cotes, fournissent des issues aux defenseurs de la place. Les facades 
sont nues ordinairement, sauf quelques lucarnes placets le plus haut 
possible et des meurtrieres par lesquelles on peut tirer sur les gens 
du dehors. A l'interieur c'est un fouillis de cours, de corps de 
batiment construits dans tous les sens, et se raccordant ou se separant 
sous tous les angles imaginables : une maison assez soignee pour 
le maitre et sa famille, des huttes pour les domestiques et les 
ouvriers agricoles, des magasins a. provisions, des etables pour les 
bestiaux, des colombiers, le tout reuni par des couloirs etroits et 
tortueux, ou la resistance peut se prolonger, meme apres que le mitr 
exterieur a ete force. 1 C'est un veritable chateau fort, et chateau 
est le meilleur terme qu'on puisse employer a traduire [J ^ hait 
dans notre langue. Certains gros villages de la Haute-Egypte 
renferment plusieurs de ces maisons seigneuriales habitees par des 
families ennemies, et sans cesse en guerre l'une contre l'autre. 
Aux mois de Decembre 1885 et de Janvier 1886, un de ces villages 
que je visitai entre Girgeh et Abydos avait ete en proie a une 
veritable guerre civile : le moudir de Sohag avait du envoyer un 
fort detachement d'infanterie pour retablir la paix, et faire demolir 
a coups de canon deux de ces maisons seigneuriales qui soutinrent 
contre ses troupes un siege de plusieurs jours. 

1 Voir dans Denon, Voyage de la H*e Egypte, in-4 , p. 150 sqq., le recit de la 
resistance qu'une de ces maisons fortifiees opposa au petit corps du general 
Belliard. 

248 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

N c~D hait est done une habitation fortifiee, par suite, 
la maison seigneuriale, le chateau construit dans un domaine, 
et cela explique pourquoi, dans la formule que je citais 
au debut de cet article, on voit [J ^ hait, tantot accompa- 
gner, tantot remplacer Jp, nouit. Des haitou sont en effet melees 
aux processions des nouitou, qui ne different de ces dernieres que 
parceque leur nom commence par y ^ hait; comme les nouitou? 
les haitou apportent des gateaux, des fruits, des volailles, amenent 
des bestiaux ou du gibier. Quelques uns portent le nom de y [7-3 
hait sans epithete, et s'appellent le chateau tout court. 1 D'autres, 
en souvenir du role funeraire qu'ils jouent dans les processions 
figurees sur le mur des tombes, s'intitulent y rj^j ""H - hait-ka, 
chateau de double, 2 et designent souvent soit le tombeau qui etait 
le chateau du mort, soit le chateau ou siegeait l'administration 
des biens du tombeaux. On y ajoute souvent le nom du mort, 
D y J=j © HAIT KA pohnou, 3 chateau de double de Pohnou, 

®k+Q^® hAit " ka tapemAnkhou4 sV^QJ^-® 

HAIT-KA RAKAPOU, 5 [1 ^>i \ [J vi^- © HAIT-KA SAMNOFIR. 6 Le mort 

pouvait avoir plusieurs de ces chateaux de double qui alors se distin- 
guaient les uns des autres par une epithete J 1, T" J^V 
hait-ka Sonouankhou AMENTiT, le chateau de double Occiden- 
tal de Sonouankhou, LJ rH] 1 5 "f* i HAIT KA Sonou-ankhou risit, 
le chateau de double meridional de Sonou-ankhou, IV T" 'A, 
hait ka Sonouankhou hihatit, le chateau de double moyen de 

1 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 33 c. 

2 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 50 a ; Mariette, Mastabas, p. 305. 

3 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 46. 

4 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 196 ; cfr. Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 76 a, le suite des 



u 



de Snozmou-hlt. 

5 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 276 ; e'est par erreur de copiste que le texte auto- 

w ■ n \ r 

iphie donne □ > S^ au lieu dc y » Si . 

6 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 398. 

249 



Mar. 4] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.-EOLOGY. 



[1890. 



Sonouankhou 1 Unlof ^ hait ka Sonouankhou mihit, 
le chateau de double septentrional, ^ V ~" •¥• >„ 
Sonouankhou ouabit, le chateau de double pur de Sonouankhou, 



hait-ka 



Lu n 1 D T liH I' ' == & j hait ka Sonouankhou hait asokou> 
le chateau de double de Sonouankhou (appele) le chateau- 
frappeur, ou le chateau des chaouches. 2 On trouve aussi 



QJ 







HAIT 



hait noutiri, un chateau du dieu, un 

Aou (?) chateau de l'ane.* Tres-souvent les noms des chateaux 
contiennent un cartouche de Pharaon : ils sont alors formes sur 
le merae modele que les noms des nouitou. L'on a done des 

\ T~ !) I O ^ ■?• © HAIT ASSI MIRI-R1 ANKHOU, /[ ~T~ (| 1 © B ^ 

° MM ° 



HAIT ASSI RA SROUDOU, 



D O 



HAIT ASSI RA SEHOT- 



POU5 



mm\ 



HAIT ASSI NOFIR HOSITOU 



\\H~ HAIT HARAQAOU [ra] SANKHOU, 6 ® ^\ "K 



.lufcJo 



I 



HAIT 



khoufoui nofir. 7 Le meme personnage donnait aux chateaux 
qu'il possedait dans differents nomes le nom du roi qu'il servait, 
et les distinguait par une epithete : ainsi Sabou avait dans le nom 

n □ 



Libyque ^ I) I " P o © hait teti iritniphtah, dans le nome 
de la vache, Iff! ° $B f 
dans le nome Letopolite ^ 






HAIT TETI PHTAH SANKHOU, 
-<2>- 



n 



HAIT TETI PHTAH 



1 Le chateau moyen -k,' e'est-a-dire, le chateau situe au milieu des tevres, 
dans la vallee du Nil, a proximite du fleuve qui, theoriquement, marquait le milieu 
j=l, de 1 Egypte, entre les deux montagnes. 

2 Mariette, Afastabas, p. 317. | -- — *T est, comme j'aurai occasion de 
l'indiquer ailleurs, un vieux mot ayant designe les soldats, et ne designant plus 
que les huissiers, les soldats de police attaches a une administration, ce que 
dans l'Egypte moderne on nomme les chaouches . L%\s— 



3 Mariette, Mastabas, pp. 481, 484. 
A Lepsius, Dcnkm., II, pi. 80. 
6 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 80. 



5 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 76/'. 
7 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 32. 



250 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [18 



□ Q ^^ 



n 



NOFIRIRIT ^l| I Q ~ ' T ® HAIT TETI PHTAH MANEN 

sankhou dans le canton Oriental. 1 Les noms de ces cha- 
teaux pouvaient se perpetuer comme ceux des domaines : ainsi 
Phtahhotpou avait sous Assi et Ounas des chateaux au nom 

d'Ousirkaf, de Kaki et de Haraqaou j ^ () U \ I T Q Vj\ © 



HAIT HARAQAOU NOFIRKHA-TI, 






OUSIRKAF HOR MIRI ANKHOU 

kaki miri ANKHou, 3 dont le plus ancien portait le nom d'Ousirkaf 
depuis plus d'un siecle quand son proprietaire le fit representer 
sur les parois de sa tombe. Les haitou des simples particulier 
etaient done, comme on voit, dans les memes conditions que 
leurs nouitou. Rapprochant 1'un de l'autre tous les faits epars dans 
cette etude, on en arrive a voir que la propriete territoriale des 
grands seigneurs egyptiens se partageait en domaines ruraux n'ayant 
pas de maison seigneuriale proprement dite, ou n'ayant pour l'usage 
du maitre qu'une maison insignifiante non fortifiee, et en domaines 
ayant une maison seigneuriale, un chateau analogue a ceux que j'ai 
decrits comme existants encore dans l'Egypte moderne : les premiers 

s'appelaient ® t nouitou, les seconds [J n haitou. Je traduirai 
done la formule qui m'a fourni le sujet de cette etude [| ^ K T < *~? 1 

Q Q AAAAAA « rjj-l O © © O ^^ ^Vh> *\ I D -A I ^ 1 



" l'hommage de tous les produits de l'annee, apportes des chateaux 
du mort et de ses domaines du nord et du midi." 

II me reste a examiner certains emplois de ces deux mots 
(J rj^j hait et J®, nouit, qui decoulent de leur sens primitif. 
Le mot Jf| nouit sert a, designer un tombeau, le territoire de 
chacune des douze heures que le soleil parcourt pendant la nuit, une 
ville comme Thebes. Le tombeau etait le fief du mort, e't se compo- 
posait de la maison du mort ou tombe proprement dite, des terres 
dependantes de la tombe et destinees a l'entretien du mort et de ses 
pretres. La tombe proprement dite est parfois comme je l'ai dit, 
identifiee a la maison seigneuriale, et s'appelle [j [73 hait ou hah 
KA > N m "- vft "? rnais l'ensemble des biens du mort constitue un 

1 Mariette, Mastabas, p. 383. " Mariette, Mastabas, p. 353. 

251 



M\r. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILLOLOGY. [1890. 

veritable domaine identique aux domaines des vivants, et par con- 
sequent peut etre considere comme une ^J| nouit; c'est pour 
cela qu'on lui donne le nom de nouit ® t dans tant de cas, et 
avec l'epithete ^[, eternel, ® x 4*4 nouit zctou, domaine eternel, 
concession a perpetuite. Les heures de la nuit ont chacune un 
territoire organise de la merae facon que le territoire de l'Egypte ; 
ce sont de vrais nomes. On concoit que les pretres les aient 
comparees a, ces domaines des grands seigneurs qui avaient ou 
n'avaient pas leur village ou leur maison seigneuriale, et les aient 
appelees^i nouit, un domaine. Enfin, on a traduit des expressions 
comme Jfi \ i~~| ® nouit Amon, ®\ \ Tj~vP p^ ® nouit Hapi 
par la ville d'Amon, la ville de Hapi, Diospolis, Nilopolis. Je 
traduirai le domaine cT Anion, le domaine de Hapi ; ces expressions 
designent en effet non-seulement la ville de Thebes ou celle de 
Nilopolis, mais le territoire dependant du dieu Amon et celui qui 
relevait du dieu Nil. II y a au fond de la traduction ordinaire 
qu'on donne de ces mots, comme au fond de beaucoup de nos 
traductions, une deformation de l'idee antique. Nous sommes les 
dupes de nos mots et de nos notions modernes, et nous cherchons 
a les retrouver sous les mots et sous les idees d'autrefois, au grand 
detriment de la verite historique. La traduction ville qu'on a 

tiree de ® x \ £^ © Nouit- Amon, No-Amon pour ® x nouit, nous 
a masque le sens reel de ce mot. Si Ton voulait lui trouver un 
equivalent latin, ce serait par le mot ftagns qu'on devrait le traduire, 
plutot que par urbs ou par clvitas, comme on fait ordinairement. 

y £~2 hait entre dans un titre tres frequent sous l'ancien empire, 
et dont la valeur n'a jamais ete etablie bien nettement, celui de 
f U hiqou hait. f [J hiqou hait designe un homme qui exerce 
l'autorite pleine et entiere sur un chateau, de la meme maniere que 
[ ^~| hiqou nouit, celui qui exerce l'autorite pleine et entiere sur 
un domaine ; mais quel est ce chateau ? L'inscription d'Ouni nous 
montre les [ |J ^ ^"^ hiqouou hait places sur le meme pied 
que les ^ ® ^^ ^ hi-topou, dans le nord et dans le sud de 
l'Egypte. Comme nous savons que les princes feodaux portaient 
le titre de X=- hi-topou aa de leur nome, j'incline a croire que 
le titre parallele de [ [J hiqou hait devait conferer a celui qui 
en etait revetu une autorite reelle sur une partie quelconque du 

252 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

territoire egyptien. Et de fait, nous voyons que tous les ndminis- 
trateurs des nornes sous 1'ancien empire s'intitulent ( [J hiqou 
hait ou plus tot fnn' I LD C~3 < ^T > HI Q° U hAit ait, Seigneur 
da grand chateau : ainsi Amten eta it [ "Q" dans plusieurs nomes 
de la Basse-Egypte, 1 Khounas etait [ xJ hiqou hait ait dans 
le nome de la Gazelle A/\ THTP , 2 les hauts personnages enterres 
a Bersheh et a Sheikh Said avaient la meme dignite dans le nome 
du Lievre ^ap H i ll ; 3 Pahournofir l'avait a Heliopolis et dans 
plusieurs autres localites. 4 Ce dernier personnage est interessant, 

en ce qu'il nous donne la dignite de K3 , Commandant du 

flv-^- 

nome busirite, en parallelisme avec celle f "jjfll©, Seigneur du 
grand chateau d' Heliopolis. II y avait done dans tous les nomes 
et dans toutes les villes 011 commandaient ces personnages un 
chateau [J ^ hait, et meme un grand chateau "q" rj^j hait ait 
dont ils etaient les seigneurs. Ce grand chateau, comme les chateaux 
des domaines ruraux, pouvait etre isole ou situe dans une ville ou 
dans un village. Ilya aujourd'hui encore dans l'Egypte moderne 
des Edifices qui repondent a ces chateaux, isoles ou non, et dont 
l'aspect et l'usage nous expliquent ce qu'etaient les chateaux [J ^ 
haitou de l'Egypte ancienne. 

Le mtilleur type que je connaisse de ce grand chateau ^ rjn 
moderne isole est le couvent Blanc d'Amba Shenoudah, dans la 
province de Sohag. Le mot couvent, par lequel nous rendons en ce 
cas le nom j j deir, ne donne pas une idee exacte de ce que e'est 
que le Deir blanc en question. En voici un croquis pris rapidement 
en quelques moments et sa'ns instruments, mais assez exact dans les 
grandes lignes pour montrer ce dont il s'agit. L'ensemble forme un 
massif rectangulaire, delimite par une enceinte en pierres, haute, 
epaisse, capable de resister longtemps a une attaque de vive force 
ou l'assaillant n'emploierait point l'artillerie pour ouvrir la breche. 
La porte est placee sur le cote long qui fait face a la plaine, plus pres 

1 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 4-7. 2 Lepsius, Denim., II, pi. 106, 299. 

3 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. no-ill. 

4 Nestor Lhote, Papiers Manuscrits, T. Ill, folio t,^ sqq. 

253 



Mar. 4] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV, 



[1S90. 



cle Tangle meridional que de Tangle septentrional. Elle est assez 
etroite et facile a defendre, et donne acces sur un couloir borde 
de chambres ou de maisons, qui debouche sur une cour a peu pres 
rectangulaire. Les deux tiers environ de Tespace enferme dans 
Tenceinte sont occupes de maisons a plusieurs etages, etroites et 




sombres, baties Tune contre Tautre, et reliees par des passages le 
plus souvent voutes ou du moins couverts. Les contours en sont 
indiques au hasard sur le croquis : il eut fallu des journees pour 
en lever le plan, si meme les habitants s'etaient pretes a ce qu'on 
le levat. Le tiers restant est occupe par Teglise et par ses annexes. 
Ce chateau-fort contient quelques moines, et une population nom- 
breuse de fellahs, hommes et femmes, qui en sortent le matin avec 
leurs bestiaux, et se repandent sur les terres du couvent et 
rentrent le soir un peu avant nuit close. L'abbe et les dignitaires 
occupent des logements dans les batiments de Teglise. Cette 
disposition est ancienne, car le couvent a ete fonde a Tepoque 
byzantine ; du reste, j'ai eu Toccasion de visiter un certain nombre 
de deirs mines, et j'y ai rencontre partout la meme disposition et des 
dispositions analogues. L'exemple le plus frappant en est celui du 
couvent, situe a TOccident d'Assouan, au dela du Nil. Pris et 
devaste par les Turcs vers 1540, il est reste a. peu-pres tel qu'au 
moment ou la population a du le quitter. Le rectangle est pose 
sur le versant d'une colline, dont Tun des cotes longs couronne 
la crete. A Tinterieur, il est divise en trois quartiers par des murs 
per<jes de quelques portes : au bas de la colline, une veritable ville 
contenant des maisons encore presque intactes, au milieu desquelles 
circulent des rues voutees, quelques unes assez larges, d'autres a 
peine suffisantes pour livrer passage a un horame; plus haut, le 
quartier des religieux ou se dressent encore plusieurs eglises, dont 
Tune a, dans le choeur, des fresques curieuses d'une bonne con- 
servation, enfin, tout au sommet, un donjon renfermant probablement 
Thotel de Tabbe et de Teveque dAssouan, le tresor, la bibliotheque, 

254 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

et qui communiquait avec la ville par un escalier long, etroit et 
sans rampe. J'ai eu la curiosite de faire quelques fouilles dans les 
forteresses d'epoque pharaonique qui subsistent encore, et j'ai 
reconnu que le deir en reproduit les principales dispositions. A la 
Shounet ez-Zebib, bien que les sondages de Mariette aient boule- 
verse l'interieur de l'enceinte, on reconnait encore, dans Tangle 
Sud-Ouest, pres de la puterne qui s'ouvre dans le cote long 
tourne vers la plaine, les restes d'un edifice assez considerable qui 
renferme des pieces relativement assez grandes et en tout cas bien 
baties : des debris d'une muraille en calcaire semblent indiquer en 
cet endroit l'existence d'une petite chapelle, analogue a celles qu'on 
trouve dans les ruines de la ville de Thebes, au milieu des maisons. 
Vers le centre, il n'y a pas trace de constructions ; il y avait la un 
espace vide, place ou cour, analogue a la cour du Couvent blanc. 
Autour de cet espace, vers le Nord et l'Est, et l'Ouest, on constate 
un peu partout la presence de murs en briques crues et en pise, 
appartenant a d<>s maisons de fellahs, et, ca et la, des nappes de 
fumier, placees a quelques pieds au-dessous des couches de sable, 
ou Mariette decouvrit un cimetiere d'ibis et d'enfants en bas-age, 
montrent qu'il y avait la des elables a. bestiaux. A Kom el-Ahmar, 
j'ai releve des faits analogues, mais de facon moins complete, faute 
de temps. Les enceintes comme la Shounet ez-Zebib devaient done 
presenter l'aspect des deirs coptes; d'une maniere generale, on 
peut dire que les deirs isoles nous rendent la physionomie des 
[J ^2 haitou isolees. 

Mais la meme disposition qu'on signale dans les deirs se trouve 
avec quelques modifications dans les maisons seigneuriales des emirs 
mameloucks ou autres, que j'ai pu visiter dans quelques villes de la 
Haute-Egypte. Les restes de la maison que les emirs ou cherifs 
d'Akhmim occupaient a l'Ouest de la ville, au xvn e et au xvm e siecle, 
existaient encore il y a huit ans : ils ont ete restaures et le plan, 
modifie vers 1884, par le descendant actuel de ces cherifs. Cetait 
une enceinte, affectant la forme d'un carre long assez irregulier, 
entoure d'un mur epais en briques cuites, reposant en plusieurs 
endroits sur un soubassement en pierres. Au centre, etait une cour 
oblongue, a laquelle on avait acces vers l'Ouest par un long passage 
couvert, bordee vers le S.-O. par l'habitation de 1'emir, et, sur les 
autres cotes, par les maisons des domestiques et des employes, par 
des magasins d'armes, de'fourrages et de provisions, par des corps de 
garde ; vers le S.-E., un autre passage voute ouvrait sur un ruelle qui 

255 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

passe derriere une grande mosquee, Gama 'el-E/mr, et mene au bazar. 
Aujourd'hui, le cherif ne possede plus que l'ancienne maison d'habi- 
tation : le reste appartient a des particuliers. La cour est devenue 
une place publique, le passage couvert de l'Ouest est une rue, l'autre 
passage voute a ete detruit et n'est plus qu'une rue decouverte, sur 
les murs de laquelle on apergoit encore, a intervalles, la naissance des 
arceaux qui soutenaient la voute ; les anciens magasins et corps de 
garde en partie sont detruits, en partie ont ete transformed en mai- 
sons bourgeoises. C'etait de ce chateau que les emirs d'Akhmim 
administraient la ville : ils s'y enferniaient a la moindre emeute, et la 
famine seule pouvait les reduire. Akhmlm n'est pas visitee par les 
Europeens, mais Siout est un de leurs points d'arret, sa moudirieh 
est un edifice du genre de celui que je viens de decrire. Tous les 
touristes ont traverse cette cour ombreuse, entouree de maisons 
basses oil sont installees les diverses administrations de la province : 
un mur et des canaux l'isolaient de la ville et de la campagne, et en 
faisaient une forteresse imprenable pour des bandes de Bedouins ou 
d'emeutiers. Les changements survenus en Egypte depuis quelques 
annees lui ont fait perdre une partie de sa physionomie, mais on voit 
pourtant qu'elle etait le chateau, le donjon, d'ou les gouverneurs de 
Siout tenaient la ville pour leur maitre. Chaque grande ville 
moderne de la Haute-Eg>pte, Esneh, Girgeh, Kous, Kouft, Assouan, 
possedait et possede encore un chateau de ce genre : xj ^3 hait 
ait, grand chateau, des anciens textes en dtait le prototype. Chaque 
ville de l'Egypte ancienne avait son chateau ou siegeait le prince 
feodal ou l'administrateur nomme par Pharaon. II y logeait ses 
biens, les magasins ou s'entassaient les produits de l'impot ; ses 
esclaves et ses soldats le mettaient a l'abri d'une emeute ou d'un 
coup de main. II etait f "jj hiqou hait ait, seigneur du grand 
chateau, et n'avait au-dessus de lui que le \ A\\\ hiqou hiqouou, 
seigneur des seigneurs, c'est-a-dire le Pharaon. On comprend a 
quelles tentations de revokes pouvaient l'exposer cette demi-indepen- 
dance. Enfin, la residence du Pharon lui-meme etait un "jj rj^j 
grand chateau. 1 

On trouve le mot [J n HAIT applique a un dieu. Le dieu 
etait en effet un seigneur feodal, faisant fonction de maitre sur un 
territoire plus ou moins etendu, et borne par les territoires relevant 

1 Lepsius, Denkm., II, pi. 49-58. 
256 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



, HA IT NOUTIR 



des dieux du voisinage. Le terme 11 , T 

que nous traduisons par temple, est done a proprement parler le 
chateau fortifie 011 le dieu residait, et d'oii il gouvernait son domaine 
par le ministere de ses pretres, comme le prince seculier gouvernait 
le sien au moyen de ses scribes et de ses soldats. Ainsi a Thebes. 
Le sanctuaire d'Amon a Karnak etait la maison du dieu , 11 1 — — J © 
pi-Amon, et 1 pirou, pi, pir, maison, est le mot qui repond le 
plus exactement a notre mot temple. L'enceinte rectangulaire en 
briques crues, qui enferme le temple et le gros de la ville, et dont les 
pylones detaches des temples de Khonsou et de Nectanebo marquent 
encore les portes, etait [J rj^] Lj £~~ © halt Amon, le chateau d'Amon. 
Le territoire du nome Thebain, borde au nord par le territoire des 
dieux de Kous et de Coptos, au sud par le territoire des dieux de 
Taoud et d'Hermonthis, etait ® t (j ^^ © nouit Amon, le vicus 
d'Amon, le domaine d'Amon. Je ne crois pouvoir mieux resumer 
qu'en cet exemple les explications que je viens de donner, et je 
termine en proposant pour les mots discutes, les traductions sui- 
vantes 1 — 

I NOUIT DOMAINE, 

jfi. HAIT MAISON SEIGNEURIALE, CHATEAU, 

& « * A- 

U U3 HAIT AIT • • • • GRAND CHATEAU, BASTILLE, 

qui, si elles ne rendent pas entierement la valeur des mots egyptiens, 
en approchent plus, a mon sens, que la plupart des traductions pro- 
poses jusqu'a present. 

Le Portel, le 15 Septembre, 1889. 



D 



257 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

A FORGOTTEN PRINCE. 
By A. Wiedemann. 

The relations between Ramses II and his father have often 
been treated in different ways (p. ex., Maspero, Hist, anc., 217 sq. ; 
Brugsch, Gesch. Aeg., 469 sq.; Wiedemann, Handbuch, 418, 427), 
but in the discussion it was generally overlooked that Ramses 
was not the eldest son of Seti I. The eldest son appears three 
times in the description of Seti I's war in the north. Firstly is 
found the picture of a prince bringing prisoners to the king ; his 

title (ftf^r l 1 ft r= A is given, but not his name (Champ., Mon., 

290, 2 ; Not., 87 sq. ; Rosell, Mon. st., 46, 1 ; Guieysse, Rec. de 
trav., XI, 56). The second representation (Champ., Mon., 292 ; 
Not., 91 sqq. ; Ros., Mon. St., 50 sq. ; L. D. Ill, 128a; Guieysse, 
1- c > 59 > c f- Leps., Koenigsb., nr. 416) shows the return of Seti I 
from the war in the first year of his reign. Behind the king a 
prince stands with the bow and flabellum, and above the inscription 

. Rosellini gives, in the destroyed parts, some 



_',/X-///\-vf//\-///\ r>\^-'//\ 

signs which appear to be very doubtful ; so is also the / 1 at 

the end, given as certain by Lepsius and Champ., Mon., as uncertain 
by Champ., Not., and wanting in Rosellini. The words show that the 
prince accompanied his father to the country of Retennu. His titles 

are the usual ones of Egyptian princes ; only rw >/ I [TJ Qh V\ 

is new. The word I [TJ QT) was looked upon by Guieysse as an 

abbreviated form of I ^K [TJ ^, / kJ ^ , "maudire," and the 

title translated "le grand des imprecations;" to me it appears 

more probable that it is a causative of [TJ QA, "praise," and that 

the title was a priestly one, meaning " the high-praiser at " (follows 

258 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

the name of a temple). The text in general is very well preserved ; 
only the picture of the prince and parts of his title and name 
are erased. 

The third mention of the same personage occurs in a bas-relief 
showing Seti I killing an enemy (Champ., Mon., 297, 2 ; Not., 98, sq. ; 
Ros., Mon. st., 54, 2; Guieysse, 1. c, 68 ; cf. Leps., K., nr. 414-5). 

Behind the enemy the □ I Ik^ | V q i is standing, whose 

picture is spoiled by chisel-marks, while the remaining bas-relief 

is untouched. Behind Seti a very small prince is seen, the n I 

%* f 1 Ik f 1 ft Ij Jl il ? (fi f 1 M il' wh ° has not 

been hurt. This last figure representing the later king Ramses II, 
who has here the same titles as at Abydos, injures the whole. 
The representation of the war of Seti I is divided into different 
incidents, separated one from the other by vertical lines. Ramses 
is standing between two of them ; his head is drawn through an 
hieroglyph of the separating line, and the very small signs of his 
name are partly engraved in one, partly in the second incident, 
as if the figure had been only inserted at a later time in the already 
finished bas-relief. 

The other prince appears nowhere else, but this can not surprise. 
The reign of Seti I was apparently a short one ; the highest 
date known of it is the 9th year (the date, year 27, given in my 
Handbuch, 421, belongs to the reign of the last Ramesside). The 
number of larger texts of his time is small, and his temples were 
nearly all not finished by himself, but by Ramses II. Such was 
the case with the temple of Abydos, the large pillar-hall at Karnak, 
and the temple of Qurnah.* If our prince died before his father, 
his name could not be expected to appear very often, the father 
having no time to engrave it, and Ramses II having no interest 
to commemorate him. 

We know from the inscriptions of the latter king, that he tried to 
make believe that he reigned from his earliest childhood or even before 
his birth. At Abydos he relates how his father gave him the crown, 

* To the inscription about Maa in this temple, which I published in the 
Annales du Musee Guimet, X, 561-73, and of which the first part had been 
already edited by Champ., Not., I, 303, an interesting parallel text is given by 
Virey, Le tombeau de Rex-ma-ra, pi. 35-6, p. 152. 

259 U 2 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S90. 

and in another place it is said that the monuments were already 
designed with his name during his first youth. These assertions are 
not true. Ramses II counted his years not from his birth, but only 
from his real kingship, which he got as a grown-up man ; in his 
fifth year several of his sons were old enough to accompany him in 
battle. If he had really been associated with the throne, he would 
certainly have counted from this event, as other Egyptian kings did. 
Further, no monument is dated in a double-reign of Seti I and 
Ramses II ; when the two appear together, Ramses is called prince 
and not king. The differing indication of Ramses originates 
evidently in the pretension of all Pharaohs to have the same course 
of life as Horus, who was king from his childhood. If Ramses II 
entertained this wish, the existence of an elder brother, who was 

the I ^e\ \j and would be king, if he did not die before his 

father, must have been very disagreeable to him. He, who used 
with predilection the monuments of his ancestors as material for 
his own, would try by all possible means to destroy his brother's 
memory ; the obliteration of the prince's name will have been made 
by his instigation. The prince took part in the Syrian war, and was 
therefore then an adult ; it is doubtful if Ramses also assisted, the 
only proof would be given by the above bas-relief, in which his 
picture is so out of place as to make us doubt its historical value. 

Of the name of the prince only the sign v_^ is preserved. 
Underneath there is space for only one long sign, so that the 
whole name, if \^_y marks the beginning, may have been /p^_ , 
a word appearing in the XVIIIth and XlXth dynasties as a 
private name. For instance in the text on the dhu, published 
by Virey, Mem. de la Miss. arch, du Caire, I, 481 sqq., whose 
date, year 5, refers, as M. Virey pointed out, to the time of 

Ramses II. To his proofs we may add, that the F=q (I $ n A (1 ll MA 

quoted on pi. Ill is known to be a son of the governor of Thebes 

at the time of Seti I and Ramses II, AX FW, in whose tomb (cf. 

Champ., Not, 520 sqq, 846 sqq.) he appears as f=3 (1 X >j\ tm y 

4?} fl [I jl (1 v\ 4g|. To get the sense of the name Neb-ua, it is 

necessary to supply as the first element the name of a divinity, as Ra 
or Amen and to translate then, " The god N. is the only master." 

260 



Mar. 4 ] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

The elliptic formation is here the same as in the names Neb-f, 
Neb-mes, Neb-nu-t, Neb-neter-u, etc. 

The only objection which could be made against the opinion 
that Neb was the first son of Seti I would be, that I <fe\ was 

not only a designation of the son of a king, but also a title. This 
use of the word in relation with country or town names is very well 
known. For example the suten sa en Kusch may be a prince, but the 
title does not necessarily involve this position. Also other persons 
might bear the title suten sa ; this was the case in the Xlllth and 
XXIInd dynasties and in the time of Ramses II (Wiedemann, Aeg. 
Zeitschr., 1885, 79), and the same use existed under Seti I, when the 

son of the suten sa en Kusch Amen-em-apt had the title I ^|\ (Petrie, 

"A Season in Egypt, 1887," Inscr. No. no). But in our case it 
cannot be spoken of as a mere title. This is shown by the addition 

of ^ 1 to the I ^k^, which can only be used properly for a real 

son of the king ; the representation and mention of the prince side 
by side with Seti I, to whose person alone the suffix 3^ in the 
titles can refer, proves this king to be his father. 




261 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 



Monsieur le Secretaire, 

Permettez-moi d'avoir recours a. vos bonnes graces pour 
voir effacer deux petites inexactitudes qui se sont glissees dans 
mon dernier article, inse're aux Proceedings (Vol. XII, Dec. 1889). 

i°. Le nom de reine que M. Maspero avait lu Anhapou 
doit necessairement se transcrire, comme l'a fait ce savant. C'est 
que, a Vepoque (Foil date V inscription hieratique de la caisse de Seti i er , 
les formes cursives des hieroglyphes O et (^ sont a. peu pies 
identiques, ce qu'elles deviennent du reste bien avant cette epoque. 

La variante Q f^ 7SCSX » — \ du nom du Nil se rencontre, par 

exemple, Maspero, Deir-el-Bahari, page 599, et sans determinatifs, 
Zeitschrift, 1882, p. 41, ou von Bergmann nous fournit le nom 

propre (£ ^^ £3 Vyh , dont il releve fort exactement la variante 



D W 

2 . En mentionnant les documents relatifs a. 1'oracle du dieu 
Amon de Thebes, j'aurais du tenir compte de l'excellent article 
de notre savant confrere M. Pleyte, article qu'il a publi<f dans 
les Proceedings (X, Nov., pages 41 — 55). Je ferai du reste remarquer 



que la V\ Q J Q >\ ri <=> ^s&=* UTU du texte de Seti i er pourrait 
bien etre la deesse Mout, epouse d'Amon, ce dernier portant le 
titre (j ^^ f=^i r 1s^ (Lepsius, Die Elk, pi. I, b). 

Veuillez agreer, Monsieur le Secre'taire, l'assurance de mes 
sentiments de parfaite consideration. 

Votre tres humble serviteur, 

Karl Piehl. 
Upsal, 16 fdvrier, 1890. 



262 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Notes on Egyptian Texts of the Middle Kingdom. — II. 
By F. L. Griffith. 

I have recently received, through the kindness of Dr. Krebs, 
a copy of his valuable Dissertation * on the great inscription of 
Khnumhotep at Benihasan. Many passages are most satisfactorily 
explained in it, but in some cases Professor Maspero's translation! 
of 1879 is to be preferred. 

The original of this important inscription was written with rather 

more than the usual amount of carelessness. Ridiculous errors J 

(^=— ^ 3^ for <rr> ^ ^^ , 1. 30, superfluous =^, 1. 82, omission 

of 1 1 1. 137, etc., etc.) prove that less obvious mistakes may be 

looked for in obscure passages. The copies also are not entirely 

satisfactory. 

Lines 80-81. Akdn smnkh-na-sv \ I O r-^—, *t\ r—S 

A Li I W 1 1 1 Jih^ 111^ 

sic sic 
fl. 



Aha always takes , viz. '■ Y [\ in the papyri (Saneha, 

Prisse, Mathematical-Rhind) : at Siut§ (I, 247, corrected by Erman 
in pi. 21) and at Rifeh (VII, 50) w A ^ 

" (As prince in Menat-Khufu) I established it (the city) and its 
treasures grew in all kinds of things." 

Lines 81-3 : smnkh-na |J | Yj, , \ , ( ,. 

This can hardly be explained as it stands. Possibly [} [o] )y[ ^p 
is the "chamber of the kas" in the temple as at Siut [J \J (I, 1. 285, 

* De Chnemothis Nomar,chi et Commentatio, Berlin 1890 (in Latin). 

t Recueil de travaux, i, p. 160 ff. Compare also Piehl's notes, A.Z., xxv, 
p. 34 ff. 

X Dr. Krebs has silently corrected some of these. 

§ The references are to my own publication, The Inscriptions of Siut and Der 
Rifeh, Triibner, 18S9. I prefer to quote the number of the tomb, not of the 
plate, as a revised edition of the texts nvy well be hoped for. 

263 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [iSgo. 

schedule) : 1 J s:r p > , agreeing with rii would refer to 1 ^ ^ above, 
tTi Q i I i being almost equal to LJ ^ , but being preferred to 
it owing to the compound U ^ U n. 

" I established a ia-house for the kas of my father." 
Strictly speaking, I believe a man had only one ka, but the 
plural is used similarly elsewhere,* perhaps in the sense of ka-statues. 

Lines 104-113 : The meaning is very doubtful. 

* ~^a w^ ^ c I I I T=r m] <=> ox^^ 



^^ ^ -^ /WW> 



I I I w o _m^ I 



/ c= a 



\1A\ 



r\ /WW\A Q 



o 



«. |l_ 1 \7 IT : in 1. 185 IT is equivalent to cr>^ or \ \ : 

whether it is the determinative of, or separate from _ a J O is 

not certain :f 

* I must quote a later text, the very curious record of a- sale of land, 
published by M. Bouriant, Rec. de trav., ix, 100. It is dated in the 66th year of 



Barneses II: (j = ^ fl ^ *S * 



V^\A/>A 



1 1 1 Z/M 11 Je&a 1 1 1 



/www 



_B*tJ o w JS^ /vwws 1 1 1 W f J O £=> fl 







lllllllll ' P / t /WWW 

C7 HI <^ • This may perhaps be translated : " Whereas is given ar 

dudu ? to thee the price of this land, namely to this my mother (who is the 
servant of the kas (n.b.) of the priest and Kher heb Nekht menthu), upon the west 
of the canal of Hermonthis. ( Therefore) is assured to him ahantu smnnf? the 
land which was of Aputa," I.e. lines 5-8. It would be of great importance to 
know where this unique document is to be found. 

f Max Midler's ingenious and plausible interpretation, Rec.de trav., ix, p. 170, 
includes an apparently wrong identification of the sign it with the v series, 

some varieties of which resemble it very closely : but the doubled string | is a 

distinctive mark. (1 q J \\' "to sweep together, "and [j ^—, J "to offer." 

Brugsch, Wtb., Supplement, p. 30, may be compared. 

264 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Q a Q <^ 

b. Tk . . . . \k seem to state correspondence (cf. Maspero ad 

/<?<:.) and ■— -, *£ = ,— -. v\ % a word quoted in Brugsch's 
lexicon. 

a, b. " . . . . the courtiers, who gave me praise : 
equal was the reverence (?) paid to me, 
equal were the praises offered before the decree ? (face ?) 
of the king himself, 
that is, "I received from the courtiers the same salutation with which 
they saluted the king himself (or his speech)." 

<"■ trb. m K37 ^ |l 7TT lit. 'that of their master' forms the 
subject of the verb !y$ >., ? 

K V 2a? I <^ is an explanatory phrase appended to the 

, n / n q o 1 * 

sentence ? I ^ i.e., of the rzn M^ 1 . 

I aw^ J U £LL 1 

"Never thus was the (honour paid to) their master given to 

servants : (I mean) the praise of the courtiers." 

Lines 184-88: 

( c= u) 



a. hq-nf nut-f \\\ P »^7j) % /vw ^ Tf £\ <fc 

b. arnf apt sutn 1 @\ O rP <fo\ . II "£k -P 1 ' 
iuti-faba-sn )^_^?™^J^\^_ 

The parallelism of ;// sf. . n fkht-f mt'am 
m khnu n qbat-f 
seems to me to give the key to the meaning. 

a. I ]j % or perhaps better I S^ is exemplified in Brugsch's 
Dictionary, and JL o~~ cr> ^ : ' s a we U known word meaning " to untie," 
exuere, etc. ; fi~^r V\ |\ T[ means "covering," and here mt'am] 

* I have not however met with | a as a subject-suffix; cf. Erman, Die Sprachc 
des Papyrus Westcar, p. 38. One would like to make the whole paragraph refer 
to the granting of royal favours (y o «---=> \ ^ ) ^ Khnumhotep, but 

I do not see how this can be done. 

\ fkht-fm t'am with the preposition m, "solvere eumrt praeputio," meaning 
"exuere praeputium," is hardly a possible construction even in this highly artificial 
passage. 

265 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

may be a derived form signifying praeputiztm ; it must be distinguished 
from | "^ ^\ ( c== xD. A curiously similar phrase in Saneha, 1. 190, 
fukh-nk-baaut (I quote from Maspero's transcription, Melanges 
darcheologie, p. 157), has probably an entirely different meaning. 

The first half may now be translated, " He was ruler of his city as 
a babe of his circumcision," i.e., a newly circumcised * infant. 

b. A jj^ J p is papilla, the nipple of the breast, \^ being here 
a more special determinative. The only possible rendering seems to 
be, " as a child of his breast," meaning "a suckling." 

The two phrases are therefore : 

a. " He ruled his city while he was yet an infant at the time of 
its circumcision." 

b. " He performed a royal mission (?), his plumes (of office ?) 
waving while he was yet a babe at its mother's breast." 

The precise meaning of apt suten has not been discovered. 
The child may have been nominally president of the court in some 
royal enquiry undertaken at the command of the king. 

Dominion in extreme infancy was attributed to kings, e.g., 
Usertesen I,f and subjects also prided themselves on the early age at 
which they commenced feudal rule or a distinguished career. 

Cf. Siut III, 13, Tefaba's son (a ^\ v& , 0=^ 

" ruled when a cubit long," i.e., as a new-born babe. % And Siut V, 2 1, 

* Cf. Hdt, II, 37 and 104, for the custom in Egypt. 

f "He has ruled from the egg," Saneha, 1. 68, much as we say "a bom 
ruler." 

% The meaning of this phrase, differently interpreted by Maspero, Revue 
Critique, 18S9, p. 417, "en homme equitable," is assured by the passage 

OCX 

I " ein Kind von einer Elle" in the Westcar Papyrus, 
Q 



as quoted by Erman, Die Sprache des Pap. Westcar, p. 139 (for the context, see 

— « — 
Erman, Aegypten, p. 501) ; \A ■ is a word of the most indefinite meaning. 

Lastly, I learn, on the best medical authority, that 21 inches is the average length 
of new-born infants in England, so that the idiom of the Egyptians was very 
correct, especially as their babies probably measured a trifle less than those 
of the tall northern peoples. 

266 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

The king made Kheti "rule when a cubit long; he promoted 
his seat J^ J, jijk'S^ ^ | at the age of t'aa? whatever that means. 

GL "\ I ' < MAMA TL \ 

Line 188-9: t\ M^ M O ^=t A ift. *— cf. 1. 113. 

J>i^ O 11 «— \ AAAAAA SIC I 

Tc(m)J'vi^f >Vf " since the 



king knew the nature of my tongue, the moderation of my 
character?" 

This is the most remarkable instance that I have yet met 
with of the use of the monogram * * = I ■ w ■■■ . A good 

scribe would hardly have tolerated it in such a phrase. 

For ast nsa compare Rifeh, VII, 1. 46, aqa hati mt ast ns, 
"exact in thought, just in speech." 

Line 193: '%$%$ © "ffl (f- 11.204, 2 °9j 2I 5- %!££ ^ certainly 

AAAAAA C?± I cJL AAAAAA 

equivalent, in meaning at least, to §^ *)£$ ~tT \ ^-t It: is worth 
noting that at El Bersheh, L.D., II, 134, 1. 11 §^. ^fci S2 ® *? a^a 
is used in a similar context. 

" In this city," " in this tomb," are cant phrases, and sometimes 
almost superfluous. 

Line 206. P <=$ \. D n . See my note, Proceedings, XI, p. 88. 
Read P c£ \ Q n or as Maspero P c4 \ . ' n . 

Lines 208-13. I should read somehow thus : — 

^^ ill O ' VW,AA o 



fj " Vr—t AAAAAA 

— "~ ^— ^ AAAAAA _ . 

<C^_-> AAAAAA I w 1 A/W^AA & I AAAAAA 

«g« © o ri^i A ri^ OOO ~^~ fl ®. I j -rf.? \ 

jf' Ol w^AA O I) AAAAAA I I I Q^Q I □ I I CTDM 

* C/i Bergmann, Rec. de trav., ix, p. 57 
t This was proved by Piehl, A.Z., xxv, p. 33. 
267 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

S LU should be = H2H- 



a. "Great in a monument* for this city beyond my fathers." 

b. "A son of this city, excellent in monuments of its necropolis- 
hill beyond the progenitors, upon the edifices which were made 
before my time ;" b refers to his restorations and improvements of 
old monuments ? 

Lines 214-18 seem to deal with agriculture, I j * i3) *a n}\ 

V1.1 ^rS <=> , " I taught all the ignorant (?) 

farmers (?) in this city" * ' ^^ "canal?" "high Nile?" "Nile 

mud? " may be found in Brugsch, Diet., p. 981, Suppl., p. 831. 

An excellent feature of Kreb's edition is the clear and suggestive 
arrangement of the Text, indicating the parallelism and sequence of 
ideas. I have been glad to avail myself of the hint in the prepara- 
tion of these notes. 

* This phrase, zir mnu, occurs as an addition to the royal name on a colossus 
of Rameses II, Petrie, Tanis I, PL V, 35 c, and on the shrine of Saft (Naville 
Goshen, PL V, I. 3), as an epithet of Nekhtnebef. It should perhaps be translated 
in a general way ' monumentally great,' without reference to the object upon 
which it is inscribed, or any other definite work, but more examples are required 
to prove this. 

t The copies give approximately 5 : as also in line 12. X JT 2HT read 

q 21 1 *r^ w A 1 1 1 

X Errors are so numerous that this word may be viewed with suspicion. 

/VVSAAA AVNAAA 

Hieratic ^^\ may easily be misread ^ (compare for instance line 66 of 
Pap. II, Berlin, where ^ /i M -^^. would be a passable transcription of the 

signs composing ^^ (III -^)- So perhaps ^^ -^^" wanting," "deficient," 
"insignificant," should be read here. 



MSi®^ 



268 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

THE NEW ACCADIAN. 
By the Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A., Oxon., 

CHAPLAIN OF LINCOLN'S INN ; FORMERLY CENSOR AND LECTURER IN 
KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 

(Continued from page 222.) 

AccadioChinese Roots with Initial L. 

In his well-known and invaluable Akkadische und Sumerische 
Keilschrifttexte, published nine years ago (Leipzig, 1881), Prof. 
Paul Haupt gave this brief list of Accadian words with initial L 
(vide p. 156) : — 

(1) lag', "bright, clear, light." (8) lu, "to trouble, disturb." 

(2) lag', "to be pure, to purify." (9) lu, "Mensch, Mann." 

(3) lag'lag 1 , "to glitter, to beam." (10) litgal, "king, lord;" pro- 

perly "great man." 

(4) lag', lag'lag', "to carry, or be (11) lugud, "clear blood." 

carried away." 

(5) lanuna, "a demon." (12) lugurus, "Mann." 

(6) lal, "to suspend, to weigh, to (13) lug, "servant." 

pay" ; " to pour out, to fill." 

(7) lid {?), "a bull or steer." (14) lul, "bad, refractory" (wider- 

spenstig). 

Several of these terms have already been compared with their 
Chinese representatives. They may now be treated with greater 
fullness. *y, lag', "bright," "light," and its reduplicated form 
*y *f, lag'lag', "to glitter" (with a phonetic suffix *] *] ^TTKj 
lag'-lag'-ga), is hardly a distinct root from £ffy<, lag', misii, "to wash, 
cleanse, purify." lag'lag' is rendered by the Assyrian ababu, " to 
wash, purify," e.g., the hands, ceremonially : and by ibbu, " clean, 
pure," and its synonym ellu, which is also used of the hands : cp. 
1 lag'lag' =«a/"2^ ellitu, "a pure stream." The moon-goddess, Ai, is 
called lag'lag', " the pure," like the chaste Artemis-Diana, or, perhaps, 
simply "the bright." lag'lag' is rendered in other places by 
namaru, "to glitter," mimru, "bright," and nuru, "light." The 
character ^, lag', namaru, fiamru, niiru, is oniy a graphic variant. 

269 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

As we have seen, lugud, "clear blood," as opposed to adama, 
"dark blood, gore," also contains this root lag', "bright, clear"; a 
fact indicated by the character itself, ^^f. The law of vowel- 
harmony, or assimilation, which governs Accadian compound terms, 
has caused the change from lag 1 to lug 1 , before gud, "blood." The 
intermediate sound lig', which belongs to both ^| and ty|f<, made 
the transition easy. The latter sign actually has the sound lug' 
(in the sense of "servant"); and the former may well have had 
it also. 

Now for lag' (=lag=kng), " bright " and " to cleanse " (i.e., " to 
make bright "), we have in Chinese the exact equivalent lang, " clear, 
as moonlight, bright, lustre, clearness." The term is compounded 
with tsHng, Amoy ch'eng (zig, dig), "pure, clear, limpid," "to purify," 
in the expression tsHng-lang, " limpid, pure, transparent," of water. 
And as the moon-goddess is called lag'-lag' in Accadian, so in 
Chinese we have the phrase yueh lang, "bright moonlight, moon- 
shine." To complete the parallel, this same Chinese character has 
in Cantonese the meanings " to rinse the mouth," " to rinse in water, 
in order to cleanse, as a plate "=lag' } nu'su, lag'lag', ubbubu," to 
wash." With the older lung, we may compare the second half of 
the Accadian compounds su-lug and sus-lug, " to be bright " 
(namdru). su, sus, answer to sit, " limpid, pure," siieh, Cantonese 
si'tt, "snow, to whiten, to wash clean, white." Chinese supplies, 
besides, lang, "fire," "the bright blaze of a fire," and lang, "bright, 
clear." Close cognates are loh, older lak, Cantonese lok, "to brand, 
red-hot"; Ian, dialectic lam, lain, le", "fire burning furiously"; Ian, 
"the lustre of burnished metal, especially of gold" (used also in the 
compound tsHng-lan, "brilliant"); Ian, " the lustre of a gem"; Ian, 
dialectic Ian, Ian, le 11 , " bright, splendid, brilliant " (cp. also Accadian 
di, "to shine," de, "fire"). 

The next term in Dr. Haupt's list is |S^, lag', reduplicated 
lag'lag', " to carry or be carried away," as booty. This ideogram 
is variously rendered alaku, " to go, to march " (cp. J^|, dun, tum, 
"to go"); salalu, "to carry off," as booty; (lag'lag'), itaslulu, 
nasallulu, "to be carried captive," or simply italluku, "to go to and 
fro." The root-idea is "to go," and causatively "to make to go," 
"lead," "lead away," especially by force. The term reappears in 
the Mandarin lung, Amoy long( = lang), "walking"; lung, Amoy long, 
"to drag"; lung-liieh, "to plunder," as a highwayman: cp. lun, 
older Ion (=lan), the Fuhchau lung, Shanghai lang, "to walk with 

270 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

difficulty "; lu, older lok, Cantonese lok (=lag), Amoy liok, 
Shanghai lok, "to go carefully"; lu-lu ( = lag-lag), "to go with," a 
crowd ; lu, "to move, walking about," "to go up or down," as stairs = 
Accadian lag'lag', aradu, "to go down" (= loh, old sound lak, 
Cantonese lok, "to descend"); lu-lu, "to toil or trudge along"; liok, 
liiek, older liak, Cantonese leuk, Amoy liok, Shanghai liek, " to rob, 
plunder, take by force, invade, make a raid"; Iwan, older Ion (=lan), 
Cantonese liin, Shanghai lb", Chifu Ian, "to drag along"; lu, Cantonese 
lu, Amoy lb, Shanghai lu, " to capture prisoners, prisoners, slaves 
taken in war"; lu, "a road, to travel." It is natural to remember 
in this connexion the Accadian ffif, which had the two values lu, 
dib. With the latter pronunciation the character means " to seize, 
take, bind" (aljdzu, sabatu, kamu), and probably also "to walk" 
(aldku) ; but the Chinese forms just given make it likely that lu also 
once had these meanings. 

For the sake of completeness, I add the principal related forms 
of the Chinese. 

The second character with initial / in the Chinese lexicon is la, 
" to pull, to drag along, to lead, to seize." In the three dialects 
this is lai, Hap, le; the old sound was lap (lab). Then we have la, 
"to pass by — to go ahead"; la, dialectic, la, lat (lad), Veil, "to 
grab at, to clutch — to carry off in the mouth," etc.; lai, dialectic lot, 
lai, le, "to come, to bring, to get" ; Ian, dialectic lam, lam, le", "to 
go quickly — to stride over, step across," Ian, "to grasp"; lau, 
dialectic lau, lo, lu, old sound lu, " to carry off, to drag away" ; //', 
"to walk"; Hang, Cantonese leung, Amoy Hong, "to jump," read 
lang in the phrase lang-lang is'iang-fs'iang, "to hurry, press on 
rapidly" (ts'iang, "quick"); liao, liu, lio, "to run, get away"; lick, 
Up, Hap, lik, "to stride over, leap over, overstep, to tread"; lien, 
liin, bian, li", "the quick, jumping run of some animals"; lieu, " to 
transport, remove"; //', old sound lik (lig), "to pass over, by, or 
to"; li, "a step, to go"; finally, liu (lim), "a raised field-path." 

Dr. Haupt's next Accadian word is lamma, a kind of demon, 
which the Assyrians called lamassu. lamma is the pronunciation of 
the group «->~y £-]]y, which consists of the signs for "god" and 
"strong"; just as in Chinese ngan, "quiet," is represented by the 
signs for "woman" and "roof" (peace being naturally indicated 
by the housewife at home). The same group is also read ai.ad, 
denoting the kind of demon or guardian-genius which the Assyrians 
called scdu. The two names designate the colossi which guarded the 

271 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

gates of temples and palaces. Now lamma, or lam, "strong," 
answers to Chinese Ian, dialectic lam, lam, 11", "strong, hale"; cp. 
lieh, lip, Hap, lih (i.e., lib), "robust"; lieh-lieh, "tall and strong." 
lib, libba, sutuku, " extended, long," is one of the values of the 
sign tfly. Another value is lig, ligga, dannu, "strong, great," 
which I have already compared with Chinese lih, old sound lik 
(i.e., lig), dialectic lik, lek, lih, "strength." Chinese has also lin, 
"strong, fierce, enduring," dialectic tun, lin, ling. 

We may also compare with lamma, the awe-inspiring, protecting 
genius of temples, lung, " the dragon," the emblem of imperial 
power and awe, and a designation of the ruling powers of nature ; 
and ling, " the spirit or energy of a being, the majesty of a god, 
divine, supernatural aid"; a term applied variously to gods and 
ghosts. Kit. ling is "the great or chief Spirit"; san ling, "the 
three spirits, i.e., the sun, moon, and stars." Cp. also Icing (leng) 
" the awe or influence of a god."* 

But as regards lung, which is important as being the 212th 
Chinese radical or determinative, it is to be remarked that its mean- 
ings, " to bud " (pullulare) and " essential vigour," point at once to ' 
the Accadian {^]] lam, esebu, lam-lam ussubu, " to sprout," 
^£ LUM,f and lum-lum, unnubu, ussubu, " to shoot, bourgeon, 
sprout." And as this / represents even in Accadian an older d 
(cp. ^[Cyy dim, " to beget, to be begotten," ££jE damu, dumu, 
"child"; and another instance to be mentioned presently); and as 
initial d is dialectic for g, we are not surprised to find that in Acca- 
dian -j^jr is pronounced g'um and gum (Oppert) as well as lum, or 
that Chinese possesses yung, "bursting forth, as plants," yung, 

* As regards alad, the character "*£*" is the only one with the value lad or lat 
in Accadian. This character also means "strong" (dannu), and "to take, 
capture" a city (kaSadit), when pronounced kur. alad is perhaps "the seizer"; 
cp. la, lat (= lad), "to grab at, to clutch," already cited. But as kaSddu is 
thought to mean "to come at, reach, get" (ankommen, gelangen, erlangen, 
erobern), and lai (old sound lat ?) is " to come, to reach, to get "; this term also 
may be cognate with the Accadian lad; cp. lag', "to go" and "to carry off." 
On the other hand, as the ideogram suggests, alad, like lamma, may simply 
mean " strong" ; cp. lao, lb, lo, " firm, strong" ; lei, " robust, strong" ; lao-lao, 
" gigantic" ; of which terms lat may have been the earlier form. 

f This character is also contained in ka-lumma, "dates" (Suluppt'). Cp. 
Chinese kwo, Amoy kb (= ka) ; Shanghai^, "fruit." The "five fruits" (with 
kiud) are peach, apricot, plum, chestnut, and date. With LUM here may be 
compared lang (lung), " a species of palm." 

272 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

" brave, brawny, to exert strength," which are related to lung, as 
gum is to lum. But, further, we find also in Accadian the group 
£?ff ^iz da-lum, explained dannu, "strong, mighty." This is a 
compound of the ordinary kind, consisting of two synonymous 
terms, and not an ideogram as has been supposed hitherto, viz., 
DA, astu, a synonym of dannu, + lum (= lam), "vigorous" (strictly 
used of sturdy growth), and then, generally, " strong, mighty, 
stout, great." Lung ma tsing-shan, " of dragon horse vigour-spirit " 
= "he has the vigour of a dragon or a horse."* Of the same 
Chinese character, lung, it is further noted that, "in matters relating 
to betrothals, it is often used for a man." This is certainly remark- 
able ; for, in Accadian, we have the composite nita-lam and nitA- 
dam, in the sense of " spouse," " husband " (Assyrian luYiru). 
nita is "male" (= ni), and dam (lam) is "mate," either man or 
wife (-J^tEf is both dam and lam). 

The Accadian dam, lam, " mate," coincide in sound and idea 
with other Chinese terms. With dam we may compare tang (tong, 
dong) "what is suitable, convenient, or just," "equal to, to match," 
a relation of ideas which is illustrated by the Accadian gin (din), 
"just, proper," gim, dim, "like"; tang (teng, deng), Amoy teng, 
" to compare, equal, like, same " \ and Fung, dialectic thing, tong, 
dung, "together, all at once, all, united, identical, same, alike, to 
unite, matched, to equalize, to assemble, and, with, the same as"; a 
group of meanings which is not the disconnected farrago which it 
may appear to be, but which corresponds plainly enough to the 
Accadian w r ords already cited, gin, til (tin) "all," ni-gin (ni- 
min) " all assembled together," " to assemble " ; dim, dig, dug, 
"great," "heavy"; gin, dim, "like"; gin (din) "to unite"; gis, 
Dis, "one"; gin (kenu) "just, equal"; ki, t^f di, ////, "with." 
^£E|, dam, not only means " man " and " wife," but also 
kimet, "like, according to," and atta, "thou" (my second ox fellow). 
And as we notice once more / and d interchanging as the initial 
sound in these Chinese words, so in Accadian we have »-£tT £1 
tuma as well as dam, dim, in the sense of " like, as." 

* Tsing, "fine, subtle, delicate"; "the pure part of a thing, ethereal, 
essential"; "the germinating principle, semen of males," recalls DIM, "to 
heget," on the one hand, and Zl, ZIG, "life, soul, spirit," on the other. As it 
also means "an apparition, a wraith, a form taken by spirits," we may also 
compare dimma, " a ghost." For the relation of ideas, <p. the phrase tsing chi 
sh&n-chij>&n, " the semen is the support of the animal spirits." The Amoy eking 
gives the */-form corresponding to dim. 

2 7.1 X 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S90. 

We have already observed the curious connexion subsisting 
between the Accadian and Chinese words for the first and second 
numerals, and the first and second personal pronouns. A great fuss 
has been made by some writers over the fact that the Accadian A^ 
kur, is rendered by the opposed Assyrian terms ahn, "brother," 
and nakrn, "enemy"; while the synonym ^^^^ ses, aim, 
"brother," is likewise also equated with limnn, "hostile," "bad." 
But the familiar uses of the Latin hostis, "foreigner, stranger, enemy," 
and its cognate hospes, "foreigner, guest, friend" (cp. the Greek 
ft'i'os-), ought to have been enough to restrain any one acquainted 
with the classics, from supposing upon such grounds that Accadian 
words were merely arbitrary symbols, employed variously as the 
fancy of their inventors, the Assyrio-Babylonian scribes, might dictate. 
There is really no rational objection to the combination of opposite 
meanings in the same term; and, as a matter of fact, the phenomenon 
is not uncommon in philology. Is not the Hebrew *V*Q. "to bless" 
and "to curse"? and does not Arabic, in particular, supply a number 
of instances of a similar character? 

If the Accadian terms for " brother " mean " the other, the 
second," "the man at one's side," it is intelligible enough that they 
might be used in the senses of "alien, opposed, hostile," as well as 
"second, helper, comrade" ; cp. our own ambiguous term "match," 
related to "mate," and used in an analogous double sense. I dare 
say all this will be called special pleading ; so I will say no more, 
but content myself with the following little tabular comparison 
of the Accadian and Chinese sounds in question, showing at a 
glance their common uses : 

Accadian ^ kur. Chinese ku(r). 

1. kur, "a brother " (aim); kur, kin, " a brother " (of one's mother 

"a father," "parent" or wife); a husband's parents 
(abu). were formerly so called (kin- 

kn) ; kin is an old term for a 

wife's father. 

2. kur, "an enemy"; "to be kin, "to twist, to cabal, to head 

hostile"; "to alter," "in- a sedition"; kin, "a fault," 
jure," "deface" (nakant, " wicked acts " ; " evil" {limn n 
niikkuru). = ses) ; kin, "to hate"; kin, 

" to destroy, demolish." 
274 



Mar. 4] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1890. 



Aecadian ^- kur. 

3. kur, "to help," "defend," 

"save " {nas&ru). 

4. kur, "all together," "as a 

total," "in sum" (j/aph 
oris, adv. from paharu, 
" to assemble"). 



Chinese ku(r). 

kiu, "to assist, save, protect, 
defend." 

kiu, "to assemble," kiu, "to col- 
lect together, many, to the 
end"; kiu, "after all, finally, 
at last." 



5. kur, "another," "a second," k'iu, "to pair, to match, to join 

"different," Lat., alter two in marriage, a union, part- 

(sanumma) ; cp. No. 1. ner." 

6. kur, "to repeat, tell," "in- kiu, "to inform, to announce." 

form " (sunn//). 



7. kur, "male" (zikaru'"). 



k'iu, membrum virile; kiu, "the 
male of the elk." 



To these may be added : — 
Aecadian kur. 

V kur, "land, country, earth' 
(ij/atu m , irs/ti/'") 



8. 

9. KUR, " hill " (sadu) 



Chinese ku(r). 

k'iu, "a hillock; a hill with a 
level top for worship, a high 
place " ; the term is also a 
classifier of parcels of land ; 
" a plot or lot " of land ; san 
k'iu, " the three hills," where 
the fairies dwell in the eastern 
seas. 

10. kur, "dwelling place," k'iu, "a place, village; a tumulus.'' 

" neighbourhood "(dad/nu). 

11. kur, "to conquer" (kasadu). kiu, "to act with martial vigour." 
1 2. J^[ kur, "to bind " (rakasu). kiu, read liu, " to bind." * 

Of course it is not meant that kiu, k'iu, are the only Chinese 
equivalents of the Aecadian terms. I wished to show that, even 
restricting our comparisons within the narrow range of these two 
closely-related and ultimately identical sounds, it was possible to 
find modern representatives of most of the Aecadian homophones 
written as A^ V", kur. But it is not to be forgotten that the 
Chinese kiu, k'iu, are, like all other sounds in the Mandarin vocabu- 
lary, members of a series ; and if we enlarge our horizon, so as to 



The Aecadian lu, " to bind," p. 271, suprn. 
275 



X 2 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890. 

take in their cognates, we shall strengthen our argument by the 
additional evidence which they afford, and perhaps account for the 
few Accadian homophones which we have not succeeded in identi- 
fying under kiu, iciu. 

For lal, the sixth term in Dr. Haupt's list, see Proceed., Nov., 
1889, p. 12. The seventh term is lid, "a bull or steer," or rather 
perhaps " a wild ox." The sign, <^Z, has also the value rim, from 
which which the Semitic rutin, re'em, were probably derived. In 
Chinese we find //, "the Tibetan yak or grunting-ox." But other 
domestic animals bear similar names in Accadian. Thus we find 
JtjIJ, lu, read udu, in the sense of immeru and kirru, " lamb " ; Jt^Of 
-£S=jy, lu-li, read gukkal, " lamb " or " sheep " (gug + kal) ; 
lu-gug, lu-zig, lu-nim, kirru ; and ffif tf—, lu-lim, hdimu, which 
has been variously rendered "he-goat," "ram," and "bell-wether." 
With iu as the class-prefix of small cattle {semi), we may compare 
the Chinese lao, dialectic, lb, lb, lo, " domestic animals," which, with 
the prefixes la, "great," and shao, "small," denotes oxen and sheep 
respectively. Lu, " a deer," may also be related. As to lim, in 
Chinese a ram or deer " with three curls in its horns " is called san- 
tsa-chien, "three-curl-horn." Chien is the modern reading of lien 
= lim. At Canton the character is pronounced lin, at Shanghai 
//". lulim is thus "sheep -+- horn." 

Lu-nim may be compared with yuen, dialectic tin, gwan, nil", a 
large -horned species of sheep, found west of China, said to be as 
large as an ass (nim = saqii, " high "). lu-zig contains a s-form 
corresponding to the d of udu, as dug to zib. Chu, a lamb five 
months old, is dz'd at Shanghai, but fu (=du) in Amoy. Chinese 
has other s-forms, as the Shanghai ls'e n ( = zin), "sheep crowding 
together," the Mandarin ch'an (dan). As to lu-gug, I have already 
compared yang, Cantonesejyrz^z^, Amoy yong, old sound yung ( = yug, 
gug), with gug in gukkal. Yang, the 123rd radical, means "a sheep 
or goat," and " animals of this family, as the antelope or gazelle." 

It is an important fact, that even in cases where we find an 
Accadian N corresponding to a Chinese, e.g., nim, elu=-nieh {tup, 
nib), "to ascend," the Amoy dialect often presents / instead of n; 
as, in this instance, Amoy //#/!> (lib) = Mandarin nieh (nii:)= Fuhchau 
niek (nig). The Accadian script reflects this variation of initial 
sounds. The character £^l ni, " oil," is pronounced LI, in the 

276 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

sense of "ointment" or "anointing" (rukkfi); cp. tit! lu j " to 
mix up" ingredients into an ointment {mard.su: Jensen), with nie 
"to work or knead with the fingers, as in clay." The character 
KzjYjy, nag, has also the value lam (Hommel), both apparently 
in the sense of drinking or giving to drink ; cp. the Chinese tan, 
dialectic /dm, lam, /e", "greedy for gratifying the appetite," "to have a 
drink all round, and finish the bottle." The same Accadian character 
is pronounced immeli, in the sense of the Assyrian sikru, " strong 
drink," "new wine or must," or simply "liquor." IMME = IMMA 
ima (im), with vowel harmony, on account of Li, has already been 
explained as meaning "to drink," "drink." (Or imme = in + ME, 
" drink + water " : IMMA = in + MA, ditto.) In this term it is 
compounded with 1.1, "must" or simply "drink"; cp. the Chinese 
//', dialectic lei, /e, li, "sweet or newly distilled spirits — must, new 
wine." IMME-Li, "drink + must," is thus formed exactly after 
the analogy of ges-din, "liquor + wine," gug-kal, " sheep -f- lamb," 
ban-sur, tim-men, etc. The syllabary uses the same Assyrian 
term, sikru, for the explanation of another Accadian term for 
"drink," viz., gam, written ^^£^£3^; a term which is not to be 
confused with its homophones of various meanings, gam, sikru, is 
related to gu, /dsu, " to sip," a> lam in nita-lam, " husband," is to 
lu, "man," or as nam,* implied by the Chinese nan, "male," is to 
nu, "male" (in the three dialects nan appears as nam, lam, //<•" = 
nam, lam, nin). Now gam, " drink," corresponds with yen, " to 
swallow"; e.g., yen-shui, " to drink water "; in Cantonese in and it, 
in Amoy yat, in Shanghai/"; yun, "fermented liquor," = wdn, un, 
yiin ; yin, "to drink— drink," and, with a different tone, "to give 
to drink "=ydm, im, ydng ; and other related terms. 

The same Accadian ideogram repeated, gam-gam, is the name 
of some kind of bird, which the Assyrians, imitating the Accadian 
name, called gamgammu. There may be as much or as little 
connexion between gam, "drink," and gam-gam the bird, as between 
the Chinese yen, "drink," and yen, "a swallow" (cp. English, "to 
swallow" and "a swallow"). Yen is the general name for birds of 
the swallow tribe; but another yen is the female phcenix (in, an, i"), 
so called in early times because it was the bird before which all 
others boived (cp. Accadian gam, kadddu, "to bow the head"); 
another, the wild goose = ngan, gan, ngi" (=gan or gam, gin). 

* nam, "man," is also implied by nam as a relative particle ; cp. Ml'i.i', 
"man," and "who." 

277 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

With the determinative mul, " star," the same ideogram occurs 
as the name of a star : mul-gam | mul-lugal, " the star gam | the 
star of the king"; 2 R 49, 10 c. ; and again, mul-gam | gi§-ku sa 
su yy D. Marduk, " the star Gam | the weapon of the hands of 
Merodach," 5 R 46, 3 a. In Chinese we find another yen, the name 
of a star in the Milky Way. The character also means the eaves 
of a roof, and the beams which support them (cp. gam, " to bow, 
bend ")• 

The Accadian ideogram also means supft, " shining," as in men- 
gam, agil supft, " a glittering crown " ; cp. yen, " bright, as a gem " ; 
yen, " luminous, bright " ; yen, " brilliant " ; yen, " to flame, blaze " ; 
yen, " fire " {cp. gi in gi-bil, " fire "). 

This ideogram is also probably to be read gam in the compound 
GAM-lil, sakdsu, "to destroy," "slay"; cp. yen, "to grind to 
powder " ; yen, " to fall " ; yen, " to throw or push over," " to bend " 
(—gam, kandSn); yen, "to repress"; yen, "to cut off or in two"; 
yen, read ye, " to destroy entirely " (in the compound yen-tsueh, 
where tsi'teh = tsiit, tswat, dzih, Fuchau chiok, Chifu chit = zid, zig, 
di-m, dig, " to cut short a thread," " sever," " utterly destroy "). 

The other value of the ideogram, zubu, which is rendered by 
the Assyrian ganiht, " benefiting," is probably no more than a variant 
form of zib = dug, "good." 

The / in li, etc., supra, appears to represent an older d ; so that 
^liy^HT^y in,* ila, nasft, "to raise," clft, "to go up," "high," very 
naturally has also the value du, as well as the corresponding ^-form ga, 
which also means "to raise." That this du had a similar meaning is 
likely, as it is only a dialectic variation (cp, du, tilu, "a mound"). 
Accadian possesses another ili, written jp^r, a character of which 
the commonest syllabic value is ni, but which also stands for 1 and dig. 
It is probably a synonym of the other, meaning "high"; for J^: J^:, ili, 
is used as an ideogram for the like^sounding Assyrian term ili, "gods," 
and even for the singular Hit, "a god," At all events, the value 1 
recalls 1, nadu, "lofty/' "exalted"; and ili may be a composite 
word, viz., 1 + li (=z di), as if, "High and Lofty." 

:> In such cases the former term is the class-prefix, or the more general 
expression, which is restricted or defined more exactly by the latter. The 
change from N to I. in the case of initials should be compared with the like 
clnnge in that of finals, DIN, nil., "male," Til., TIN 1 , " life," sUUUI , §UDUN, 
"yoke." 

278 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

The sound yen affords other important verifications of Accadian 
terms. We saw that the compound en-nun, " watch," " to watch," 
" to guard," contained it. Besides yen, " a night-watch or guard " 
= im, giam, ni", we have yen, "doorkeepers in the harem — persons 
who stand as guard, eunuchs " = im, yam, i". Bearing in mind that 
y — g, we see that these forms corroborate the suggestion already 
made in regard to en, "charm, spell," that it is worn down from 
gan or gin (p. 71). But the word en, yen, "watch," has since 
suggested to me an important identification. When dealing with /, 
ni, "to glance at," and mu, "the eye," I compared with them igi, 
" the eye " (= igin ?). Now Chinese has not only the ///-form ?nu, 
"eye," but also the corresponding guttural forms yen, "the eye" = 
ngan, gan, nge" ; which three dialectic forms imply primitive GAN, 
gin. Further, the 147th radical is kien, "to see" = kin, kian, ki" ; 
a term which points to a primitive gin, with dialectic form kin, 
as plainly as kien, "a slip of bamboo for making notes on, an official 
writing, documents," points to gin, "a reed," and kin, "a letter," 
or kien, "stable, immovable, firm," to gin, "fixed, firm," or kien, 
" to ravish, wild, horrid, ogre-like, villainous, wicked (of genii and 
spirits)," to gi-gim (= gi + gi, sabatu, ekimu, "to take, seize, carry 
off"), "a demon." I was long puzzled to identify this yen (gan, 
gin), "eye," "to eye," or watch, and kien, "to see," in Accadian, 
until it occurred to me that it was contained in the compound 
en-nun, " to watch." en = gen, gan, " eye," and nun, which we 
compared with nu, "to guard," is clearly an //-form synonymous with 
en: cp. ni n (nin, nun), the Shanghai equivalent of yen, "a night 
watch." In hHen, "to watch narrowly " = //an, k'e", we have identical 
forms (gin, gan, kin), en, " lord," nin, " lady," are parallel 
Accadian forms. 

More remains to be said. The ^-forms, £-forms, ///-forms, 
//-forms, and forms which have lost their initial sound, are before us. 
But we have usually found that a ,^-form implies a dialectic d-form, 
with a variant /-form corresponding to the ^'-form ; and further pairs 
of dialectic variants in b, p, s/i, a, are also possible. Do these 
phenomena occur in the present case ? In Accadian we have ide, 
"the eye," "to see," represented by the character 4J-, which has 
the various sound-values igi, ide, lim, lib, mad, bad, shi. 

Now igi, IDE, mean not only "the eye" (Snu), but "the face" 
(ftanu), and consequently " the front," " before " (ma/jru, ma/nir). 
In just the same way, the Chinese mien, min, bian, mi", the 176th 

279 



Mar. 4l SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1890. 

radical, denotes "the face, the front, before, in one's presence." 
It hardly needs to be pointed out that mien is the ///-form implied by 
yen, kien, and the Accadian en (gin). And when it is added that the 
same Chinese character also signifies "to front, to face, to show 
the face, to see one, to look," we can understand the like breadth 
in the Accadian usage.* The next homophone in the Chinese 
lexicon, mien, "to look towards, to accompany, to go with, to turn 
the back on," curiously corroborates our view that en = gin ; for 
these meanings obviously answer to gin, "to see," gin, "to go" 
{cp. ni-gin, "to come together"), and gin, "to turn back" (tdru), or 
"to turn round" (saharu) ; cp. nigin in the same sense. 

The M-form immediately answering to igi would be imi. This 
form is actually found in ^*ff", imi, originally " face," a point of the 
compass ; a term which enters into the designation of north, south, 
east, and west, in Accadian. In Chinese mien, "the face," is used in 
a similar sense: pah mien, "the eight faces," or directions, are the 
four points of the compass and their halves. It was natural to 
transfer the Accadian term to the four winds. 

As /-forms answering to mien, kien, we have tien, " written 
documents, records" (Accadian tim), "statutory, constant" (Accadian 
gin, "fixed"), "to consider, to take oversight of" (Accadian ^J^f, 
me = men, hasisn, "reflexion," "wisdom"); tien, "to glance at, 
regard with attention"; and t'ien, "to show one's face." 

T'ien, "a field," the 102nd radical, as a verb read tien, with 
a different tone, means also "to arrange for planting, a plantation, 
to till, to hunt." With the last meaning it is clearly the t{d)-iorn\ 
of ni-gin, "to hunt." In the other senses it represents ^^Ef, 
a-pin, "a plantation" (riartabu), where pin (bin) supplies a p or 
/'-form ; cp. pei, " to heap up dirt, to cultivate," pi, " the coulter of 
a plow," piao, pin, "to hoe fields," pien, pin, "a bank between 
fields," pien, "an ancient land-measure, ^th of a village lot"; and 
especially pHen, p l in, the 91st radical, a classifier of plots of land. 
Pin, "a border," and////, "to make a partition," are related; a field 
being a portion of land divided off by borders or banks from the 
rest.t 

* Besides yen, "the eye," yen, "a night-watch," etc., Chinese has yen, "the 
countenance, visage." 

t Another meaning of AriN is "foundation " {uSSit) ; cp. pan, pun, older pen, 
"the origin, root, source, fundamental part." 

280 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [iSco. 

The same Accadian symbol is read exgar, in the sense of 
"field-worker," "tiller of the soil" (ikkaru). With this ex, which 
is softened from gan, "a field" {eklu), cp. yen, "limits of a plot 
of ground," dialectic in, yan, yi" (where yan = gan, in = en, and yi" 
a transition form between gen and ge) ; as well as yuen, "a yard, 
a garden," and yuen, "a high and level field." The second element 
gar (kar) abbuttu, "field-work," "serfdom," answers to yao, dialectic 
iu, yau, yo, " feudal vassalage or labour of a serf, a villein's service." 
The old sound ngo = nga, and Shanghai yo •= ya = ga, point to 
ga(r) ; while iu = yu — gu = gu(r).* So we have yao, " a brick-kiln," 
agreeing with Accadian ^j^ GAR > dialectic mar, the common ideo- 
gram for brick (libittu) ; yao, " a car "= gar, " a chariot " (narkabtu) ; 
yao, " to bite, gnaw, chew " = gar, " to eat " (akalu) ; cp. ya, the 
93rd radical ( = ga) "teeth, to gnaw, bite" = dialectic nga, ga ; yao, 
"brightness" of heavenly bodies, "to shine "= gar, "brightness," 
"to shine." 

THE CHINESE 'RH. 

In my haste to banish an apparent anomaly from the Chinese 
lexicon, I rejected a valuable testimony to the truth of my own 
theory (p. 79). I was not ignorant of the leading facts which I am 
now about to state; I was misled by the fewness of the sounds 
grouped under this head, and by the fact that they were all homo- 
phones, instead of presenting the usual elaborate development. 
What has now to be said upon the subject does not, however, involve 
the withdrawal of any of the suggested comparisons with Accadian 
terms. I have to add rather than to subtract. 

Exclusive of proper names, there are twenty-four homophones 
written 'r/i. This represents the sound dr, if we are to keep to 
Dr. Williams' usual mode of signifying the particular vowel-sound 
involved. But in English it might equally well be written er, with 
Dr. Edkins, or ir or ur: ordinary pronunciation making little or 
no difference between the vowels of bird, surd, nerve. The h of 'rh 
seems especially inappropriate, because the Chinese r is not rough 
but smooth. (1) The first of these homophones is the 126th 
radical, ir, dialectic i, ji, ir ( = gi, gi, ir), " and, together, also, 

* We can now explain lagar, labar, ardtt, kalu, "servant," "man." 
The former consists of la = Chinese lao, " labour " + gar = Chinese yao, 
"service" (servitium = servus) ; the latter of LA = lao + BAR = pao, "to ilig" a 
trench ; j>'ao, " to till the ground." 

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Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S90. 

still, if, as if," "all" (in the phrases ir-i or i-ir, "that is all"; kiu 
jdn ir-i, "nine men in all"). These meanings at once recall those 
of the Chinese terms related to the Accadian gin, discussed in last 
month's Proceedings (p. 208). Now it is a noteworthy fact that just 
as we have in Chinese a form ir or er (dr) cognate and synonymous 
with gi (now i,ji), so we have in Accadian ir or er as a dialectic 
equivalent of gin (J^: eri, ir, alaku, "to walk, go" = «iy gin, 
alaku). What is the etymological relation between these Accadian 
words ? I think the Chinese dialects, if nothing else, might teach 
us. ir or er is simply gir denuded of its initial sound. And if ir, 
ir-ra are relics of gir, gir-ra, eri may be the remnant of meri. 
This suggestion is confirmed by the fact that gir, gir-ra (^£E), 
dialectic meri, means "foot" (sfyu) and "track" (kibsu) or "path" 
{taliaktu), and that gir-gin is "to go," "to tread" (kabdsu), and 
"path." The same relation is traceable between these terms as 
between the Sanskrit pad-ydmi, "to go," padam, "a step," and 
pddas, " foot." To walk is to foot it, and a path is made by 
footprints. Among the other uses of this Chinese particle, we find 
that it may mean "as if," "like"; e.g., in the phrase, "to treat 
darkness, ir ming, like light," or "as if it were light." This may 
correspond to ^^, which sometimes means /'»««, "as, like," and is 
read ir in the sense oikirbu, libbu, "middle," "heart." (The other 
values of this sign illustrate the wearing down of initial g. They are 
GUR, g'ur, ur; g'ar; g'ir; besides mur and kir, kin.) 

Among the uses of J^:, ir, we find it as a postposition, equated 
with the Assyrian ana, "to, unto, into, toward," and ina, "in, by, 
with." In the former sense it is clearly identical with ir, "to go," 
"to bring." Cp. (2) The Chinese ir, dialectic i, jin, ir, "near, at 
hand," "to approach"; ir-lai, "hitherto." Lai, "to come, to 
reach, to bring," may be compared with the postposition »^^yy, 
li,* ana, ina, " to, in," on the one hand, and with $£.]] RA, ana, 
ina, on the other, li is the Chinese postposition //, " to, in," as 
kia-li, "unto the house," ye-li, "in the night." Now t£\ is also 
read ra in the sense of alaku, " to go." These postpositions, 
therefore, are, as we suspected, merely special uses of the verb of 
motion. The Japanese pronunciation of lai, "to come," is rat. It 
is curious that Accadian supplies both the /-form and the /"-form. 

* That this 1.1, "with," is not independent of an older u'-form, is evident 
from J^y, read vi, and rendered itli, "together with." 

282 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

(Besides ra, Aceadian has »— or ^TT|, ru, in the same sense, as a 
postposition. The modification of vowel depends on the laws of 
vowel-harmony.) amr or anira, "to his father," is thus literally 
" father -f- his + going." A trace of the postposition ir, "to, at, on," 
is seen in the Chinese kin-ir, "to-day," ming-ir, "to-morrow"; 
"depend on me, tsz'-ir for this." 

(3) The Chinese ir, dialectic i,ji, ir (gi, gir), "whiskers, hairy," 
may be at once explained by supposing an Aceadian by-form gir = 
gis, "hair," as in the case of gis and gir, "heaven," kis and kur, 
" horse." 

(4) The Chinese ir, now read iati (see p. 270), dialectic i, ji, ir, 
"to boil," recalls gir girri, "fire," = gi, "fire." 

(5) The Chinese ir, "water flowing in diverging streams, warm 
water," an expression used of the flow of tears, corresponds perfectly 
t0 It ^T^ er or IR > " tear >" " to weep," "weeping" (dimtu, baku, 
bikitii). The other pronunciation of this ideogram, es, is an instance 
of the interchange of final r and sh just referred to. This (g)ir, 
(g)es, may be compared with gur, "to flow," and perhaps gas, 
ges, "liquor" (ses, "to mourn," is perhaps es + es ; cp. essesses 
" to weep "). 

(6) The Chinese ir, "a queen-post resting on the top of a beam, 
to support the roof," may be compared with the common ^TH^f, 
ur, "a beam" (Assyrian guSuru). 

(7) The Chinese ir, "a funeral carriage or hearse," may be worn 
down from gar, mar, "chariot." 

(8) The Chinese ir, "a male child," e.g., ir-?iii, " boys and girls," 
has the dialectic forms i, ji, ni, answering to the Aceadian gin (gi, 
gis) and ni, both of which are defined zikaru, "male," as already 
stated. With the Mandarin ir, we may compare THf, ur {ami-lit), 
"a man," and >-*Z~!\, uru, dialectic eri, "servant"; and probably 
*^, erim, sabu, "man," "warrior." 

(9) The Chinese ir, "a 6mall horse" (ir^ma, "a stallion"), 
may be worn down from kur, " a. horse." 

(10) The Chinese ir, ni, dialectic ni,ji, ir, "to eat," may be re- 
ferred to gar, kur, ku, "to eat," gu, "to lick" or "sip." The 
fluctuation between the vowels * and 11 here and elsewhere will be 
no shock to Aceadian scholars. 

(n) The Chinese ir, "the ear," "a side," dialectic /, //", ;//, 
is another example of gir = giS, the latter being an Aceadian 

283 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S90. 

term for ear (gis-tug, and ge, uzmi). The Amoy ji" recalls gin, 
"to hear" (mdgaru). 

The meaning " side " (which appears also in two other homo- 
phones denoting the sides of the mouth or face) agrees with TTT > -, 
ur, "side," "quarter," (esidu, hamamu), and with ^^E, ur, "a wall" 
(usurtu), and with ^^~y|. ur, " the loins, the flanks " (sunu), and 
with gur, "heap, bank, side" (karu) : S b 1, 3, 20. ir-ir, "soft and 
pliable, of reins, complying," implies (g)ir = gin, " flexible." 

(12) The Chinese ir, "ear-ornaments," is obviously an extension 
of ir, "the ear." In the sense of "a ring near the sun," "parhelion 
or mock-sun," it reminds us of the sign ^TTT^y, gir, mer = men, 
"a crown." The moon is called in Accadian "lord of the bright 
crown"; an expression which seems to allude to the halo which 
sometimes surrounds it. In Chinese yun (old sound yin), dialectic 
wan, hun, yun (= men, gin), is a halo. The relation to Accadian 
men, "a crown," on the one hand, and to gin in ni-gin, "to 
surround," on the other, is evident. Cp. yuen, "round" (yii" = 
gin). 

(13) The Chinese ir, dialectic i, ji, ir, "to cut off a man's ears," 
recalls gur, "to cut off" (kasdtnu, kasdsu, masdru). 

(14) The Chinese ir, "thou, you," in the three dialects i, ji", 
ir, is another instance of (g)ir = gin ; cp. the Amoy ji" = gin. 
We have already seen that gin and men mean both " I " and 
" you " in Accadian. 

A second use of this homophone is as an affirmative particle, 
"so," "just so," "thus," "in that way." This implies (g)ir = gin, 
"thus," (kiihn); and answers to -<^j|e, IR (?), "like": vide supra. 

A third meaning is "to remove" = the Accadian J^:, ir, "to 
cause to go " (suluku), " to take away " {tabdhi) ; and the fourth 
is "abundant," e.g., ir-ir, "plentiful"; with which we may compare 
Jjyf, ur, "abundance" {baltu, bultu, root wabal; rendered by 
Prof. Hommel, strotzende Fiille, Ueberfluss). Cp. also gur, "to 
flow." This is, again, an instance of (g)ir = gin ; for we have gin, 
ma In, "to be full." 

(13) The Chinese ir, "to turn the head or face towards . . ." 
is, again, an instance of (g)ir = gin ; for gin is tdru, "to turn," 
saharu, "to turn round" (p. 53); cp. gur, tdru, sa/jdru. In 
Cantonese it is mi or ni; in Amoy ji, at Shanghai ir. In Cantonese 

284 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

this homophone also bears the meaning " to purse up the mouth," 
as in the phrase mi-mi hau,* "to pucker the lips," or more literally 
"close the mouth." With this may be taken another homophone, 
the fourth in the list, read mi in Cantonese, ir at Shanghai, and 
meaning "to shut, to close." Now Accadian furnishes gin, gi, 
"to shut or close " {sanaku, kali'/) ; ^££e, ir (? g'ir), "to shut in," 
(eseru) ; and ^J^f, g'ir, "to close" {kalu). 

(T4) The Chinese ir or ni, and mi, ji, er, "woven feather and 
hair work," "coloured hair," admits of further comparison, not only 
with our hypothetical gir = gis, "hair," but also with Jjy, ur, 
urri, "a hyena," (Assyrian ah/1), and the synonymous UR-barra 
(ahti, barbaru). The variegated fur of the creature is indicated 
by both names (cp. the next er). 

(15) The Chinese ir, dialectic i,ji, er, "the blood of a sacrificed 
fowl," "to pull out the hairs of a victim's ears," er-er, "ear-blood," 
may be compared not only with gir = gis and ge, "the ear," 
but also with Ev fn ^' URU > " blood " (damn). 

(16) The Chinese ir, "a second; an assistant or attendant 
(eunuch)," answers to ^i^f, uru, eri, "servant." Cp. also 
^yy^TYT*3^, uru, zikaru, "male, man"; tyy^*^, eru, zinnistu, 
" female," and ^yy^ £-, eru, abdu, " servant." 

(17) The Chinese ir, the 7th radical (dialectic i, ji, ni), " two, the 
second, to divide in twain, to double," may be equated in the first 
sense with '-^fy, gir = tab, tappu, "a fellow," "second"; and in 
the third sense with J^; in ir-tim, "a plow-share" or "coulter," 
apparently (dimmu, mahrasu). tim means " to cut," and the ana- 
logy of other compounds of this kind requires that ir should be 
synonymous. With this ir, "to cut in twain," "divide," cp. ^^Je, 
ir, " the middle " (kirbu, libbu), and ur, " the bowels " (tirtu), and 
^£~~yy, ur, " the loins " (sftnu : Dr. Jeremias, op. Bcitnige zur 
Assyrio/ogie, p. 287), which are middle parts. 

(18) Lastly, ir (/, ji, ni), "a substitute, a second," a mere 
duplicate of the last homophone, has also the meanings " to 
suspect" and "to oppose." Cp. ]^, ur, "an enemy" (nakru), or 

* Hau, in Amoy k l o, and at Shanghai £'//, is the 30th radical, pronounced 
k'au in Mandarin. These dialectic variants point to an original /•<?, /•//. The term 
means "the mouth," "a gate," and is identical with Accadian *-£■]£?{, ka, 
" mouth " and " gate " (/>//, b&bti). 

28^ 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

"opponent," urri, do., ^^^T ^JTf, erim, "a foe" (dibit), on the 
one hand ; and Km^j URU > (dialectic eri ?), "to help," "protect" 
(nasdru), on the other. And cp. kur, p. 274. 

I leave these facts to speak for themselves, as they doubtless 
will, to people whose knowledge of Accadian goes beyond a doubt- 
ful assent to the definitions ki = earth, and ana = heaven. Those 
who prefer to keep Accadian to conjure with, will probably not 
thank me for comparing with ki, " earth, land, country, place, 
domain," the Chinese ki, "a domain," — "a limit or border," ki, "land 
left— poor land," k% " the god or spirit which animates the earth," 
T"u k%* " the goddess Earth," shan (shin) k'i, "the gods of the land" 
(Accadian shi, "spirit," ki, "land"); k'i, "a border, confines, 
imperial lands." 

It is obviously of the greatest consequence that Chinese, which 
has for the most part dropped or metamorphosed the final r, should 
have preserved it in these crucial instances. As is well known, 
Chinese transcriptions of foreign names usually exhibit / for r, as in 
Eu-lo-pa, Europe, Ki-li-sse-tu, Christus. That this change began in 
very early times is evident from the fact that it is observable in 
native words as compared with their Accadian prototypes. Take 
the Accadian kirrud, "a hole, hollow, gorge or valley" (hiirrii). 
This, as usual, is a compound term = kin + rud. The character 
is {Yfc^f, which is composed of ^, bur, "depth," "bottom " (suplu), 
and <7By, ki(n), "earth," and thus suggests "hole in the ground," 
and is equal to the Assyrian hitrru, " Loch, Schlucht, Thai," as 
Dr. Delitzsch long ago explained. In Chinese we have k'u-lung, "a 
hole," from fc'u, "a hole in the ground or hill-side" (cp. k l u, "a cave- 
dwelling," and k'u, "the buttocks," suplu), and lung, "a cavity." 
This lnng=RUM, in kirrum, the alternative value of the Accadian 
character. On the other hand, Chinese has preserved the / of 
billudu, "law, precept, command"; cp. pien, "a law or rule of 
action," dialectic////, bi", and lii/i, (lut = LUD), Cantonese hit, Amoy 
////, Fuhchau Ink (lug = lud), Chifa lit, Shanghai //'// (lid, lig), "a 
statute, an ordinance." Thus billud = bin(pin) + lud, and is a 

* 7^u, "earth, ground, land, region, place," is the 32nd Chinese radical. 
There is also li, " the earth, the second of the three prime powers, worshipped 
as Queen Earth, a place, a spot, a territory, the bottom or support of a thing" ; 
and both occur together in the phrase Vu-ti-shan, " the local gods." 

Now in Accadian < J£ 1 1 KI, is also pronounced du. 

286 



Mar. 4] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

synonym of the other terms grouped under the ideogram ^z »->f-. 
That this group may be read also pan,* in the like sense, as the 
component parts of it (pa-an) suggest, is made probable by the fact 
that p'an in Chinese means, "to divide in twain, judge, decide," "a 
decision, sentence."! The value kus, parsu sa Hi, " command of a 
god," may be compared with the cognate Accadian kut, "to decide," 
(pardsu); and with the Chinese kiieh (kut), Cantonese kut, "art, 
rule, precepts"; kiieh, "to decide, settle, cut off, sentence." 

The group "fc^f: £<f sfly*. 

This group affords another example of the value of recognizing 
in Accadian the existence of nouns compounded of two synonymous 
expressions, like those we have just considered. I think it should 
be read sag-dugga. It is well known that the group means " head " 
{kakkadu). sag or sang we have already compared with the Chinese 
sang, " forehead " ; dug answers to Chinese fau, which at Shanghai 
is pronounced dii, " the head " {cp. also lit, " the skull," " the fore- 
head " = du). We have also the cognate forms >JL^, tig (ting), 
"the head" (rait), and in Chinese ting, "the top, crown, head." 

If this reasoning be correct, it is evident that ^fs^ £2f must be 
read sagdu, or sangdu, or perhaps saddu. The second character 
may even have had the value dug, as well as du ; but the case 
appears to be analogous to si, sig-ga, etc. 

* Hence pan-pan, "a chapel " (parakku) ; cp. bar(a) in the same sense. 

+ liih (lut) is also "to divide, to distinguish between, to adjust " ; and pien, 
a homophone oipien cited above, is "to cut asunder," "to divide or distinguish," 
"to discriminate." Cp. pan, "to divide in two, to halve." With GAR-ZA(g), 
the other value of ;^z>->^-, cp. yao, dialectic^ (= ga, gar), "to be bound, 
to restrict, to try, to examine into," and tsai, " to govern, to rule," and tsc/i, 
dialectic tsak, chek (dig), " rule, precept, law," and chah, Shanghai and Chifu 
tsah, "an order." 



287 



Mar. 4] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1S90. 



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Society of Biblical Archaeology. 



COUNCIL, 1890. 



President. 
P. le Page Renouf. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Lord HALSBURY, The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Ven. J. A. Hessey, D.C.L., D.D., Archdeacon of Middlesex. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

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F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

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Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., cVc. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 

Council. 

W. A. Tyssen Amherst, M.P ,&c. Rev. Albert Lowy. 

Key. Charles James Ball. Prof. A. Macalister, M.U. 

Rev. Canon Beechey, M.A. Rev. James Marshall. 

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Honorary ThYr.wnT— Bernard T. Bosanqtjet. 

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Honorary Librarian— /W illiau Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



E . PRINTERS I.N' ORDINARY TO HEB MAJESTY, ST. MARTINS LANE, 



VOL. XII. Part 6. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



-<$£>- 



VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION. 

PART 6. 
[APRIL, 1890. NO MEETING.] 



CONTENTS. 

I'AUE 

Rev. C. de Cara.— Letter. The Hittites 289-291 

Dr. Mse. Schwab. — Les Coupes magiques et l'hydromancie dans 

l'antiquite orientale. (5 Plates.) Read December 3, 1889 292-342 

P. I.E P. Renouf {President). — The Names of Isis and Osiris 343~340 

P. leP. Renouf (President).— Nukh of Sais 347~35 2 



-*&- 



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PROCEEDINGS 

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OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTIETH SESSION, 1889-90. 



Part 6. 

{April, 1890. No Meeti?ig.] 



-m>&&- 



I have received a letter from the Rev. Cesare de Cara, S.J., 
inviting attention to a series of articles on the Hittites, by 
him, now appearing in the Civilta Cattolica. The following 
extract from his letter will be of interest : — 

Cipro fu primitivamente occupata dagli Hethei (Hittiti) che le 
diedero il loro nome x e( ^h l , come attesta Flavio Giuseppe confon- 
dendo x c ^> c '°^ DWf con QTO figlio di Javan. Col nome di 
X^Olfi, egli dice, gli Ebrei chiamano tutte le isole e la maggior parte 
delle citta lungo il mare. Ora quel nome x^'P sopravvive, alterato, 
e vero, da' Greci, in una citta di Cipro, cioe in Kino?, Citium. 

Dunque, COnchiude, da Cipro, inr aV7?j? v1\aoi to ttiioui, Kat n) -Xn'ic 
twv irapa Sakaaaav X e ®'l"' ^' 7ro Ef3f)ru'wi' ovofia'C^cTiii ("Antiq. Jud.," 

Lib. I, c. VI). II ragionamento di Giuseppe non regge. Una 
citta qual e K/tiov, Citium, non poteva dare il nome a tutte le isole 
e a tanti paesi lungo il Mar Mediterraneo. L' isola chiamata da lui 
XeOtpa occupata da X^Otno?, e in quanto da questo occupata, pote 
dare e diede di fatto il nome di XeOifi a tutte le isole e a moltissime 
[No. xci.] 289 y 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S90. 

luoghi marittimi. Imperocche quel Xt0i/no9, tolta la terminazione 
greca, e x e ^'y"' c ' ^ QTill, gli Hethei (Hittiti). La mutazione del 
X di XeOljn in K per riguardo a K/t<o<? e dovuta a' Greci, come 

afferma Giuseppe : K/t<os vtto twv i^eWi]vtaavTUv aim)v KaXelrai (I.e.) 

II nome primitivo dunque con pronunziato col X, e tutti i Codici 
hanno infatti in questo vocabulo Xeft'/t di Giuseppe : XtOip, Xerelju, 
XeT<et/i, XeTu/i, sempre col X e non mai col K. 

Si confirma il gia detto che cioe 1' isola di Cipro fu denominata 
Xe6if.i dagli Hethei (Hittiti) che ab antico 1' occupanno, da un altro 
fatto importantissimo e finora sfuggito all' attenzione degli hetheo- 
logi. 

Gli Hethei fondarono nelP isola di Cipro una citta, alia quale 
diedero il nome d' una loro citta celebre di Siria, Hamath (Hamah). 
Quetta citta in Cipro si chiamo 'A/iaOoi's, che tolta la desinenza 
greca, resta A/ta0. Ora 1' A/aaO cipria e identica ad Hamath sira ; 
le varianti non sono che puramente accidentali e di nessun valore. 
Difatti 1' Hamath sira da' LXX e detta 'A/iaOi, da Giuseppe 'AjuaOrj 
(I.e. p. 23), da altri Hemath, Emath, Amath, Hamath, Chamath 
e Chammath, per ragione della gutturale conservata ovvero caduta. 
Anche in assiro v' e la stessa varieta e accanto a Ha-ma-(at)-ti, Ha- 
am-ma-at-ti troviamo Amatti (II, RawL, 53, no. I, 1. 37; Khorsab., 
49, 56). La leggenda riferita da Stefano di Bisanzio porta che 
1' Amath di Cipro fu fondata da Cinyra, e detta 'A/iaflot)* da Amathusa 
sua madre. Cinyra poi e detto figlio di Pafo re degli Assiri. 
Da Cinyra e da Smirne nacque Adonis Osiris che Cipriotti e Fenicii 
rivendicano esclusivamente per loro. II mito e qui abbastanza 
trasparente e vuol dire che il culto di Adonis fu introdotto in Cipro 
da' Siri cioe dagli Hethei di Hamath sira in Amath di Cipro. Che 
patria primitiva degli Hethei sia stata la Tiria fu da me dimostrato 
nella mia Opera sugli Hyksos ; che Siri e Fenicii sono spesso 
scambiati dagli antichi gli uni con gli altri e cosa nota, come di 
pari Siri con Assiri. 

Inoltre tutta 1' isola porto un tempo il nome di Amathusia (Plin. 
V, 31, 35), come porto quello di XeOiju. Ma la prova perentoria 
che 1' Amath cipria sia figlia dell' Hamath sira e per me, la somi- 
glianza e quasi identita. di alcuni caratteri dell' alfabeto arcaico 
di Cipro con quelli delle iscrizioni di Hamath presso 1' Oronte, come 
fu gia indicato dal Dr. Taylor e ne fu fatta 1' applicazione felice 
dal Sayce. Di quella somiglianza di caratteri delle iscrizioni hethee 
con quelli dell' arcaico alfabeto cipriotto, nessuno cerco la ragione 

290 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

che ora io ho trovata e che sembrami convincente, cioe che 1' origine 
dell' Alfabeto arcaico cipriotto e dovuta agli Hethei e forse a quelli 
in particolare che fondarono Amath in Cipro. 

Se la mia scoperta e reale, avremmo importanti conseguenza 
da cavarne per 1' avanzamento degli studii sugli Hethei tanto nobil- 
mente promossi dalla patria di Vostra Signoria, dove nacquero, 
e per i quali ella ha tanto fatto a comune utilita de' dotti. Trovera 
nel mio secondo articolo svolte tutte queste cose ampiamente, che 
qui ho solo accennate. 




291 v 2 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 



LES COUPES MAGIQUES ET L'HYDROMANCIE DANS 
L'ANTIQUITE ORIENTALE. 

Par Mse. Schwab. 

(Communication faite a. l'Academie des Inscriptions les 3 Aoiit 1883 et 
25 Septembre 1885.) 

Les Orientaux ont accorde grande creance aux pratiques de 
magie. Les coupes judeo-chaldeennes, a formules d'incantation, 
trouvees lors des families recentes faites en Babylonie, sont la preuve 
palpable de ces superstitions populaires. C'est donc.de la Chaldee 
que les pratiques magiques et divinatoires se sont repandues dans le 
monde, et qu'elles ont penetre meme dans les milieux d'ou elles 
auraient du etre plus particulierement bannies. Ainsi, M. Edmond 
Le Llant * a demontre que chez les premiers Chretiens, certains 
versets inscrits des phylarteres devaient sauvegarder leurs posses- 
seurs des effets de la torture. Par exemple, un texte de saint Jean 
au sujet de la Passion, t qui contient ces mots : Non comminuetis 
os ex eo, etait considere comme posse'dant une vertu preservatrice 
et permettait aux patients, soitcoupables, soit martyrs, qui le recitaient, 
de demeurer impassibles au milieu des souffrances. Cela est si vrai 
qu'attribuant a l'emploi de pratiques secretes la Constance des 
premiers Chretiens suspects, a. leurs yeux, de magie,| les pai'ens 
s'appliquaient a chercher les moyens de rompre le charme. 

L'origine anterieure de cet usage se retrouve chez les Assyriens.§ 
A cet effet, il suffit de rappeler, outre le poeme de " la descente 
d'Istar" (trad. Oppert, Fragments Mythologiques, p. 8), les Inscrip- 
tions de Nabuchodonosor dans les West-Asia Inscriptions (T. I, pi. 
61-63), celles de Negrilissor, pi. 67, et les termes d'hydromancie 

* Actes des Martyrs, dans les Memoires de t Academic des Inscriptions et 
Belles-Lettres, T. XXX, 2 C part, p. 105. 

t -S. Jean xxi, 36 ; cf. Exode xii, 46 ; Nombres ix, 12. 

X E. Le Blant, Metnoire stir Vaccusation de Magie dirigce contre les premiers 
Chretiens, clans les Mem. de la Soc. des Aniiquaires de France, T. XXXI. 

§ Les recherches dans le domaine de l'Assyriologie utilisees ici, sont dues 
a l'obligeance de M. Babelon. 

292 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

en general (ibid., T. II, pi. 56, col. Ill et IV; T. IV, pi. 1, col. I, 
pi. 3, col. II; pi. 14, 16, et pi. 25, col. IV). A cote d'Assour, rappelons 
les Pheniciens, dont une serie de coupes en forme de calottes hemis- 
pheriques a ete decrite par M. Clermont-Ganneau (Vlmagerie 
phenicienne et la mythologique) ; les sujets traces a la pointe sur les 
parois rappellent assez les inscriptions en spirale des coupes juives. 

On pratiquait egalement des operations magiques en Assyrie avec 
d'autres liqueurs que 1'eau, de meme qu'on omait aux dieux des 
libations de vin, d'huile, d'hydromel, et de lait. M. Oppert * a 
consacre a l'une de ces liqueurs, ou le sikaru, une notice fort 
interessante, dans laquelle il a rapproche cette expression designant 
une " boisson fermentee," du terme biblique ~OtT- 

I. 

11 n'est pas etonnant que ces formes du mysticisme aient passe 
chez les Rabbins. Outre les nombreux versets de la Bible ou se 
reflete le souvenir des "eaux de vie et de resurrection " (Zach. xiii, 1 ; 
xiv, 8; Joel iii, 18; Ezech. xlvii, 1-12 ; Prov. x, n ; xiii, 14 ; xvi, 22; 
Ps. xxvi, 9-10), maints passages de l'Ancien Testament et des Evan- 
giles sont relatifs a la " coupe de mine et de perdition " (Isaie xli, 
17 ; Jeremie xxv, 15-27 ; S. Matthieu xx et xxvi). 

On reconnait aisement des allusions a des pratiques d'hydro- 
mancie dans les passages suivants du Talmud, oil Ton interprete et 
commente le texte biblique a la lumiere des usages contemporains. 
C'est ainsi que le Midrasch Rabba — sur Genese ch. 92 (f. 80 b. ; cf. 
Yalqut, I, s. 150 (f. 47 b.), et II e partie, s. 929, f. i3id. — dit : " Josef 
prit la tasse, et feignit de faire des experiences et de flairer la tasse." 
Dans le Tanhonma (s. 5, f. 20 a, sur Genese, xiii. 9 etc. ; Midrasch 
sur Proverbes i. 14), on lit : " II prit le calice et frappa dessus."f 

Le Talmud (B, tr. Baba Metcia, f. 29 b.) parle aussi d'un 
breuvage magique N2D")m ND3> compose de stimulants ou d'in- 
gredients narcotiques. 11 faut cependant reconnaitre que le sens du 
second mot N2DH!~n n'est pas tres clair. On voit, d'apres le 
radical, qu'il s'agit d'un melange bien broye, comme en arabe 

* Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, iSS2, 
2 e trimestre, p. 125. 

f Cf. (Jraetz, Alonatschrift, XXVII, p. 336 ; J. Levy, Targum Wbrterbuch, I, 
p. 364 b. ; Lattes, Nuovo saggio di giuntc t correzioni al lessico Talmudico, 

R. Accademia dei Lincei, p. 27S (ib!So, 1), s.v. 

2 93 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.EOLOGV. [1S90. 

^ v d'olt ^j jj,) "patee de viande," selon Fleischer,* et c'est un 
peu avec ce sens que Ton retrouve la meme expression dans d'autres 
passages talmudiques (B. tr. Be fa, f. 16 a.; tr. Sabbat, f. 37 b.; tr. 
Yoma, f. 84 a. ; tr. Aboda Zara, f. 38 a). 

Void enfin une anecdote du Talmud t dans laquelle on voit 
un sorcier devenu, par une force raagique, inaccessible aux eaux 
de pluie qui tombent par torrents sur ses vetements ; il "passe 
a travers les gouttes," comme nous disons encore dans le langage 
familier : — 

''Simon B. Schetah se leva un jour et prepara Pexecution de 
80 sorcieres ; il partit sous la pluie, emmenant avec lui 20 jeunes 
gens d'elite, leur remit en main autant de vetements blancs, qu'ils 
etaient charges d'emporter chacun dans une marmite neuve fixee 
sur la tete, leur dormant l'ordre suivant : ' A mon premier cri 
(appel), vous vous couvrirez de ce vetement ; et a mon 2 e cri 
vous entrerez tous a la fois, et aussitot entres, chacun de vous 
saisira une de ces femmes qu'il soulevera de terre ; car il est de 
regie en magie qu'une fois le soicier souleve de terre, il n'a plus 
de pouvoir.' 

" Sur ce, Simon alia se presenter a la porte de la caverne, et dit : 
' compagnes, o/noi'a, ouvrez-moi, puisque je suis des votres.' 'Com- 
ment se fait-il,' dirent-elles, ' que tu aies pu penetrer jusqu'ici en 
un tel jour?' ' J'ai su (par sortilege) passer entre les gouttes d'eau 
(sans me mouiller).' 'Et que viens-tu faire ici ?' demanderent-elles. 
' Je viens apprendre, puis enseigner, car chacun fait ce qu'il peut.' 
Chacune alors opera a sa facon ; 1'une par ses paroles put apporter 
du pain ; l'autre prononca les mots (magiques) et apporta de la 
viande ; une autre enonca de tels mots et apporta des legumes ; 
une autre encore, agissant de meme, apporta du vin. ' Et que sais-tu 
faire ? ' demanderent-elles. ' Je sais, en poussant 2 appels, dit-il, vous 
amener 80 beaux jeunes gens, qui se rejouiront de vous avoir, 
et vous aurez de la joieavec eux.' 'Nous voulons bien les recevoir, 
dirent-elles. 11 poussa un cri, et les jeunes gens revetirent le 
costume blanc ; au 2 e cri, ils entrerent tous a. la fois, et il com- 
manda que chacun se choisisse une compagne, qu'ils enleverent, 

* Nachtriige zum Nenhcbr. u. chald. Wdrterbuch von Jac. Levy, II, p. 559. 
t Talmud de Jerusalem, tr. Haghigd, II, p. 2 (traduction francaise, T. VI, 
P- 279)- 

294 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

puis ils partirent et les crucifierent. C'est pourquoi il a ete en- 
seigne:* il est arrive a. Simon B. Schetah de pendre 80 femmes 
a Ascalon." 

II. 

Dans les fouilles archeologiques dont la Chaldee a ete le theatre 
en ce siecle, on a retrouve, a cote d'objets se rapportant a l'antiquite 
chaldeenne et a l'epoque de la domination des Arsacides, des 
Sassanides, et des Arabes, des monuments juifs du moyen age, qui 
meritent particulierement de fixer l'attention. Parmi ces monu- 
ments figure une collection de vases en terre cuite, avec inscriptions, 
qui devoilent un des cotes les plus interessants de l'histoire des 
colonies juives installees sur les ruines de Babylone apres la con- 
quete de Jerusalem par les Romains. Ces vases hemispheriques, 
assez grossierement faconnes au tour, et depourvus de tout interet 
artistique, ont ete tous jusqu'ici decouverts dans les environs de 
Hillah, e'est-a-dire, sur l'emplacement meme de Babylone, dans 
le quartier qu'on croit avoir ete assigne comme residence aux Juifs 
pendant la captivite. C'est a l'interieur, sur la surface concave, 
que se trouve ecrite a. l'encre, circulairement, l'inscription magique 
destinee a. mettre en fuite les demons, et a. preserver de certaines 
maladies celui qui buvait le liquide verse dans la coupe. 

La langue dans laquelle sont conchies ces formules d'incanta 
tion, est generalement celle des Targums de Babylone ; l'ecriture 
est le plus souvent l'hebreu carre, affectant des formes plus ou 
moins eloignees des formes de l'ecriture actuelle, suivant I'an- 
ciennete du monument. Quelques autres vases portent des in- 
scriptions en caracteres syriaques estranghelo, redigees en un 
dialecte qui se rapproche du mendai'te ; il en est aussi d'arabes. 

Le British Museum est tres riche en vases jude'o-babyloniens 
d'incantations magiques. Grace aux obligeantes communications 
de feu Samuel Birch, l'eminent conservateur du Departement des 
Antiquites orientales, nous avons compte plus de vingt-trois de 
ces coupes, dont les dimensions varient depuis onze centimetres 
sept millimetres (4% inches), et douze centimetres ( lj inches), jusqu'a 
quarante-et-un centimetres deux millimetres. En outre, nous avons 
remarque un grand nombre de fragments brises, non encore classes, 
et dont quelques-uns, rapproches, pourraient probablement servir 

* Talmud Babli, tr. SynhSdrin, f. 45b ; voir Derenbourg, Essai sur la 
Palestine, p. 69. 

295 



April]' SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

a reconstituer des vases complets. Les inscriptions sont tantot 
en lettres hebraiques (hebreu carre), tantot en lettres syriaques 
(cursif et estranghelo), tantot enfin en arabe. 

Sur l'un des fragments a inscription hebraique, nous avons pu 
facilement dechiffer la principale priere de la liturgie judaique : 
Schema Israel, Adona'i Elohenou, Adona'i . eliad : " Ecoute, Israel, 
l'Eternel est notre Dieu, l'Eternel est un." (Deut. vi, 4.) C'est 
la profession de foi religieuse de l'lsraelite, qui est non seulement 
recitee dans la priere quotidienne plusieurs fois par jour, mais 
encore dans des circonstances particulierement solennelles, comme 
a Tissue du jour du Grand-Pardon, ou au chevet d'un mourant. 

Parmi les vingt-deux vases parfaitement intacts conserves au 
British Museum, il en est quatorze qui y sont entres depuis un 
certain temps deja et qui proviennent des premieres fouilles archeo- 
logiques dont la Chaldee a ete l'objet. Dans ces quatorze il faut 
comprendre les six qui sont d'ecrits dans l'ouvrage de M. Layard, 
Nineveh and Babylon (pp. 509-526). Voici d'ailleurs 1 enumeration 
sommaire de toutes ces coupes magiques : — 

1. Vase ainsi numerate : 10-9 L'inscription est aujourd'hui a 

peu pres completement fruste. 

Si 

2. 10-9 Publie par M. Layard sous le No. 1 ; sera decrit 

ci-apres, au chap, iii, rubrique A, dans la revision 
que nous faisons de l'inscription. 

3. (Le No. d'ordre manque; sans doute 97?) L'inscription, 

qui avait quatorze lignes, est presque completement 
fruste. 

5i 

4. 10-9 L'inscription est egalement si fruste qu'elle n est plus 

dechiffrable. 



5 1 
10-9 L'inscription, qui avait quatorze lignes, n'est plus de- 
chiffrable aujourd'hui. 

51 . . 

10-9 Publie par M. Layard, sous le No. 2 ; sera decrit ci- 
apres, au chap, iii, rubrique B. 

5 1 ... 

1° 9 Ce vase parait semblable au precedent; mais l'inscrip- 
tion est a peine lisible aujourd'hui. 
296 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

8. Marque N (=Nimroud) 1560. On peut seulement recueillir 
quelques mots epars de l'inscription completement fruste dans 
certaines parties. 

9. (Sans marque). Ce vase est tres grand. On voit une in- 
scription d'une ligne et demie au bord exterieur, et de 10 a 12 lignes 
a l'interieur, a peu pres illisibles. 

Nous ferons remarquer en passant que les deux vases precedents 
ont des dimensions telles qu'on ne peut guere les considerer simple- 
ment comrae des coupes a boire ; ce sont de grands bols, ou plutot 
des marmites. II ne faut pas oublier, au surplus, comme nous 
l'avons dit plus haut, que souvent il ne suffisaitpas pour le patient de 
boire une partie du liquide contenu dans la coupe. L'officiant en 
repandait parfois avec la main, soit sur le malade, soit autour de lui, 
ou merae en aspergeait toute la maison. 

IO 7- 26 L'inscription qui recouvre ce vase est en syriaque. M. 
Layard l'a donnee sous le No. 6. 

11. Vase marque L. L'inscription, en hebreu carre, a dix-sept 
lignes ; mais le vase est trop mutile' pour qu'elle puisse offrir un sens 

suivi. 

83 

12. 4-73 L'interieur de cette coupe est partage en quatre co- 

lonnes ; a l'exterieur se trouvent encore six lignes 
d'ecriture. Un trop grand nombre de passages sont obliteres pour 
que les inscriptions puissent etre comprises dans leur ensemble. 

13. Vase avec une inscription arabe d'une seule ligne placee 
au milieu d'un double cercle ; l'ecriture anguleuse resemble assez 
aux caracteres coufiques ou mendaites. 

68 

14. 5" 2 3 Vase avec une inscription arabe de sept lignes, dont 

5 une au centre forme une formule a part. II sera 

question plus loin de cette inscription, sous la lettre J du chap. iii. 

Huit autres vases sont entres recemment au British Museum ; ils 
proviennent, comme les precedents, des environs de Hillah, qui 
parait avoir ete, ainsi que nous l'avons deja dit, la metropole de la 
fabrication de ces poteries inscrites. Ces vases n'avaient pas encore 
recu de numeros de catalogue au moment oil nous les avons etudies. 
Ce sont : — 

1. Un bol assez creux et affectant la forme d'une petite terrine. 
A l'interieur, au milieu, on voit un dessin qui represente une plante 
a quatre branches ; sur la paroi sont deux inscriptions separees par 

297 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S90. 

une ligne circulaire fermee. Celle du fond contient huit lignes; 
celle du haut n'en a que six. Une seconde ligne circulaire laisse 
entre cette inscription et le bord du vase, un espace qui n'est occupe 
que par ces mots : Amen, Amen, sela, sela. 

2. Un vase contenant deux inscriptions syriaques ; celle du fond 
a douze lignes, frustes dans certaines parties ; celle du haut a six 
lignes, dont trois sur la paroi exterieure du vase ; entre les deux, un 
cercle lineaire. 

3. Un vase contenant une inscription en estranghelo de seize 
lignes ; cette inscription offre cette particularity, qu'elle commence 
au centre du vase, ou se trouve en outre un petit cercle a l'encre. 
A l'exterieur on lit ces mots traces en travers : 

(mon nn d ?.a). * j/v &~n l±t c*> v=ti 

C'est le nom du possesseur du vase, celui pour lequel ^inscription a 
ete faite. Nous verrons plus loin que sur ces amulettes on inscrivait 
generalement le nom du personnage qu'on voulait exorciser ou guerir. 

4. Un vase de dimensions plus qu'ordinaires, mais brise en 
deux places. 

5. Un vase contenant une inscription de douze lignes, bien 
completes, dont trois a l'exterieur. Au centre interieur se trouve 
la saillie ou ombilic, signalee sur d'autres monuments (cf. ci-apres E). 

6. Un vase renfermant interieurement un texte assez court, que 
nous commentons plus loin vous la rubrique H. 

7. Un vase renfermant une formule hebra'ique, dans laquelle 
nous relevons ces mots qu'on lit couramment : — 

mvbft ^«^«m rofc&o btf'naa owa rho jdn • • • • 
bwEnn roN 1 ?^ btcm rovbo Wnirn na«7D bb^naan 

• • • • Man «-idi« ^Mntoifin [naw^Q] 

"... Amen, Sela. Au nom de Gabriel l'ange, f de Hamiel 
l'ange, de Nabriel l'ange, de Gabriel l'ange, de Michael l'ange, de 
Raphael [l'angej], de Hattabriel, le grand. ...(?) esprit, ou 
demon. § . . ." 

* Cette derniere lettre, cassee, est incertaine ; en supposant un !"l, on aim 
nom a tournure arameenne. 

t La lettre H, a la fin du mot, est une faute d'orthographe, comme il y en a 
souvent dans ces textes vulgaires. 

J Le mot du texte entre [ ] est un pen fruste. 

§ Litteralement, celui qui lie (l'esprit du mal). 

298 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

8. Un petit vase peu profond, et plus semblable a un couverrle 
qu'a. un bol. L'inscription, qui avait dix lignes, est assez fruste ; 
elle commence au centre ; on lit a la troisieme et a la quatrieme 
lignes : 

\iW2 ^unn pi ptzra prm yon pnDN rho pN pw 
• • • • nq^n pi NnNtan pi rrf»a pi — 

"Amen, Amen, Sela. Qu'ils se separent de toi les mauvais 
esprits et tes mauvais sortileges. . . . Sois delie des vceux, des 
sacrifices* et des expiations. "f 

C'est une formule qui, ainsi que nous le constaterons plus loin, 
est frequemment usite'e sur ce genre de monuments. Au reste, a 
part quelques variantes de peu d'interet, les inscriptions de ces vases 
judeo-chaldeens ne sortent pas de trois ou quatre formules qu'il nous 
suftira d'etudier en detail pour donner une idee exacte et precise de 
ces monuments. Prendre l'un apres l'autre chacun de ces vases 
pour en commenter le texte, nous exposerait a des redites superflues ; 
il nous a sufifi de relever dans ces textes des variantes paleographiques 
qui ont assure le dechiffrement, ou des variantes soit de mots, soit 
de membres de phrases, qui ont eclairci le sens general. Nous 
croyons done que les critiques les plus difficiles seront satisfaits par 
la transcription et la traduction justifie'e que nous allons donner de 
huit des principales formules magiques relevees sur ces vases judeo- 
chaldeens : ces huit formules nous donnent certainement, au point 
de vue philologique, le vocabulaire a peu pres complet de ces textes, 
qui renferment d'ailleurs nombre de passages obscurs. Ce vocabulaire 
constituera la conclusion finale de notre travail. 

III. 

A. Le plus ancien monument qui dans Layard a le No. 1, porte 
une inscription qui se deroule en spirale sur la paroi interieure du 
vase, allant du centre a la circonference. Voici la lecture qu'en a 
donnee J. M. Levy :X 

* Le mot nXUn signifie d'abord, peche, puis par derivation, sacrifices Jc /<•'<■//<'. 

+ Le parallelisme nous fait supposer qu'il s'agit du mot Dti'N, qui par derivation 
a le meme sens que le terme precedent. 

X Zeitschrift d. Dcut morgenl. Gcscllschaft, T. IX, pp. 465, etc. Comp. 
D. Chwolson, Corpus inscriptionum hebraicarum. (S. P^tersbourg, 1SS2, fol. I, 
pp. 103-20.) 

299 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890 

•rrntVi ^tAi i-obdVi 'prmVi '«t^ Nt^a \<in 
•pro p '\biasn r wvhb\ *\w---Tih\ mto "YioafcAi 
ho nrvn pi wnssf " torn inn pi i,n para 711 
NB'^ttj "Tm •rmtn "prTa^b "jm 110 u dW?n m 
ra rrn«W> "b^onn ^y "Masnwa nn^Vi rai 
n:^21^q M3j7ia dm 18 im dm wthh vim "nmi 

nih Nin^ n q?»m rrrpmmi pnn*? 20 ^d *Kh& 

nh «n "p^apra m an ntyW ^y pro hy vtbo 
pi 711 ]v:nn yn prm nrvn pi ma psm n^tsn 
*& mm prrwb pnm ptovi pTttt pnrori ann mn 
mini ipisi pnnnnn i^npi pwa biptp prrty pun 
vnn own 711 ]v:nn -711 prm nrru p wni i,ttoi 
inpcm Nra'fl tpm rap p^npn win dee imm 
•rfro pw pw p« ffl n:nttt ntA 0^ jn^ jm 1 ? pmn 

Traduction. 

" Voici un acte de divorce* au demon, aux esprits, a Satan, a. 
Niriek, a Zariah, a, Abtour-Toura, a Dan . . . . et a. Lilith. Puissent- 
ils disparaitre de la localite de Bahran, de celle de Bethunyan, du 
Bahr du desert, du Espandarmid, de toute La maison. O Eternel bon, 
brise le roi des demons et des Dew, la puissance grande de Lilith ; 
je t'en conjure .... Lilith, petite-fille de la belle Lilith, soit male, 
soit femelle, je te conjure .... Qu'il se detourne, votre coeur, et 
par le sceptre de l'homme puissant qui domine sur les demons, sur 
Lilith, cette fille qui est dans les tenebres. Ah ! Ah ! je vous annule 
(repousse) de la, de la maison de Bahran-localite, et de celle de 
Bethunian, ainsi que des alentours. Comme les demons ecrivent 
des actes de divorce et les remettent a. leurs femmes, et celles-ci ne 
reviennent plus aupres d'eux, ainsi, prenez votre acte de divorce, 
recevez votre douaire ecrit, et sortez, fuyez, hatez-vous, et quittez la 
maison du lieu de Bahran, du lieu Bethunian, au nom de Dieu 
l'Eternel . . . Allez aux tenebres, devant l'homme puissant, scelle de 
son anneau, pour que Ton sache qu'ils n'y sont plus. Que ce soit la 
une bonne lumiere. Amen, amen, amen, Sela." 

* En signe de repulsion. 
300 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Notes. 

1. Dans le mot NT1£?, il faut reconnaitre l'expression assyrienne 
sedi, qui designe egalement les genies et les demons. Les sedi et 
les lamassi sont, dans les inscriptions cuneiformes, les lions et les 
taureaux ailes a tete humaine, qui gardaient l'entree des temples et 
des palais. La Bible parait les avoir designes sous le nom de 
Keroubhn (Babelon). 

2. La lecture du mot WTTyTl est douteuse pour M. Levy. La 
lettre lue n ressemble en effet plutot a un y, et le * manque sur 
le monument a, la fin du mot. Cependant le contexte et les 
inscriptions similaires exigent cette lecture ; en outre l'expression 
■pnW) 'PT^ est frequemment usitee dans les livres rabbiniques. 

3. Le mot *"p"V2Tb lu par M. Levy, n'est peut-etre pas 
certain; car le genie ou demon Niriek n'est mentionne nulle autre 
part. II faut sans doute substituer a ce mot une autre expression 
designant le dieu Nisrok des Assyriens, ou plutot le Nerig (Nergal) 
des Mendai'tes. L'original parait omettre le 1 apres le 3 : il semble 
qu'il y ait "THS 71 ', mais cette variante orthographique ne modifie 
pas le sens, d'autant plus qu'il ne faut pas demander une orthographe 
rigoureuse a ces inscriptions. 

4. Le mot rTHrTl, que M. Ellis avait lu rT'Dt'Tl, est lui-meme 
douteux. La quatrieme lettre, dans laquelle nous voyons un -j, ne 
ressemble pourtant pas aux autres "") de l'inscription. Quant a 
l'explication du mot rTIf donnee par M. Levy, elle parait fort con- 
jecturale a Chwolson, qui ne reussit pourtant pas a. lui en substituer 
une meilleure. II faut sans doute chercher a. identifier ce mot 
avec le nom d'un des genies du pantheon mendaite. Si Ton 
pourait lire !T V YJ, il faudrait y voir le personnage celeste designe 
dans le Sidra rabba sous le nom de Zivo. 

5. Le texte original porte tres clairement ^I^CN? et ce mot 
parait suivi de NTltt, les lettres etant assez frustes. M. Chwolson 
eleve des doutes sur ces lectures, et il pense que ni l'un ni l'autre 
de ces deux mots ne peuvent etre des noms de genies ou de 
demons. Mais nous croyons que c'est a tort. Dans le Sidra rabba 
et les autres livres des Mendai'tes, on trouve mentionne frequemment 
un genie du nom de Abatour, qui correspond bien au "Ylt^CN 
ou llt^n^- C'est certainement ce meme genie qui joue un grand 
role dans la mythologie mendaite, dont M. Siouffi, sous la dicte"e 
de son interlocuteur, a orthographie le nom Avaf/icr, et qui nous 

301 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

est depeint comme le juge supreme des ames.* Le mot Tlt^N 
signifie Pater taurus ; le scribe a repete le nom, en supprimant 
la seconde fois la particule UN, pater. 

6. Levy donne seulement comme certaine la lecture des quatre 
premieres lettres de ce mot ; quant aux caracteres qui suivent, 
il conjecture \ \ 2> ou 3> et 10. La quatrieme lettre est peut-etre 
un ty, et la derniere pourrait etre un 5, de sorte que le mot 
complet serait fl^lTl plutot que P]^T71, vu le peu de dis. 
tinction graphique entre le "f et le "v Ce mot f^UT^ fait songer 
au dieu phenicien ftUH, adore aussi en Egypte,| et aux Fj'ttJH "^2 
de la Bible (Job v, 7). Ce dernier texte a sans doute un sens 
mythologique en correlation avec le dieu solaire Fl^T 

7. Au commencement du mot NiT* 7 1 v1> l e scribe a omis par 
erreur la marque initiale du datif h.J On connait les demons males 
et femelles que la Bible (Is. xxxiv, 14) appelle Seirim et Lilith, 
dont le nom a persiste jusque dans les livres des Mendaites.§ 

Le nom de Lilith est facilement reconnaissable dans le NH ,, 7 v 
de notre texte, et peut-etre que le mot efface qui precede n'est 
autre que celui de Seirim. Dans la mythologie mendaite le bon 
genie Sarniel eloigne du lit des femmes en couches les mauvais 
genies Lelioto.\\ M. Fr. Lenormant pense qu'il faut reconnaitre dans 

* Siouffi, Etudes sur la religion des Soubbas, chap, xxiii, xxv, et passim. 
"I1D2X = "IIDDS, en mendaite (voir Kohut, dans Abhandhingen fiir die Kitiidc 
des Morgenlandes, T. IV, No. 4, article : Angelologie und Damonologie, p. 82) 
pour 1113, signifiant wont. 

t ^.Journal asiat., 1867, t. x > PP- 88, 92, 91, et surtout, p. 162. J. H. Mordt- 
mann, Der Semitische Apollo, dans la Zeitschriftder deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, 
1878, T. XXXIII, pp. 554 et seq. 

X Sans doute par suite de la succession des trois L. 

§ II est curieux de noter que D vv est devenu en arabe <u}J, dame, avec 
un sens respectueux ; il apparait dans les noms de lieux, avec la signification 
de Dame venerce, sainte. Ainsi, Lalla Maghnia dans la province d'Oran ; le 
tombeau de Lalla Manoubia pres de Tunis ; la Koubba de Leila Gouraya pres de 
Bougie, province d'Alger ; Lalla Khadidja, le pic le plus eleve du Jurjura 
(2308 m.) ; Lalla Magnia ou tenait garnison un Numerus Syronim, ville batie 
a 10 kil. N.E. de la frontiere marocaine ; Lalla Sitti, construit dans la banlieue 
de Tlemcen. Voir Vocabidaire arabe-francois des principaux tertnes de Geographic, 
par le general Parmentier, p. 32 ; Cherbonneau, Lcgende territorial de TAlgerie, 
Revue de Geographic, T. X, 1882, p. 279. 

|| V. Norberg, Codex Nazareus, T. II, p. 197 ; T. Ill, p. 159. 

302 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

les Seirim et les Leliots la perpetuation de la croyance aux demons 
iiicubes et succubes qui tiennent une si grande place dans la 
demonologie des Chaldeo-Babyloniens.* 

8. Le mot p7t22'H, etant au pluriel, se rapporte par consequent 
a tous les genies enumeres plus haut. 

9. Le mot prill designe certainement le nom d'une localite' 
ou d'un lieu. Dire qu'il est situe dans le bourg ou le district de 
Tunioun (?) nous parait temeraire. L'identification geographique 
actuelle, dans la basse Chaldee, n'en est guere possible. J Dans le 
nord de la Mesopotamie il existe une localite appelee p[£Q, en arabe 
i^Uuj avec laquelle le nom mentionne dans notre texte ne peut avoir 
aucun rapport. 

10. Le membre de phrase : — 

b\2 rrrpi pi tdtwbjp «im ira 

offre des difficultes de lecture et d'inlerpretation. II n'est pas siir 
que le premier mot soit ")H1 plutot que 1112, et l'original n'est 
d'aucun secours pour elucider ce point de paleographie. Qu'est ce 
que le 1PQ du desert ? C'est peut-etre le souffle, l'esprit. Dans 
ce cas on pourrait rapprocher ce mot du mot mendai'te bouro, qui 
signifie genie. 

Le sens du mot mm (desert) est bien certain, mais rien n'indi- 
que s'il faut poncteur dabro ou debro (du dehors). 

L'explication du mot lEm^Cir, a supposer que la lecture soit 
indubitable, est fort difficile. J. M. Levy le rapproche du persan 
iX^^'a^a-j'j lundi ; mais Chwolson n'accepte point cette explication 
ingenieuse. D'apres l'interpretation de Levy, toute la phrase dirait : 
"Puisse Lilith disparaitre du lieu de Behran, de la localite' de 
Bethanyoun, du Bahr des deserts, au Espandarmid (c'est a-dire, le 
lundi, jour ainsi nomme en persan) et de toute ma maison." Les 
objections de Chwolson portent sur ce que le mot Espandarmid 
romprait toute la suite de la phrase ; il devrait se trouver apres le 
mot 1"iSlD3, >, 1' et ^ tre pourvu d'une preposition indiquant un rapport 
de temps. Nous croyons que le mot "PD-n^DS" 1 , ^ ont quelques 
caracteres sont d'ailleurs fort douteux, designe une localite, ou un 

* Fr. Lenormant, Les Origines de FHistoire, T. I, p. 320. 
t De la racine "1112 (briller), vient pHQ, le brillant. Serait-ce la planete 
Mercure ? 

% "A Bethunian " rappelle, par assimilation, la Batanee. 

3°3 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.EOLOGY. [1890. 

endroit quelconque, comme les mots qui precedent, ou bien une 
personne, un objet dont il s'agit d'eloigner les demons. Dans l'in- 
scription du vase cote C, nous verrons qu'il est dit : " Puissent les 
sorcelleries etre eloignees, des localites, des demeures, des animaux 
domestiques, des proprietes, etc." Le texte dont il s'agit ici doit 
contenir une formule analogue. En considerant que les gutturales, 
comme d'autres lettres d'une meme classe parentes par la pronon- 
ciation, permutent souvent entre elles dans le dialects de la basse 
Chaldee, ^)~Q pourrait etre mis pour N"V^Q; et dans les lettres 
suivantes on peut trouver les elements de H2""W"ft2T Enfin Yty) 
TO iTrPl signifie sans aucun doute, "de toute la maison," ou 
"de touted maison." 

11. Le fc$ medial est une faute d'orthographe, pour )-f. 

12. Chwolson croit devoir lire tilH^I, qui, avec le sens propre de 
"chasser, mettre en fuite, expulser," conviendrait peut-etre mieux au 
sens general. 

13. Pour ITIIH pfP^TDj n ue Levy traduit par "le roi des 
Schedim," Chwolson voudrait traduire par le pluriel "les rois." A 
notre avis, il ne faudrait pas ici prendre a la lettre les matres lectinnis, 
et le singulier pourrait subsister malgre la presence du 1, puisque 
cette presence n'yaffecte en rien le singulier du mot ^"0^ (v. ci-apres, 
note 18). 

14. Chwolson ne veut pas non plus admettre la lecture ^"pfl, 
"et des Dews," mettant en question la lecture du troisieme caractere 
"7, Apres cette lettre, selon lui, il y en aurait une petite, un 
*} completement neglige par Levy. Wyi = .. j, et en syriaque fci-»?, 
exige un "i apres le 1, Le mot suivant ^I3* | 7iy', souverain (et non 
souverainete), devrait, selon le sens adopte par Levy, etre precede 
d'un n ; sans quoi, toute la phrase ne pourrait pas etre traduite 
comme le veut Levy : "que le roi des Schedim, des Dews, aneantisse 
le pouvoir de Lilith." Comme il n'y a pas non plus de conjonctif 
en tete de SM^/t^ l e groupe de lettres lu "^"H pourrait etre un 
verbe, probablement un imperatif de nn°T) " repousse, domine," et 
le ^I2*'~ , 1^ en serait le complement. Sans affirmer comment il faut 
lire ce mot, Chwolson exprime la conviction qu'on ne saurait le lire 
selon l'interpretation de Levy, et que, par suite, la phrase entiere n'a 
pas le sens adopte par ce dernier. En presence de ces hesitations 
de maitres eminents, nous penchons dans le sens d'une sorte 
d'apposition entre ce membre de phrase et le precedent. 

3°4 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

15. Ce mot commence certainement une autre phrase, ou l'idee 
essentielle de l'incantation. 

16. Dans ce groupe de lettres, la lecture est incertaine pour les 
trois premieres. . . . D2H- II nous est impossible de donner un 
sens absolu a ce mot. Y voir une transcription mal orthographiee 
de D'Ht^'IlN (Absalom) nous parait peu probable. Peut-etre est-ce 
plutot l'invocation 'O /3xai\evs (O roi [des esprits] ? Notre terme a 
quelqu'analogie evidente avec D7H2D, pierre precieuse (version 
chaldeenne au Targoum de Jerusalem sur Nombres, ii, 10). 

17. Levy traduit : "petite fille de la belle Lilith." Chwolson 
ne croit pas ce sens exact. La lecture ni~n2 es t douteuse, et les 
deux mots suivants devraient etre lus, d'apres Levy,* niTv^TH 
rDTnri- Chwolson suppose au contraire dans ^lin un im- 
peratif avec suffixe a la premiere personne du singulier. Mais 
comme il n'y a pas de signification certaine pour le groupe lu 
/D2n, toute la phrase laisse a desirer. 

18. Aux mots |"QM DN "D"T DN> "soit male, soit femelle," 
commence une nouvelle phrase ; ils se rapportent aux mauvais 
esprits, comme on peut le voir par comparaison avec l'inscription D, 
oil se trouve un passage analogue : — 

napn iai nsn rm pi 

II est impossible que ces membres de phrase se rapportent a 
Hi! v v precedent, qui est du feminin et du singulier. 

19. II faut lire'Ti"^, "sur toi;" la lettre suivante, lue 1 par Levy 
est probablement toute autre ; il se peut, en tout cas, qu'elle fasse 
partie du groupe suivant non dechiffre, d'ailleurs par Levy. Ce 
membre de phrase signifie : " Qui que tu sois (demon), homme ou 
femme, je te conjure. . . ." 

20. Levy traduit le mot ^~>0 par detourner (comme effet de la 
crainte) ; Chwolson trouve ce sens inexact, N7D signifiant partout 
mepriser, conspirer. 

21. Les mots fcyQ'O f1pT\*T — s'il faut bien les lire ainsi — ne 
peuvent pas signifier " de l'homme violent," selon Chwolson ; sans 
quoi, il faudrait ^Cpil ^H" 1 ^"!. Ce savant propose done de 
traduire : " et avec la lance du . . . . il dominait sur les schidim." 

* II ne faut pas oublier que le talmudique X31T ( = arabe iojO ) signifie : 
ordure, et par derivation, ver. Faut-il, par consequent, y voir un qualificatif en 
mauvaise part, a l'addresse de Lilith, au lieu du terme " la belle Lilith ?*' 

3°5 z 



Aeril] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

22. Le sens des cinq derniers mots est obscur. 

23. Chwolson trouve preferable de lire rQ*"Vttf> c'est-a-dire, 
"pour le bien de sa famille." 

B. Texte; Notes. 

L'inscription que Layard donne sous le No. 2 (trad. Zenker, 
p. 395, et PI. XX, B), a ete ainsi transcrite par M. Jos. Halevy 
(Chwolson, ibid., p. 115), sans traduction: — 

\\nh^ pDN NrWn "n^rci "Obd 2 - • • "nans h 'pmrn 

p prfa pox 'we^N m hi am Nnapia 'Nmon* 
10 bw jnaty ^ 9 )Sn p p pnm p prro jn*fla 
13 -to r^an 12 rrw rmo n rr^cn rosn mm prrwuto 
anto^ H rrHWi nii^n m ^arr pmw reran 'bto insm 
nprrn ,5 «n^ an^rm Nrton wrom noti nini 
16 a^rttf Mraifi Nbyi unm nopm Nim nppi rmpm 
rroism n:di rown fc&oa ms Ssn n*itt> anm i^ti 
«mm Nm^S «^nn^ 17 nd!im -idn mffphN wisi NtA 
ton'to "Mrtno Vd p "jtro p-pcrro p Nprftm an 
Nnrro ansa rrnb fcfooD jnw iw in n^ rr*n 
(?)^S DBjrfo MDphM 2i Ncpira "maty rmrm rmro 
^3 pvm pD« pV»N ann^D p:n *?y lajrr ^A prtntta 
pn arm tra ^rm *?m Nmno^ 22 tfYWi Mnroi^i *rpa 

Mta paro pm pi p pi-na pTSE p prta powi j^an^ 

anp njnN*rr ^ai '■nTm (?) vWn Trm (?po) ^e B pTTi 

wnn^ H>p «*Ay pin p rwar "m-pee n^u^i Sai 

^p wapi Dprn • • p&a thy n*w ictn ntoiVi i • • i 

pmpfr "nun nio^i Nnrpfcm ^ dd *• n n *• pfora 

27 nnn 
306 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

1. Le premier mot, pn^l, a sans doute le meme sens que le 
syriaque \*.ii, voisinage (avec suffixe), qui a probablement pour 
verbe : ]^DN, soient lies (interdits). 

2. A cette place l'original a quatre lettres ; la premiere est peut- 
etre un f, qui appartiendrait par consequent (comme finale) au 
mot precedent. La deuxieme est avec certitude un "), Les deux 
suivantes, peu claires, paraissent constituer une repetition anticipee, 
par megarde, des lettres £3D> qui suivent. On pourrait done lire: 
^tODI ^"IDnD, demons et satans. 

3. II faut peut-etre lire ici : 'WOijlQI' ce ^ u ' P eut designer des 
demons femelles. 

4. L'original a ici "pl^Dft, par transcription fautive de ^"VCtt 
puisque Ton retrouve deux fois l'expression "PITO "PTE^ (a 
expliquer note 5). Du reste, ce membre de phrase se retrouve 
mot-a-mot une ligne plus bas. Ce premier mot peut se traduire : 
"qui detruisent." 

5. Tout en transcrivant ce mot VTTlD, M. Halevy met un point 
dubitatif sur le py: ce mot pourtant se retrouve jusqu'a trois fois 
dans la suite, et M. Halevy lit une fois pniDi avec n> con- 
fusion tres plausible. M. Chwolson admet cette derniere lecture 
et combat le sens de "maladies fievreuses;" pour lequel, selon lui, 
il faudrait 'p'VDft 'prn^ , et il prefere les traduire dans le sens de 
"qui enflamment des maladies," e'est-a-dire, qui les provoquent. 
L'on a du employer avec intention le terme enfla miner, parceque, 
pour le vulgaire, la fievre est l'indice le plus formel de l'existence 
d'une maladie. Inutile de rappeler la conjecture inadmissible 
d'Ellis a ce sujet, dans Layard (p. 515, note). 

6. Le mot vf^ est evidemment apparent^ avec le talmudique 
**T\1, cinathbne, qu'il faut prendre ici dans le sens plus £tendue de 
malediction, d' ana theme. 

7. II faut peut-etre lire NrnD^NI V "0*H. D'aprfes le contexte, 
Nj-PD^N semble designer quelque chose d'analogue a ^3VTD» 
comme il resulte de la phrase [V^l Tm 721 NmrtD'W, "■•■ et 
tous mauvais esprits," placee un peu plus bas, i>?r\^D^^ a peut-etre 
ici le sens de |Aj;mV>, agmina ; mais la forme precitee WHilC^N 
derive certes de la racine "VHDj usitde en chaldeen avec le sens de 
renverser, detruire. On peut done, par le mot NmnD^N- avoir 
voulu designer des demons du sexe feminin, "qui ruinent, qui 

307 z 2 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1P90. 

portent la devastation, qui la provoquent." En rabbinique, on 
traduirait plus volontiers : "les caches, invisibles." 

8. La lecture des quatre derniers mots ne parait pas sujette au 
doute, et ils doivent designer les mauvaise paroles des hommes, par 
exemple, "les maledictions et les voeux de mal." 

9. Le texte original n'a ici que les lettres 'p'p ; mais le sens exige 
f?P1 ? qu'ils partent. 

10. Litteralement, " qu'ils montent," 7^ pour *|~!>^V 

n. Les deux |~T dans rO^CH sont douteux, comme les lettres 
3Q le sont dans le premier rDDm> renversement. Le terme est 
redouble pour plus d'intensite. 

12. Mot difficile a expliquer. Kohut, ibid., p. 97, songe a epine. 
Serait-ce qu'il faut lire ITHDj pourri, ce qui sent 1 

13. Le sens de I^ID ou "^"Q est obscur; il pourrait y avoir ici le 
mot *Q3"l3> etoiles, a titre de parallele des ^~>Tft, p lanetes, qui suit. 
M. Sachs nous suggere l'idee du Q^pft ^^t? (deplacement), et 
propose de traduire : "que les directions (les itineraries) changent, 
et les fortunes, les destinees, changeront." 

14. La lecture rTH'CJn parait certaine ; mais le sens de ce mot 
dans cette phrase n'est pas clair. Faudrait-il lire iTH'&Tl, se 
demande Chwolson? II pourrait designer quelque chose d'analogue 
au nPTl^> °i ue l' on retrouve trois fois plus loin, a prendre dans le 
sens de delie, annule, renverse, ecarte. II est possible aussi que 
7-p-y^j-j soit ici au lieu de rTHDn> puisque dans les inscriptions 
palmyreniennes on trouve aussi souvent ^ (= ty) pour D (ft- 
Noldeke, Zeitschrift des deuischen morgenl. Gesellscliaft, T. XXIV, 
1870, p. 95). "TDn ( = J^.^) a ici le sens de invisit. Kohut, ibid. 
p. 94, a un mot "W^Jl dans le sens de metal, egalement inapplicable 
ici. 

15. La lecture N^tZ? est bien certaine ici : delie. 

1 6. Est aussi a lire N"H^, soit delie. 

17. Dans les onze derniers mots, il y a bien des doutes. Dans 
7JH le y est incertain ; car cette lettre resemble plutot a un \£\ 
Faut-il lire ce mot 7&H acheve, ou affaiblis 1 Quant au sens des 
mots N2Q1 N2T1T1 et de ND2N 1 il est trcs obscur. Adoptant pour 
ce dernier mot le sens hommes, les precedents signifient-ils "du 
ruisseau " et " en face ? " 

18. Faut-il lire ici «TO piOTO p ? ( c f- note 5). 

308 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

19. C'est peut-etre N2JTT3, notre ville. 

20. Le texte a 7YQTV> de la racine abandonner la puissance. II 
n'est pas trop temeraire de lire ITO"^, epaisseur, qui est bien chal- 
dai'que. 

si. C'est plutot NEpVQou MBJ7ITQ) puissance. II est possible 
aussi que la premiere lettre soit un ft ; de cette facon, ce mot recoit 
au moins une tournure semitique. Le mot qui suit (repete) parait mal 
transcrit de NtOlIHN, un potentat (d'apres fyyairenf*, dignitaire), qui 
provient des mots persans ^ \ citadelle, et Jo (pour 1^0) chef, dit 
Fleischer, dans Levy, Neu. Wort., I, 281a. 

22. Peut-etre a-t-il disparu la un 3, de sorte qu'il faudrait lire ce 
mot N13VC% demons. 

23. Des trois lettres du texte original, la derniere seule est certaine ; 
la premiere ressemble a un ") ou % et la deuxieme a un ft, 

24. Chwolson veut lire pHTTO*! pl>./^ et filles. II y a aussi tous 
les elements pour lire VT-rQ> Bathanyoun, de l'inscription A. 

25. L'expression "HIT, qui implique une canjonction (comme en 
arabe ^J&it>, dans Qoran, XLI, 44, signifie amener, diriger), doit 
exprimer au contraire l'idee d'cloigner, si elle est suivie de la prepo- 
sition Yf2, de. 

26. Pour le mot NJft*ft (? d'un radical i"^, filer), nous hesitons 
entre le sens d'obscurite et celui de supplication, insistance, de la 
racine Jllfl2> pencher. 

27. II y a plusieurs doutes dans la derniere ligne. — Les lettres 
NNN sont l'abrege, non de JftN, |ftN> jftN (Amen, Amen), mais du 
nora sacre de la Divinite dont chaque appellation commence par N, 

Finalement, revenons au second mot, "OHOi que Ton retrouve 
dans la version chaldeenne d'Isaie viii, si. Elle traduit ce verset : 
" II meprise le nom de son idole et son faux dieu." Pour elle done, 
*D hl2 de ce verset, est le dieu Molokh. (cf. Amos v, 26 ; Sofonia, 
i,5-) 

Traduction. 

" Que les voisinages des spectres (males) des demons et des 
spectres (autres), ainsi que des maledictions, soient tous interdits a 
ces fievreuses maladies, savoir les repousses et les maudits, tous les 
spectres males, les esprits ruinants femelles, et la bouche (mauvaises 

3°9 



ArRiL] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

paroles) de tous les fils de 1'homme, [qu'ils] soient tous interdits a 
ces fievreuses maladies, qu'ils se cachent d'eux, qu'ils partent tous 
les operateurs (de magie) et aillent dans leurs demeures (ou ligne 
droite), soit le nom du renversement de la destruction; son nom est 
sourah (le mal). Renversez-vous, etciles ; renversez-vous, planetes ; 
soyez renversees les heures de tous les fils de 1'homme, toutes les 
maledictions du pere, de la mere, de la fille, de la belle-fille, de la 
bru ; delie-les de pres et de loin, celles qui se tiennent au dehors et 
celle qui se tiennent dans la localite, celles qui se tiennent au 
dehors, annule-les ; celle qui maudit en ville, renverse-la, sur la voie 
de Nafla (la chute), ou sur le ruisseau, soit en face (en se tournant), 
soit au bord. La malediction et la terre * (oeuvre) du puissant, 
l'interdiction des hommes, qu'elles soient closes, qu'il s'agisse d'incan- 
tations nouvelles ou anciennes, de ces fievreuses maladies dans toute 
la province ; 6 ange (esprit) qui a onze noms : la perdition de la mite, 
la pourriture, l'etoile, l'etoile (superieure), l'ordre, l'eclat, l'epaisseur, 
la puissance, la domination, Arpax (? Lama), dans leur trame- 
A tous ceux qui passeront pres de ces noms (pres de ceux 
ainsi nommes), qu'ils soient interdits ; qu'ils soient clos (annules) 
les voeux, les maledictions et incantations (ou demons) d'interdits, 
tous mauvais esprits, esprits de vieux ou de vieilles, de tous 
ceux qui forgent le mal, des fabricants de sortileges et sorcellerie, 
de toutes especes d'etres malfaisants. Qu'ils soient tous interdits 
a ces fievreuses maladies (eloignes) de vos fils et de vos filles ; 
detourne d'eux les fievres (ce qui bout) et les maledictions, 
les accidents facheux (? emanations malsaines) du sol, tout ce 
qui a pour nom Matitha (Pobscur), qui ecoute en ce monde la voix 
de femme D. . d et l'imprecation. Que le precieux (le bon) reside 
sur elle d'entre vous, . . . pour faire dresser ce qui doit etre debout 
et decouvrir ce qui doit etre decouvert, I. — A. — A.I.S.S. I. — I, 
Que la malediction de la femme se dissipe en fumee. Amen. 
Amen, Amen." 

C. 

Ce texte, compose d'une spirale qui va de 1'exteVieur a l'interieur, 
a ete imprime une premiere fois (de facon illisible) dans les Trans- 
actions of the Society of Biblical A rchceology (T. II, p. 114), puis repris 
et corrige dans une lecture academique par M. Joseph Halevy, enfin 

* Peut-etre : ce qui est bus, vil, au ras du sol (la calomnie). 
310 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

reedite par ce dernier dans ses Melanges de critique et d'/iistoire 
(pp. 229 et suiv.). On va juger des modifications qui ont ete 
adoptees : — 

Nrra^trw ^vroi ^n^i^i pQpn pnw ptira pttnn bi 
"wmn ■narr n^n^ti n^i prmpm pprm 9 «n^ni 
wrp^i mwnV] ""ami*? rrb pinyn iff? nasn 
'f^N prfcoi o^y "W "p wan 1 ' p n^fcA-n *n "feari 

p^anni ppsm p-vpy pTnrn piu pTODi prrara p^«i 

"•pmniDip^ in ^d pi pnwi p 

Tjr rkvhn 'moan ^itqti rrnvm prprrra pi 

M ^5n wiDia San rra u wirn Maia ^n "wi rmN 

pntol "wtznrrS •'tmn u pdSd tfim u vem mo« arm 

17 -rr?D pN pw imsn am rrour i6 rrD^D^:n rrwa 

Traduction. 

"Toutes mauvaises sorcelleries, grand'ceuvres, maledictions, 
vceux, engagements, paroles inconsiderees, de loin et de pres, la nuit 
ou le jour, d'hommes ou de femmes, qu'on a suscite contre les fils ou 
les animaux, ou les acquisitions de Belyehay fils de Lala, depuis ce 
jour jusqu'a jamais. Que toutes ces choses, sans exception, soient 
anathematisees, bannies, exclues, brisees, arrachees, chassees, anean- 
ties de leur corps et de chacune de leurs habitations, des animaux 
domestiques et des enfants de Belyehay fils de Lala, sur la voie de 
Houci. O etoile, plus puissante que toutes les etoiles du monde, 
par laquelle le salut provient, qui es la reine de tous faiseurs de 
sortileges, [bienfaiteurs] au nom de Karmesisia, nom sublime (et) 
ineffable. Amen, Amen, Sela." 

Notes. 

1. Le texte original a bien clairement 'HTjIj avec \ les voeux. 

2. M. Chwolson ne partage pas l'avis de M. Halevy, dans 
l'observation de celui-ci que, selon la doctrine des Talmudistes, tout 
vceu non accompli peut amener des malheurs a. la famille, et il 
ajoute : " Je crois que ces mots, place's a cote' de ptT"Q ptl/'HIl et 
Ni1ZD17> et auxquels se rapporte aussi le verbe "Ha}H> doivent 

311 



ArRiL] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

avoir un sens analogue a ceux qui viennent d'etre rapportes." II 
faut done comprendre par la certaines sortes de maledictions, 
d'objurgations, et de formules magiques. 

3. La forme de l'N dans ce mot est tres remarquable, tandis que 
dans le reste de l'inscription cette lettre a une apparence presque 
moderne. M. Halevy propose d'y voir une lettre erronnee, a 
supprimer. 

4. M. Halevy lit "*Nmi7, et traduit : "ses enfants." M. 
Chwolson ne croit pas cette version exacte : car la forme du mot, 
ainsi que l'absence du pronom suffixe a la fin, et de la conjonction 1 
au commencement, plaident contre cette hypothese. II croit done 
que "^NrVQ ou infill est un nom propre, probablement celui de 
la personne pour qui cette amulette a ete ecrite, et a laquelle se 
rapportent les suffixes des mots suivants. 

5. M. Halevy a fini par voir dans ces mots un nom propre, 
apres avoir lu : YiJ"| ""TOT, et avoir traduit : "de n'importe quelle 
nature ; " ce que Chwolson n'avait pas adopte, parce qu'il lit "Hpf, et 
lui donne la signification de "villages, localites." Cf. Levy, Chald. 

Worterbuch zu den Targumin, I, p. 242, s.v. NiTlM III ; Fleischer, 
Additions a ce passage; ibid., p. 424; Levy, Neuhebr. Worterb, II, 
p. 43, s.v. NrPn, oil Ton trouve aussi l'etymologie exacte de ce mot 
selon Fleischer. Le mot PlvNTH doit designer le nom d'une 
grande localite, ou d'un district, qui contenait ces villages. Chwol- 
son n'admet pas la conjecture de M. Halevy, savoir que ce nom a 
quelqu'affinite avec l'arabe aAJ\ , qui entrerait dans la composition 
de ce mot. Le Diet. Geogr. de Jaqout cite un lieu a l'ouest de 
l'Euphrate, entre ijVc et <L^., du nom de <L0^jJU ce qui coincide 
presqu'avec notre mot. 

6. Le texte original a nettement T^l p"T, "de celui-ci jusqu'a." 

7. En lisant F^Ni pT^, le premier mot ces au masculin se 
rapporte a ^23 > hommes, le second au femmin a. ^t^^2> fannies ; 
soit : ceux et celles. 

8. Les quatre derniers mots se trouvent ecrits dans le texte entre 
les lignes. Dans prTWTO > il ne faut voir ni les Medes, ni le mot 
mensonge, comme le voudrait ailleurs Kohut, ibid., p. 98. 

9. M. H. lit : IVP^n ^imm ; il traduit : "et ses enfants de 
Belyehay." Seules les cinq premieres lettres du premiere mot sont 

31? 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

claires dans le texte ; le reste est conjectural. Chwolson donne au 
premiere mot le sens d'un nom propre (comme a la No. 4), sans se 
prononcer sur la lecture du mot suivant. 

10. M. H. apres avoir (une premiere fois) rappelle le celebre 
\\jb\, adopte le nom propre Hiciel ; le Did. Geogr. de Jaqout 
parle d'une localite dite ;^aJ'> sise dans le voisinage de a-s'jj 
par consequent au coeur meme de la Me'sopotamie. Au lieu de cela, 
il n'y a qu'a. rappeler la localite talmudique Houci ou Houcia du 
Talmud Jerus., tr. Schebiith, viii, 5 (trad. T. Ill, p. 405). 

11. Peut-etre faut-il lire ici fc^m : " etoile de la vie." 

12. Le mot ">ft7}n est douteux ; on s'attend a voir N£7}H, 
et d'ailleurs le texte a plutot rTviH, d'en hant. 

13. M. H.traduitles trois derniers mots : " source de guerisons," en 
ajoutant un ? dubitatif. On peut lire le premier mot N^ft"! (d'ou), bien 
que les lettres ft et 2 aient ici une forme autre que dans tous les 
passages de cette inscription. La troisieme lettre dans JTlDN ressemble 
plutot a un 2 qu'a un 1 (par homonymie). Le mot rYlDN pourrait 
bien ici avoir le meme sens que ^n^DN et NfTTDN, saint ; mais on 
s'attend plutot au mot NJTlDN ; alors le masculin ^1H^ ne s'y 
adapte plus. M. Chwolson declare ne pas savoir expliquer ce 
passage, mais il croit pouvoir affirmer que le sens adopte par M. H. 
n'est pas conforme au texte. 

14. Au lieu de TO /ft, reine, il faut peut-etre lire : HE Tft, ^He 
qui enseigne (la maitresse). 

15. Le texte a ^TtlMH?. Mais le sens est probablement le 
meme que celui de N^irn> aux sortileges. 

16. La lecture de ce mot pour I^J est mise en doute par M. H. 
lui-meme. Le sens de la derniere phrase est obscur. 

17. A la fin, il y a une ligne de lettres isolees, de p a D. qui 
n'offrent pas de sens, et ne doivent sans doute pas en avoir. Elles 
appartiennent aux formules de conjuration. N'est-ce pas un cri 
final, une onomatope'e de gutturales et de sifnantes, usitees a la 
chasse ? 

D. 

Enfin, une des plus courtes inscriptions est aussi des plus 
jeunes ; eu egard aux pointes supe'rieures encore maintenucs sur 
quelques lettres, ainsi qu'en raison de la forme du 1, die ne doit 

3*3 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

pas etre posterieure au IV e ou au V e siecle. Le caractere de 
cette ecriture est nettement plus ancien que sur les papyrus trouves 
au Fayoum. Cette reserve faite, voici la transcription de M. Halevy 
(dans Chwolson, p. 113), sans traduction. Le meme texte forme 
le No. 5 dans Layard : — 

nynp 2 Dnnn Dinn *rw p p nynp . • 1 (?) b*d 

pm b^ nw t p®b\ t mpk ^ph 'rrmffvci «^n p 

nto pi anaiS pi "wr? pi 'woiw pi 4 n-n p to 
•to *td pi Nntrmn ^n pi ^ony nto pi (?)'^ds 
nyi py pi ropn -at run rm pi pay nSti pasn 
n^n wano 7 «y2m dw nttrw tir>N ■W2 :rDtw pi 
pDQ 8 ]itoh j-^m d • • *?e • - • • py • • • n: • • . - ^ (?) ^:rh 

pw pN WDiy • • • rwtp 8 dtin ^Diy ^ihi Dip Dip Snp 

.fifto 

Notes. 

1. Des six premieres lettres presqu'effacees la premiere pourrait 
etre un N- 

2. Ce mot est peut-etre a lire DiTTO, egalement de la racine 
sceller. 

3. Ellis (dans Layard) lit les trois derniers mots fr$nat2l 
rprnt£H1?2> lecture graphiquement possible (bien que la fin soit 
plutot PtirO- Ce dernier mot a pu etre pris dans le sens " d'agissant 
avec force," de la racine N^l, "Uttl, comme le comprend aussi 
Ellis; cf. Levy, Chald. Worterbuch, II, p. 437 el seq. 

4. Cf. ci-dessus, Note 2, a l'inscription C. 

5. Ellis traduit ce mot par sorcery, sens qu'il peut avoir d'apres 
le contexte; son etymologie est inconnue. N'est-ce pas un derive" 
de fpl!?, voir, envisager (du mauvais ceil)? 

6. Le sens isole est comprehensible ; c'est celui d'agreab/e. 
Mais, comme ce sens est oppose aux expressions precedentes et 
suivantes, on se trouve peut-etre ici devant un mot qui n'est pas 
chaldee'n, mais hebreu : melange. 

7. Probablement deux noms d'anges (la fin N pour ~»N), ou 
denominations cabalistiques des forces surnaturelles qui sont in- 

314 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

voquees ici. Le second terme peut signifier " Source de l'eau." 
Les deux mots suivants peuvent se traduire mot-a-mot : " la mere 
de Henoch." Mais comment adopter ici ce sens? Puis, des 
lacunes, dont quelques lettres subsistent seules. 

8. Litteralement : qui sorit, prPTH (avec redoublement erronne 
de la premiere syllabe *H), nommcs. 

9. Terme derive (comme fort souvent a cette epoque) du grec 
07/ros, charge, ?nasse pesante, dont un brouillard epais est le symbole 
dans Pair. Ce sens cadre, comme parallele, avec le contexte. 

Traduction. 

"... Eau . . Cette amulette, de par le ciel, est scellee et 
cachetee ; cette amulette-ci est de'signee (particularised) par l'eau 
contre les accidents (facheux), afin de delier (liberer) lui (le pos- 
sesseur du present) et tous ceux qui demeurent avec lui (les siens), 
des vceux, des visions (pernicieuses), des sorcelleries, des impreca- 
tions, de l'eau coupee (infestee), de l'eau melangee (impure), des 
desirs (sources) d'amertume, de toutes sortes d'agents, actifs ou 
passifs, des mauvais esprits, soit males, soit femelles, du mauvais 
ceil, des sortileges accomplis par des hommes ou par des femmes, 

au nom de Babnea et de Mambea Ceux dont les 

mains empoisonnent, devant les bois et les forets, dont le nom 
(represente) les tenebres, le brouillard, l'obscurite, de par le ciel. 
Amen, Amen, Sela." 

Observations Generales : paleographie, linguistique. 
(Sur A, B, C, D.) 

Le contenu des quatre premieres amulettes n'est pas tout-a-fait 
identique. La piece A est un preservatif contre les diverses especes 
de demons et de mauvais esprits des deux sexes qui sont en 
partie designes nominalement ; on exprime en meme temps le vceu 
qu'ils restent eloignes d'un certain lieu. La piece B contient aussi 
une formule d'objurgation contre les demons et satans, qui suscitent 
des maladies, rriais en meme temps contre les maledictions, les 
malefices, et contre tous ceux qui effectuent les maux et causent 
des dommages. A cet effet, on invoque le secours d'un ange 
notoirement bon, qui porte onze noms differents. La piece C con- 
tient une adjuration, non contre les mauvais esprits, mais contre 
diverses sortes de magies, de malefices, qui, de loin ou de pies, 

3 J S 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1S90. 

par des hommes ou des femmes, pourraient etre exercees ou 
enoncees contre le possesseur de l'amulette et contre son bien. 
A ce propos, selon la maniere foncierement paienne et babylonienne, 
on parait avoir sollicite l'influence auxiliaire d'une puissante planete, 
peut-etre celle de Jupiter, contre ces sortileges. Dans la piece 
D, on emploie le terme talmudique H^Qp pour designer une 
amulette. On lui attribue presqu'une origine celeste, et elle doit pro- 
teger contre les maledictions, les malefices, les sortileges d'hommes 
ou de femmes, contre les mauvais esprits males et femelles, contre 
le mauvais ceil, etc., en invoquant dans ce but deux tres bons 
esprits ou des anges. Cette inscription contient aussi plus de mots 
hebreux que les autres, et elle a aussi plus de couleur juive que 
les autres pieces. On trouve en effet dans le Talmud (B., tr. Sabbat, 
67) des formules d'adjuration avec des mots tout-a-fait inintelligibles 
et des noras invoques contre diverses maladies et contre les mau- 
vais esprits ; quelques-unes de ces formules sont designees corame 
paiennes. Dans les notes a Jamblichus, de mysteriis Aigyptoruni, 
Gale cite diverses formules d'adjuration en caracteres grecs, com- 
posees de mots isoles qui n'ont aucun sens non plus : — 

" Les gnostiques, les paiens hellenisants, regorgeaient de textes 
incomprehensibles, en ce sens qu'ils etaient depourvus de determina- 
tions directes. Nous autres Europeans, nous en avons possede dans 
le Moyen-age ; nous en avons encore aujourd'hui. Je dois a la 
bienveillante obligeance de M. Miller, dit feu Gobineau,* la com- 
munication de deux amulettes grecques que je copie ici : — 

Bapfiapos, fiapfiapi^ovoa, ^a^cr^icpa, ftapjiapwv Trvpi, 7rvpnovj*o\e 
aw£c iov (fiopOUVTCL. 

" Pour produire tout son effet cette invocation doit etre ecrite 
sur papier. Mais l'autre sera vraiment puissante si elle est tracee 
sur une feuille d'etain et ainsi qu'il suit : 

"Ces deux exemples n'ont pas de sens appreciable, et pro- 
viennent certainement d'une source, d'une imitation et d'une cor- 
ruption perso-arameenne." 

Reste a savoir dans quels siecles nos documents ont ete composes, 
car il va sans dire qu'ils appartiennent a des epoques differentes. 
Pour determiner la date d'un monument ecrit, on a recours a trois 
moyens : le contenu, la langue, la forme des lettres. 

* A. de Gobineau, Trait i des Cunii formes, II, p. 375. 
316 



Aran] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Le contenu general de ces inscriptions peut se rapporter a n'im- 
porte quel siecle, etre aussi bien ecrit sous les Pharaons que de nos 
jours. De tout temps, soit parmi les nations civilise'es, soit parmi 
les barbares et les sauvages, on a eu recours a des fetiches pre- 
servateurs du sort. Leur contenu spe'cial, ou forme externe, ne 
donne pas non plus d'indication precise pour determiner leur date. 
A. Levy, il est vrai, a cru pouvoir decouvrir dans 1 'inscription A des 
elements de parsisme et de mandaisme ; mais en realite il est difficile 
de les y voir, et M. Chwolson s'y refuse. D'apres ce qui a ete dit 
plus haut, notes 7 et 10, sur cette piece, il n'y aurait rien la. du 
Jk^c.ljuuuoU ni des Dews. Le mot TIEEN5 se retrouve bien, sous 
la forme *YirQN> criez les Meendaites ; mais ceux-ci peuvent avoir 
seulement emprunte ce nom a la mythologie de Babylone, car tout 
leur systeme doctrinal est compose d'eclectisme. L'allusion trouvee 
par Levy au sceau de Salomon est au moins tres douteuse, et Ton ne 
peut en tirer aucune conclusion. Si effectivement on trouve dans 
ces inscriptions maintes idees superstitieuses, que Ton rencontre 
aussi dans le Talmud, cela ne prouve pas encore qu'elles lui sont 
contemporaines : ces idees n'appartiennent exclusivement ni au 
Talmud, ni a l'epoque talmudique. Elles pourraient en consequence, 
par elles-memes, etre soit plus anciennes, soit plus nouvelles, sans 
preciser d'avantage l'epoque du document. 

Au sujet de ces inscriptions, M. Renan dit dans son Histoire 
generate des langues semitiques (4 s ed., p. 73, n. 1) : " Les idees 
magiques et cabbalistiques qui s'y rencontrent et qui rappellent le livre 
d'Henoch, feraient regarder ces inscriptions comme l'ouvrage des 
Gnostiquesoudes Sabiens." M. Chwolson ne l'admet pas ; carles ide'es 
emises dans ces documents sont de la plus haute antiquite. Le ou les 
auteurs du livre d'Henoch n'etaient pas non plus les createurs des 
idees exprimees dans ce livre sur les bons et les mauvais esprits ; 
ils ne l'etaient pas plus que ne le furent plus tard les Gnostiques. 
A ces derniers appartiennent seulement certaines formes externes 
de ces doctrines, qui constituent un heritage remontant aux temps 
les plus recules. Feu Lenormant, se referant au passage prerite de 
M. Renan, invoque egalement le vase analogue, trouve par Layard 
(ifo'd., p. 521 et sec/.) au sud de le Mesopotamie, contenant des formulcs 
de conjuration en langue et en ecriture syriaque ; il croit par suite 
que la plus ancienne des quatre inscriptions qui nous occupent ici 
remonte au IV e ou V e siecle de J. C., et il ajoute : " . . c'est-a-dire, a 
l'epoque de la grande ecole juive des bords de l'Euphrate, qui pro- 

3 l 7 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1F90. 

duisit le Talmud de Babylone." II faut pourtant distinguer entre 
les dites inscriptions et les doctrines rabbiniques, qui sont loin d'etre 
semblables. En ce qui concerne la dite inscription en syriaque, 
M. Chwolson la croit, d'apres la forme des caracters, d'un temps 
plus ancien que le MS. syriaque de Fan 411 conserve au Musee 
britannique (cf. la planche d'ecriture syriaque par le Professeur J. 
Euting, jointe a. la Grammaire syriaque de Noldeke, col. 6). Du 
reste, pour notre question, il importe peu de savoir la date a. laquelle 
se rapporte l'inscription syriaque ; cela n'empeche pas nos inscriptions 
en hebreu d'etre de plusieurs siecles plus jeunes ou plus anciennes. 
On trouve un seul point, et encore pas tout-a-fait certain, dans 
l'inscription C, qui peut donner une indication pour la date : c'est 
que la planete soit invoquee, "qui est plus victorieuse (ou plus 
eclatante) que toutes les autres etoiles de l'univers." C'est la du 
pur paganisme, de l'idolatrie, et non pas seulement un usage etranger, 
que defend meme le Talmud. Un tel culte des astres denote une 
epoque oil les doctrines severes des rabbins n'avaient pas encore 
penetre d'une facon generate dans la Babylonie meridionale, pour ce 
qui concerne les emanations doctrinales du paganisme et pour ce 
qui derive de ses idees. Avant l'an 220 de J. C, une grande ignorance 
predominait encore parmi les Juifs dans maintes contrees de la 
Babylonie, par rapport a diverses lois mosaiques. Mais a partir de 
Fan 220, les ecoles superieures y acquirent un grand eclat; le 
nombre des etudiants augumenta beaucoup, et les homraes places 
a. la tete de ces ecoles s'eflorcerent, avec une grande energie, de 
propager la connaissance des lois parmi les Juifs de Babylone, en 
ayant non moins soin de faire executer avec severite les prescriptions 
religieuses. Done, en raison de Finvocation adressee aux planetes, 
a supposer que ce soit bien la. le sens du passage en question, 
M. Chwolson hesite fort a placer cette inscription au V e siecle ; et 
il est plutot d'avis qu'elle remonte au [II e siecle, ou au plus tard au 
IV e siecle. Si elle appartient a Fun de ces siecles, et tenant compte 
des circonstances paleographiques qui seront exposees plus loin, on 
est conduit forcement a placer l'inscription B, indubitablement plus 
ancienne, au IP siecle, et l'inscription A, encore plus ancienne, au 
I er siecle de Fere chretienne. On va voir que des motifs, tires de la 
paleographie, conduisent egalement a adopter ces dates. 

La langue de ces inscriptions est certainement parente de celle 
du Talmud ; mais elle ne lui est pas identique. Beaucoup de 
mots out un sens qu'ils n'ont jamais dans le Talmud, et de meme 

3i8 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

l'orthographe, ainsi que la prononciation de plusieurs mots, est 
differente : par exemple, KTl^ P our N113 ', flpYl pour *ppn ; 
1p*H^ pour "Ip^V- L'orthographe predominante de l'etat empha- 
tique termine en J"T> indice evident d'anciennete, oblige de remonter 
assez haut, selon la remarque deja faite par Levy. Cet etat 
emphatique se presente dans l'inscription de Sakkara, dans celle 
de Carpentras, dans celles du Hauran a l'epoque d'Herode ; enfin 
dans celles de Palmyre, on trouve ce n seulement dans les pronoms 
H"T et 7121,* et dans quelques noms propres composes avec T\p>V 
(ef. Noldeke, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenl. Gesellsc/iaft, T. XXIY, 
1870, p. 87 et seq.). " Cependant," dit Levy {ibid., p. 473), "des 
formes comme celles de "pt^Vl, fcOIlVb piTtl^ h, militent en faveur 
d'une epoque posterieure ; meme le i bref (Hiriq) est represente par 
une mater lectiofits, \ ce qui rappelle un mode scripturaire de deca- 
dence, tel qu'on le trouve chez les Talmudistes et chez les Mendai'tes." 
Mais, objecte M. Chwolson, comme nous ne possedons pas de plus 
anciens monuments literaires Juifs que le Talmud, nous ne pouvons 
pas savoir quand cette orthographe s'est developee chez les Juifs 
babyloniens. Du reste, Gibro au lieu de Gabro represente deja une 
forme singuliere, etonnante, et il ne faut pas oublier que ces 
inscriptions de conjuration ont ete ecrites par des ignorants et pour 
des ignorants, a qui Ton voulait sans doute faciliter cette lecture. 
II parait superflu a. M. Chwolson de refuter la conjecture de Levy, 

que le nora de Dieu t*VQ =^= ^..j ^. ^ ans ^inscription B, et que 1H3, 
doive avoir le meme sens que l'arabej^=C a titre de designation de 
l'Euphrate, d'011 il tire la deduction de reculer l'inscription a l'epoque 
qui a suivi l'invasion arabe. En tous cas, selon lui, cette conjecture 
est si peu fonde'e, qu'il serait trop hasarde d'en tirer des con- 
se'quences. 

Comme element essentiel pour fixer la date, reste la paleographies 
M. Chwolson accuse Le'vy de n'en avoir pas fait bon usage. Ce 
dernier n'avait pas encore d'autres monuments scripturaires en hebreu 
a utiliser comme terme de comparaison. On n'avait encore que les 
inscriptions palmyreniennes et le Codex babyloniens de l'an 916, 
dont il s'est servi (p. 478). C'e'tait une grande lacune, laissant le 
champ libre a toutes les combinaisons. Deja Lenormant et Euting 
ont eu un plus grand nombre de documents a collationner ; et 

* De Vogue, Syrie centrale, ch. ii ; Haouran, No. I, pp. 89—90; Nos. 10 et 
11, p. 122 (avec mutation du H en X). 

3 J 9 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S90. 

pourtant ils ont cru pouvoir placer l'inscription au iv e ou v e siecle, 
et la piece B dans le vn e : — ce qui etonne vivement M. Chwolson. 
Les raisons avancees par M. Lenormant lui paraissent insoutenables, 
et il ignore celles qui ont servi de base a Euting pour sa fixation de 
date. II va jusqu'a admettre que Levy meme a indique la voie 
pour dater l'inscription A, la plus ancienne des quatre presentes, 
sans toutefois faire bon usage de ses indications exactes. Dans son 
analyse paleographique de l'alphabet de cette inscription (p. 478), 
Lenormant a demontre que la plupart des formes de ces lettres se 
retrouvent sur les monnaies des satrapes, sur la pierre de Carpentras 
et d'autres monuments surnommes egypto-arameens : quelques-unes 
des lettres ressemblent a celles des inscriptions palmyreniennes. 
Mais, comme les premiers monuments precites remontent au iv e et 
au m e siecles avant J. C., tandis que les derniers proviennent des i er 
au in e siecles apres J. C, on en tire la deduction naturelle que 
l'inscription A appartient au i er siecle de l'ere chretienne, c'est-a-dire 
a un moment ou beaucoup d'anciennes formes arameennes se sont 
encore conservees, ou les alphabets ayant l'arameen pour souche, le 
haurano-nabateen, le palmyrenien, en fin le carre, ne sont pas encore 
separes d'une facon tranchee. 

Par consequent, si dans les monuments en caracteres carres, 
les lettres paleographiquement caracteristiques offrent telles formes 
qui plus tard ont disparu, mais sont identiques ou au moins tres sem- 
blables aux lettres correspondantes des alphabets congeneres, de tels 
monuments ne peuvent appartenir qu'au i er siecle, ou au plus tard au 
ii e siecle de l'ere chretienne, dit M. Chwolson. De plus, on sait que 
les hastes (crocs) superieures des lettres H> *7> l~b 3> *1> et Jl> dans 
l'alphabet arameen, proviennent des formes originates de ces lettres 
en phenicien. En outre, on sait que ces pointes dans les dits 
alphabets de seconde generation se sont successivement emousses, 
jusqu'a disparaitre completement plus tard. La consequence natur- 
elle a tirer de ce fait, c'est que les monuments en caracteres carres, 
ou les hastes sont plus ou moins pointues, doivent etre d'une epoque 
anterieure a ceux ou ces marques sont plus ou moins effacees. Si 
Ton compare par exemple l'inscription A avec celle dite des Beni- 
Hezir (Tfn ^22), qui est a peu pres du i er siecle de J. C, on 
remarque que l'indice d'anciennete en question ressort beaucoup 
plus nettement dans la premiere que dans l'autre. Dans l'inscrip- 
tion A, le 3, tres souvent, puis les T,rb3 et ")> sont sans cesse 
pourvus de ces pointes, dont il n'a ete conserve que de faibles traces 

320 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

sur ces lettres dans d'inscription de Hezir. Le trait vertical de droite 
dans n et n> ou de gauche dans jl> depasse dans l'inscription A la 
ligne horizontale, comme dans les anciennes inscriptions nabateennes 
et dans d'autre vieilles inscriptions. De meme, le 1 a une forme 
nettement antique, et dans plusieurs passages il a une parente 
visible avec le 1 nabat^en. En considerant le point de vue paleo- 
graphique, il faudrait placer l'inscription A avant celle de Hezir, au 
commencement du i er siecle de J. C. Mais comme il n'y a pas a 
tirer des inscriptions palestiniennes des conclusions pour celles de 
Babylonne, M. Chwolson croit devoir assigner le i er siecle apres 
J. C. comme date de l'inscription A, et il ne croit pas qu'il y ait des 
motifs serieux pour la supposer plus jeune. Une fois cette date 
admise pour l'inscription A, la fixation approximativement exacte des 
trois autres inscriptions babyloniennes n'est plus difficile. Dans 
l'inscription B, ces marques paleographiques, et les parentes des lettres 
avec celles de l'alphabet provenant d'une descendance arameenne, 
sont moindres que dans la piece A. La piece B est manifestement 
plus jeune que la precedente, mais pas de beaucoup ; car presque 
toutes les lettres paleographiquement caracteristiques ont leurs 
formes archai'ques, qui sous le rapport paleographique renvoient a 
une epoque anterieure aux inscriptions de Kefer Ber'em* M. Chwol- 
son voudrait done placer la piece B au n e siecle de J. C. 

La piece C est encore plus jeune. La, les caracteres d'ecriture 
sont nettement plus jeunes que dans la piece B, sans l'etre beaucoup 
plus que l'inscription precitee de Kefer Ber'em, ou dans celle de 
Venosa. M. Halevy conjecture que cette inscription appartient au 
ix e siecle environ, et il se fonde sur les motifs suivants : Selon lui, 
Nilft/X^N dans le sens d'engagement rappelle le sens de la forme 
du verbe arabe congenere >Lc. Mais, dans la note 2 sur cette 
inscription, il a 6te observe que ce mot ne saurait nullement avoir le 
sens qui lui est attribue par M. H. Puis, celui-ci suppose que le 
terme N1TT pour N*V}D rappelle l'arabe ^yk&. • M. Chwolson, a. 
l'oppose, observe que ^VJl dans les versions chadeennes et le 
Talmud, est souvent employe pour designer les animaux domes- 
tiques, \epecus. L'invocation de la planete, vers la fin de l'inscrip- 
tion, rappelle l'astrologie des Arabes ; les Babyloniens au contraire 
cherchaient bien a guerir par des formules de conjuration magique, 

* Renan, Mission en Phinicie, pp. 763 — -4. Cf. David de Gunzbourg, Etudes 
epigraphiques, dans Revue des etudes J uives, xviii, 213. 

321 2 A 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

sans que celles-ci s'adressent a. une planete, mais aux dieux. Par 
contre, M. Chwolson pense que les Arabes n'ont pas apporte leur 
astrologie du desert, mais l'ont tres probablement commence a 
apprendre en Babylonie. On peut afnrmer avec certitude, selon 
M. Chwolson, que les Babyloniens du i er siecle n'ont jamais adresse 
leurs vceux aux etoiles. Soit par des raisons pal£ographiques, soit par 
des raisons de fond, il y a done lieu de fixer cette piece C au plus 
tard dans la i er moitie du ive siecle de J. C. 

E. 

Un vase similaire, acquis a Paris par la Bibliotheque Nationale, 
etait, jusqu'en 1883, a. notre connaissance, le seul de ce genre que 
renferment les musees de France,* et e'est par lui que nous allons 
continuer cette etude. II afifecte, comme tous les autres, la forme 
d'une calotte hemispherique tres-evasee; il est uni sur toutes ses 
parties et n'offre aucune trace d'ornementation ; il n'a merae pas au 
centre, a l'interieur, cette saillie ou o/MfiaXos qu'on remarque sur 
quelques bols du meme genre, notamment sur celui C, qu'a interprete 
M. Halevy. La pate de Pargile est rougeatre, et les parois sont 
d'une epaisseur moyenne. Le pourtour du bord mesure un diametre 
de 15 centimetres environ. Rien dans la fabrique et l'aspect de ce 
monument, grossier en lui-meme, ne peut reveler l'epoque de la 
fabrication ; les caracteres paleographiques et linguistiques seuls 
permettent, comme nous le verrons, de placer cet objet vers le 
cinquieme ou le sixieme siecle de notre ere, par assimilation au 
bolf decrit plus haut rubrique C : ceux qui ont et^ publies par 
M. Layard sont manifestement un peu plus anciens. 

L'interieur de notre vase, e'est-a-dire la surface concave, est 
occupee par deux inscriptions qui se deroulent en spirale, et qui, se 
faisant suite l'une a l'autre, sont neanmoins separees par un trait a 
l'encre qui court sur tout le circuit de la paroi. Contrairement a ce 
qui s'observe sur la plupart des monuments du meme genre, 
notamment celui qu'a dechiffre M. Levy, A, la spirale inscrite va de 
la circonference au centre. La premiere formule, celle qui est la 
plus rapprochee du bord, a un peu plus de cinq lignes ; celle qui est 

* Abstraction faite par consequent d'une coupe de ce genre qui est au Musee 
de Cannes, que l'abbe Hyvernat a publiee et traduite dans la Zeitschrift fiir 
Keilschriftforschung, T II, 1S85, pp. 113-148. 

+ Ce dernier, a en juger d'apres le caractere graphique, est peut-etre d'un 
siecle posterieur a celui nous occupe ici. 

322 



Proc. Soc, Bibl. Arc!,., April, 189c 




TERRA-COTTA BOWL 



April] PROCEEDINGS; 1890. 

au centre en contient a peine quatre petites. Au milieu, sans doute 
pour remplacer la saillie ou ombilic dont nous parlions plus haut, on 
remarque, trace a l'encre, un cercle irregulier et tres allonge, traverse 
par deux diagonales qui se croisent en forme d'X. Cette particularity, 
qui devait avoir un sens magique, se constate de meme sur plusieurs 
des coupes publiees dans 1'ouvrage de M. Layard. 

Voici, en caractere hebra'iques ordinaires, la transcription de nos 
deux textes, qui sont d'Une conservation graphique suffisante, sauf 
quelques parties frustes que nous essayer'ons de reconstituer : — 

*[jwil \*wt\ bi 3 rro« 13 , narh 2 rvw p '«niD« 
pmpm prm «r»f?ttwi "HTn anisi^i 6 pEi>pn] 'patin 
rth '\n23m Ttb ">"Ojn i-teneti rrhhi 7 wsny "nrrn 
pi^Qi from pVwi pVw prta a nbyh\ p rrav p 
pn«Q pi "mrrrra pi mDia p ppQDi ipypw "p-ani 
13 ^tn by rraN in *nwn irnnp wn ,2 m:£rn pniNi 
15 rain rrhyi rrarti bs p rta «im rania wl ? annn 
,7 [Dumi p^ ] NnunnS ^unn rsfaa Kim 16 ;iddn 
trro wm: .rfe p« p« nw)m ran rrou? ,8 rnDTOirr 
*nnin rrTO ^ pi jwa nyiQ pi Niwa ami p rvw 
p« jtoq pfYQtm pVran iton in "hot?*? rthpfh vypi 

\rbo 

Traduction. 

"Salut du ciel, pour Hisda bar Ama. Toutes mauvaises sor- 
celleries, grand'oeuvres, maledictions, voeux, engagements, de loin 
ou de pres, d'hommes ou de femmes, la nuit ou le jour, qu'ils 
font contre lui ou qu'elles font contre lui, depuis ce jour jusqu'a 
jamais : que toutes ces choses, les unes et les autres, soient ana- 
thematisees, bannies, expulsees, arrachees, et chassees de son corps 
et de sa demeure, hors des deux cent quarante huit (membres) 
ensorceles, et hors de l'endroit ou se tient Hisda bar Ama, sur 
le chemin de Housia. A l'etoile qui domine sur toutes les autres 
etoiles d'en haut, qui chevauche (dans le firmament), appartient 

le salut, car elle enseigne la magie aux magiciens sous 

l'invocation (?) de jujubier. Que le grand nom (de dieu) soit 
prononce. Amen, Amen, Sela." 

3 2 3 2 a 2 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

11 Delivrance par la grace du ciel, des mauvais esprits 

et des mauvaises maladies, et de toutes sortes d'adversites qui 
se levent contre lui, contre Hisda bar Ama : qu'ils disparaissent 
et soient aneantis de devant lui. Amen, Amen, Sela." 

Notes. 

1. Le mot NrnDN se traduirait exactement par le latin salus, 
c'est-a-dire, sante, salut, remede, talisman, preservatif physique ou 
moral. C'est par ce mot que debute aussi la formule magique 
de l'une des coupes du British Museum (Layard, op. cit., p. 515, 
note 2). On sait que NfDDN est le souhait de sante formule, au- 
jourd'hui encore, par les Juifs a, l'adresse de ceux qui eternuent : 
c'est, selon la tradition, un preservatif contre une mort inopinee, 
car la legende rapporte quAbraham mourut en eternuant. 

2. Nous ferons remarquer que le mot rPDtU' est ecrit par un 
n au lieu d'un N- Ce n'est pas la seule particularity: du morceau, 
qui prouve que l'orthographe en est tres negligee. Nous en citerons 
d'autres exemples. 

3. La forme "HOT? est pour N"TDTT, et iTQM pour *£&*. Ces 
noms propres se rencontrent tres frequemment dans les livres rab- 
biniques. 

4. Ce mot est tres fruste et presque illisible ; mais le contexte 
et la formule analogue publiee par M. Halevy en rendent certaine 
la restitution. 

5. M. Halevy traduit "PC^pjl ^"121^ par "ceuvres puissantes;" 
l'expression nous parait correspondre a ce qu'on appelait au moyen 
age le gra?id , ceuvre (magique). 

6. Les trois premieres lettres de ce mot ont presque disparu. 

7. Ce mot "^yn est ecrit plus emphatiquement It&frWTl dans 
le texte de M. Halevy. 

8. Mot fruste, en partie restitue. On remarquera la repetition 
du raerae verbe au feminin pluriel, ayant pour sujet les demons 
feminins. 

g. La formule D7i^71 3*n T172V ip est exprimee (avec une 
legere vanante) dans le texte de M. Halevy par les mots, NQV \72 
oSv 13? r"f> ^ m ne modifient en rien le sens. 

10. ^1"Or\ vwt-a-mot : brisees, broyees. 

11. Dans le texte interprete par M. Halevy, le mot ^JTT1?3 a 
heureusement une sorte d'explication placee a l'interligne, qui contient 

3 2 4 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

le mot Jirfrffl2ftpD> " s es emplacements." Peut-etre faut il lire 
ici : iTHYTBS (avec intercalation superflue d'un premier 1), dont le 
sens certain est : sa demeure. 

12. "Les deux cent quarante huit" (membres). Cette formule 
est tout-a-fait nouvelle dans les inscriptions des vases magiqucs. 
Au moyen age, les Juifs admettaient que le corps humain se decom- 
pose en 248 membres, ou parties, qui etaient sujettes, chacune 
individuellement, a subir les atteintes de la maladie ou du de'mon. 
Notre formule d'incantation a pour but de les preserver toutes sans 
exception. Faut-il, au contraire, supposer qu'il s'agit de " 248 
precedes de sorcellerie," contre lesquels ['inscription a pour but 
de proteger le dit Hisda ? Meme expression dans l'inscription G. 

13. M. Halevy a lu ce mot JTYlN 5 roais la lecture "H^N. sur notre 
vase, ne peut faire l'objet d'une contestation. Litteralement : main, 
par extension (?), voie. On le trouve aussi dans le Talmud comme 
nora propre (traduction francaise, T. I., p. 15 ; T. VI, p. 183). 

14. La lecture de cette lettre est certaine; elle est assez distante 
du mot qui precede et du mot qui suit ; le fac-simile de la coupe 
Rodwell sur lequel a travaille M. Halevy, l'a induit en erreur; il a 
vu dans le passage semblable au notre l'interjection "V^, 6, com- 
parable a l'hebreu *<«; il lit: NlS'O ^M . ^n . . . au lieu de 
MH1313 h W¥\r\- Dans l'un et l'autre cas, il y a un point d'arret, 
une fin de phrase, apres le mot Houcia. 

15. Au lieu de TOtTl tVbiH tTOSO, M. Halevy a cru lire 
sur son texte defectueux fc^ftl ^SjT! b^SffE) ; mais la lecture 
de notre passage ne peut faire l'objet d'aucun doute. Le mot 
rm3"^ applique a une etoile, a Venus probablement, indique une 
curieuse notion astrologique empruntee par les Juifs aux Chaldeens. 

16. Le mot jlEDN est le meme que NJllDN, le premier mot 
de notre inscription, avec une orthographe un peu differente (par 
mutation du "} en Q). En rabbinique, il est vrai, ce mot a fini 
par etre regarde comme derive du grec airuOi], sflata, d'ou il a pris 
le sens d epee plate ; mais ce sens ne saurait convenir ici. 

17. Passage fruste et difficile a retablir. Le dernier mot ne 
parait pas douteux, c'est DI^HI, et P ar h nom : il en reste encore 
des traces graphiques. Mais ce qui precede a completement disparu, 
et nous proposons conjecturalement de restituer les lettres suivantes : 
. . DirHn^TP, dont nous avouons ne pas comprendre le sens. 
Dans le passage parallele de l'inscription traduite par M. Halevy, 

325 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

egaleraent fruste, ce savant a cru pouvoir restituer le mot 'p^.^DQ- 
Ici, ce mot n'est pas admissible. Pour les trois ou quatre dernieres 
lettres de ce groupe, il y a peut-etre lieu de lire par conjecture : 
MH^Tj "de ceux qui murmurent " (sous-entendu : les for/miles) 
11 de ceux qui enoncent a, voix basse," selon le mode usite au temps 
des auteurs du Talmud, pour guerir par l'incantation : tWT?« Enfin, 
serait-on en pre'sence de lettres detournees de leur vrai sens, a 
reconstituer par les precedes du t£7!l JIN ou Dl 1 ?^ ? 

1 8. Au lieu du mot rT , D t, DE"l3'"T> M. Halevy propose de lire : 
rPiTDft *"Q3- Mais il n'est pas possible de se ranger a l'opinion 
de ce savant, car la lecture materielle du mot est certaine. II 
faut done y voir une forme derivee de N^m"^ ( ou N1Ift23"^)» 
en syriaque "^Tlft"^ N\^ftY"0> le jujubier, ziziphus rhamtnus, 
jujiiba, dit J. Levy, dans son Nenhebr. Worterbuch {sub verbo), en 
rappelant le passage suivant du Talmud Babli, Pesahim, f. 11 1 b: 
"Pour tout arbre dont le branchage est dangereux, l'ombre Test 
aussi (parqe que e'est ordinairement la que les demons operent 
leurs malefices.) Une exception est faite pour le jujubier : son 
ombre n'est pas nuisible, bien qu'il ait un feuillage touffu (pouvant 
servir de repaire aux esprits) ; puisqu'un demon femelle dit un 
jour a son fils : tiens-toi a, l'ecart du jujubier, car e'est lui qui 
a tue ton pere et qui te tuera." (lis s'eloignent done d'un tel 
arbre.) 

1 9. Avec les points diacritiques : fc$rP2 » repos, tranquillity de- 
livrance. NfTO ou n" 1 - a le meme sens en syriaque. 

T T 

20. Ce mot est tres fruste, et il semble qu'il y ait entre ^Jl^ 
et lui place pour une ou deux lettres qui nous echappent. 

21. Ce mot est difficile a lire; mais le contexte laisse deviner 
le sens. 

Au point de vue tachygraphique, nous noterons les particularity 
suivantes : la forme particuliere du D est celle d'un triangle. Le 
"i se confond avec le \ et meme parfois avec le 2 au commencement 
ou au milieu des mots. Le 3 est presque identique au *"\. Les 
trois lettres n> n et jl se confondent absolument. Le ft a, quand 
il est fait negligemment, beaucoup d'analogie avec le J>. Le y et 
le 2J sont presque identiques. Le p peut se confondre avec le ft, 
car la queue est souvent sacrifice. Faisons enfin remarquer que 
le 3 a une forme particuliere dans le mot )"PD^l> et que frO sont 
joints de facon a ressembler a un n phdnicien. Le 2 nna l est 

326 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

quelquefois a angle droit et ressemble assez a une equerre ; il est 
orne d'une ou de deux petites hastes a sa partie superieure ; mais 
il ressemble aussi parfois a un 1 ou un *\ prolonge. 

Parmi les notions talmudiques a signaler dans la formule qui 
nous occupe, notons celle des 248 membres ou parties du corps 
humain. C'est a. l'ancienne astrologie chaldeenne que se rattache 
la mention de l'etoile Venus, l'antique Istar ou Belit, qui etait 
particulierement puissante pour les exorcismes et les guerisons,* et 
qui a pris place avec les memes attributs dans l'astrologie des 
Mendaites et des Arabes. Les deplacements meme de la planete 
Venus sont indiques dans notre texte : elle chevauche a travers le 
firmament, et sans doute, la place relative qu'elle occupait devait 
influer sur Pefricacite de l'invocation de son nom. L'invocation du 
jujubier doit aussi etre d'origine chaldeenne ; les Mendaites ont 
egalement un arbre dont l'ombre est bienfaitrice ; il est irequemment 
mentionne dans le Sidra rabba, sous le nom de Ttt2in]H, que 
Norberg traduit par vitis cypria.\ II y aura certainement un jour 
des rapprochements fort interessants a etablir entre ces antiques 
traditions chaldeennes qui ont persiste presque jusqu'a nos jours, et 
les textes cuneiformes concernant les pratiques magiques et astro- 
logiques des anciens Babyloniens. Le vase que nous avons examine 
etait fait pour Hisda fils d'Ama, qui habitait non loin de Housia ; 
cette localite, mentionnee aussi dans le texte traduit par M. Halevy, 
est connue ; elle devait se trouver non loin de Hillah, peut-etre 
sur les ruines memes de Babylone. 

Deux pieces, F et G, assez semblables a celle de Layard No. 2, 
sont au meme musee.^ Au bord exterieur de la seconde, on lit : — 

nan© rbn\ rtnma dtt ^ ">f?pn §ta ninn *jnn *?pn 
nw ba m nbyn nVi rvasn $&\ snm vh rona bi 
mm -pn tip** D^nsn rroi« mwi dytd rocrrciD 
mwi rraito awsn wn "fsn mm icni Troiii ienh 
jnm «^i mmn $h\ rbvn m bs nxr^y roBmoa qiid 

.ims^ rbty\ ncnt? bz ddtm 

* Fr. Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, p. 17. 
t Norberg, Onomast. ad lib. Adami, p. 1 44. 
J Elles doivent paraitre dans la Revue des Etude's Juives en 1890. 
§ Pour Ty fort, violent. Ce n'est du reste pas la seule faute d'orthographe : il 
y en a bien d'autres dans le verset qui suit, comme dans le texte precedent. 

3 2 7 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890 

Apres les sept premiers mots, pour detourner la mort du 
malade qui lira ces lignes en buvant de la coupe, se trouve textuelle- 
ment un verset de la Bible (Deuteronome xxix, 12) ; puis les memes 
mots sont ecrits a rebours, en commencant par le dernier mot pour 
finir par le premier.* 

A envisager le commencement de ce texte, " que ceci soit un 
moyen de destruction pour l'esprit qui repose sur Mar-Zoutra," il est 
tres possible que le texte se rapporte a un personnage du meme 
nom, dont le Talmud de Jerusalem dit (tr. Maasser scheni, v. 8) : 
" II prie et jeune pour d'autres, sans avoir pu se guerir lui-meme 
par sa priere." On aurait alors fait pour lui la presente amulette. 

H. 

Une des dernieres acquisitions faites par le departement des 
antiquites orientales au British Museum concerne un petit monument 
de la meme famille que les precedents. II est probablement bien 
anterieur — au moins d'un siecle ou deux — a celui du cabinet des 
antiques de la Bibliotheque nationale. Deux motifs nous font 
emettre cette hypothese : i° la disposition de l'inscription, qui, au 
lieu d'etre en forme de spirale (comme le sont tous les congeneres), 
se compose de lignes concentriques, la plus petite occupant naturelle- 
ment le centre, et les autres, en s'eloignant, s'e'tendent ; 2 la forme 
meme des lettres, encore pourvues de hastes superieures, signe certain 
de la transition entre le phenicien et les caracteres carres. 

Voici le texte, avec toutes ses incorrections et fautes d'ortho- 
graphe : — 

."WN-T mnsipD'w by rvrmb tm& p nhion -i 
rwip mm rrotr^n Trh marc diu> bp\ tpinhb ■* 

www lnoa iion *im ton wrm hvftvm rcn -3 

w fariattm mm ■"p'ttf hww* "nfmi ^ rh Vaao -4 

ifcw *pm ybn ysd mm 
isno rho pw pM afo& ~]b did^i ybn i^d mm s 

t u*B\p\ p ma snrm 

* Encore de nos jours, les Juifs pratiquants, qui ne negligent pas de benir la 
neomenie entre le i er et le 15 de chaque mois lunaire, disent entre autres versets, 
apres la benediction du mois, celui de l'Exode xv, i6,_dans les deux sens, ordinaire 
et a rebours. 

328 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

II y a la un veritable abus des tuatres lectionis, complique 
d'erreurs d'auditions, ou de lectures mal comprises des versets 
bibliques, sans compter i° des alliterations de sons, 2° des exemples 
de tachygraphie. 

L'ensemble peut se diviser en deux grandes parts : la premiere 
Chaldeenne, composee de deux lignes et demie ; la deuxieme 
est hebraique, exclusivement composee detrois passages de l'ecricure 
sainte. 

Voici la Traduction. 

[Ligne 1] "Salut du ciel 1 pour (donner) la vie 2 sur le seuil 3 de 
Aschir 4 [ligne 2] Mehadioud et a ce qui est (?) sous sa vue, 5 au nom 
de l'Eternel saint, le grand Dieu 6 [ligne 3] d' Israel, dont la parole, 
aussitot qu'enoncee, 7 est executee." "Voici, 8 le lit de Salomon 9 est 
entoure 10 [ligne 4J de 60 hommes vaillants parmi les plus forts 11 
d'Israel." "Que l'Eternel 12 te benisse et te protege 13 ; qu'il fasse 
luire sa face vers toi et te favorise ; qu'il leve [ligne 5] son regard 14 
sur toi et te donne 15 la paix." Amen, Amen, Selah. " J'aneantis" 
les signes du tribunal 11 et des devins. 18 " 

Notes. 

1. L'expression " salut du ciel " est commune a plusieurs docu- 
ments de cette nature, et il suffit de renvoyer aux textes analogues 
(par exemple en tete de E). 

2. Dans le mot nTTO^, pour la vie, les lettres "> et H (dont la 
premiere est superflue, figurant un / bref) sont jointes : premier 
exemple de tachygraphie. 

3. La premiere lettre du mot suivant est a-demi effacee ; mais on 
devine l'y de 7^. Dans le mot rPnOpD^N, les lettres jHD sont 
jointes ; nouvel exemple de tachygraphie. Le mot meme, identique- 
ment semblable en syriaque, a deja ete explique plus haut. 

4. Le term Aschir, dernier mot de la ligne 1, et le suivant Melja- 
dioud, premier mot de la ligne 2, ont bien une tournure persane, 
en rapport avec la localite ou l'inscription a ete decouverte. 

5. Le mot du texte est obscur, en raison de la trop grande 
similitude des lettres 1 et "|, ainsi que J"l et n> et 1 avec , « J- a 
lecture 11'''^, vue, est proposee a titre de simple conjecture. 

6. Un seul mot, celui de nN' , 7' , N, Dieu (pour nHT"^), > subi 
une cassure ; mais la lecture ne souffre pas de doute. 

329 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

7. L'^crivain inexperimente qui s'est charge d'ecrire ce talisman, 
donne la une nouvelle preuve de son ignorance, en ecrivant NliTTT 
pour ^ini) <7 ut ' est - C'est une imitation ou reminiscence, en 
chaldeen, d'un verset du dit Psaume xxxiii, 9, premier hemistiche. 

8. Ici commence la partie hebraique, par le verset des Cantiques, 
iii, 7, intercale d'ordinaire dans la liturgie juive de la nuit comme 
preservatif contre les demons nocturnes. 

9. Le texte porte ici par erreur IDIT'tl^/tlf > pour i"TO7'ttr?'ttf> 
"de Salomon," que comporte l'orthographe massoretique de la Bible. 

10. Autre preuve d'ignorance du scribe, qui, ayant vaguement 
retenu l'assonance des mots, ecrit PH T^HD pour J"17 H^Dj 
autour de lid. 

11. Une inadvertance du meme genre a fait £crire *'^"l2l" , ^l* , ^j 
des forts (en deux mots), avec une profusion de voyelles inutiles, 
pour TQaO. 

12. Suit la benediction sacerdotale, telle qu'elle est prescrite 
dans le livre Mosaique des Nombres vi, 24-26 ; un texte de la 
Bible sufnt pour corriger les fautes manifestes du copiste. 

13. Le troisieme mot de ce verset est completement estropie 
dans le texte courant ; et audessus des trois dernieres lettres 
fautives IftT, que le copiste — par un scrupule exagere — s'est 
interdit d'effacer, se trouvent superpose'es deux lettres presque 
pareilles, qu'il faut rectifier en *p, fin du mot "TlftXZ^"! , et te 
protege. 

14. Ici, contre l'ordinaire, le copiste a trace avec trop de 
parcimonie les voyelles, ecrivant "77N 12Q, ce qui n'a aucun sens, 
pour "p7N V2D, "sa face vers toi." 

15. Le mot suivant est ecrit a tort QID^I, pour Q^l, "qu'il 
place," ou " donne." 

16. Apres la formule finale, habituelle aux objurgations, "Amen, 
Amen, Selah," vient un verset (Isaie xliv, 25), dont un seul mot, le 
second, est correctement ecrit ici, et qui seul a permis de reconstituer 
la lecture (avec la signification) du reste. Le premier mot eut £te 
impossible a dechiffrer, vu la jonction de deux caracteres, sans les 
precedents tachygraphiques de la ligne 1, qui ont servi a titre de 
comparaison, pour reconstituer le texte. 

1 7. Les mots trois et quatre de ce verset invoque, savoir TF2. 
"p"T, tribunal, sont le produit d'une corruption acoustique du mot 
D'Hi, "prophetes de mensonge," qu'offre en r&ilite le texte biblique. 

330 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

18. La fin de ce meme verset, qui dans Isa'ie est libellee : D^Dp") 
hsliTV "et les devins, il les proclame insenses," a ete tronquee, 
soit involontairement, par suite du manque de place, soit de plein 
gre, pour mieux accomoder la phrase avec l'ensemble de l'invocation. 
D'ailleurs, la Bible parle a la premiere personne, et ici il s'agit de la 
troisieme personne. 

Ces cinq lignes de texte forment non une spirale, mais des 
quatre cinquiemes de cercles successifs ou concentriques. Au defaut 
de jonction des lignes le vide est occupe par un dessin qui se 
prolonge depuis le bord du vase jusqu'assez pres du centre, dessin 
deux fois reproduit, sur une plus petite echelle, a droite et a gauche 
du premier : ce dessin est tout-a-fait enfantin, digne de la main qui 
reproduit si mal les textes bibliques ci-dessus enonces. C'est peut- 
etre 1'aspect informe d'un arbre, dont les racines sont denudees de 
la terre. En ce cas, on pourrait songer a V arbre de vie d'autant plus 
qu'en dehors de ces lignes, presqu'au bord on lit nettement un n, 
abrege de Q^n> 77(? > entoure d'un carre, autrement dit un cercle 
angule symbolisant l'eternite. 

Tout au milieu, constituant le centre, il y a trois lettres, dont 
la lecture n'est pas absolument certaine. Nous ne saurions rien y 
voir en dehors des lettres '^'n'Xt^- C'est sans doute l'abreviation de 
M2 W^STI "HXPj "Tout-puissant, protege-moi ! " 

L 

Le Musee du Louvre a recemment acquis pour son departe- 
ment des Antiquites orientales un bol en terre cuite grisatre, con- 
tenant une inscription chaldaique tracee en forme de spirale, qui 
commence au bord (a l'interieur) et se termine au centre. Elle 
est ainsi concue : — 

Tnri 'ttnm Nrapro pvis "mms pnVa ptdn wi 
piN pDDNm rn^pi mdm Nnura «rmi wmoiVi 

nti prpi"nM tfprra) • • • • prrcrs (p)jmjn pmsDi prma 

nrva Son rrjnt by\ Nn*?tt? m -niaQN by rrhy rmivrk 

rmiu) (p° ur vhy\n) T^n xbi Nrm p rnr<DM fcfQ * "1 

pprrn n^7D3 p-iurra pD^ rpsrm pw nth prrara p 

•mym ^nrn ^p , *to: bi NmnDNi *wib ba pimpi pan 

pwtt K*rr wvttra rrm «mira tnun itnmfn *mn 

331 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILLOLOGY. [1890. 

p-QM irniwpBi mnaai rrsntai nkjV© 1 na ntsEMa na 
wrh pbu* imj-im n« nw rvwyb it(?)*?ia pi 

to: Mtaa nnn Tm n© *rM "naj Sm *hu> ^m iimi mvi 

L (?) 

pnria lormi wsnwi we? pnos •mm Mtfroittn 

ittn Mai rrrfci nrmwai pm prwai rran^ a 1 ?! 

PDfr&D *?M^MTT roS rOD--.. M^ITO N!nD"7 m»W 

*?mdi raM^n ^m^mi ra*An *?MiiMa nsvbo ^m^di 

^MyTO TOM^ ^WIBTO HDN^ b^ll^a PDM^E 

fWTp paK^ paVo ina Wi3Wi«a ^^ms roM^a 

Mai sniQ^ 1 ? wb pftrm psrtr: piimpi pi pma 

pVwr* pioi M&ai Nnyinu? 'pyby Nayawi 

Miun MreiSn ''inn Mmno^Mi nans by\ ''Win *?a 
«^i *?ai piwn in pittn niis itS'i- fan Mnii^a 
pi msn* pi MD^iy na ihsdm p p^om purwQ 
WTvmwo hy\ inning by panni pSn nWNi irrra 

.rfco pM xhyh\ pi m&v p 

Le milieu du cercle est occupe par 32 fois la lettre SI, formant 
ensemble une circonference inachevee ; l'espace laisse libre repre- 
sente en traits enfantins une plante, ou arbuste rabougri, eclaire 
par le soleil. 

Ce texte, qui par la forme des caracteres employes, comme par 
le langage, est du V e siecle environ, laisse a desirer pour la lecture ; 
les lettres sont pales, frustes, parfois illisibles. Mais le nombre 
des mots certains est assez grand pour rendre possible l'essai suivant 
de traduction : — 

"Soyez lies vous tous, demons nombreux, faiseurs de malefices 1 
(ou astrologues), magiciens, faiseurs de vceux (ou excommunicateurs), 
maudisseurs et mauvais esprits ; soyez enchaines et attaches et 
immobilises; que soient perdus leurs efforts* et ecartes, que dis- 
paraisse (s'enfuie) leur victoire, comme envolee (ou rejetee 2 ) ; que 
leurs oreilles n'entendent rien 3 d'Amtor fille de Salomon, ni de 

* Les points designent les lettres non lues; et en cas d'hypothese d'une 
deuxieme lecture, celle-ci est figuree par des lettres superposees. 

332 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

ses enfants, ni de sa maison, . . . (ni de ses gens 4 ) ; qu'ils soient 
lies quant a leurs mains, pour qu'ils ne puissent pas blesser (frapper, 
detruire) ; qu'ils deviennent aveugles pour les choses decouvertes 
(visibles 5 ) pour qu'ils ne voient pas 6 en faisant de la magie ; que 
les eaux*(?) soient droites (coulent libres), pour sa personne, soit 
de loin, soit de pres, que tous demons et interdits, toutes choses 
avec lesquelles ils conjurent, et enchantent, et tracent des sillons, 
et excommunient, maudissent, et reposent dans les prairies (?) ; 
que les mauvais esprits ne demeurent pas chez Amtor fille de 
Salomon, ni chez ses enfants, ni dans sa maison, ni parmi les 

biens acquis (mobiliers) ; qu'ils soient perdus (? que tout 

ceci soit inexecutable en ces lieux) ; qu'il aille dehors (qu'il sorte), 
lui et aussi, Dieu puissant, en mon nom (ou par le nom) de A A A, 
avec lequel il vainc leur trace ; qu'ils soient lies au ciel et sur 
terre, qui sont tous bouillants ; qu'il n'y ait pas de devastation 
dans leurs maisons, 8 par la domination du grand roi, du seigneur 
Salomon . . . (? maitre du fer) ; que le repos predomine d'une 
categorie (d'anges) a l'autre, de Raschiel l'ange, Bassouriel l'ange, 
Barouiel l'ange, Rayiel l'ange, Raphael l'ange, Bacouriel l'ange, 
Badartoumiel l'ange, Badarqiel l'ange, Barachiel, Badanouel. Vous 
etes tous des anges saints, purs, grands, 9 sacres, victorieux, miseriror- 
dieux, qui lancent de la main droite dans la grande mer. Je 
vous conjure par la plus grande (grave) adjuration . . . . et par 
leur ordre ; qu'elles soient annulees toutes les magies, les ceuvres 
de demons, les interdits d'enchainement, les vceux, les maledictions, 
l'effet du sejour en prairie (des gnomes), que les bons fruits restent 
accessibles, et que Ton puisse tracer des sillons ; que les esprits 
non libres (astreints au mal) cessent d'etre (s'ecartent) d'Amtor 
fille de Salomon, de ses enfants, de sa maison, de ses gens ; qu'ils 
partent, qu'ils soient caches (disparaissent) pour son habitation et 
sa residence, depuis ce jour et a jamais. Amen. Sela." 

Notes. 

1. On peut he'siter entre le mot NnT!~ft2> a ' lix l l ul voient, pri- 
voient (par les etoiles) = astrologues, et le mot NPQpD, de la 
racine i"Qp> mandire, synonime des termes qui suivent. 

2. Ou, bouches, si Ton adinet la second lecture, superposee par 
hypothese. 

3. Si ce mot fruste peut se lire fTCflS, il a l'un des deux sens ; 
etivole, ou rejetc. 

333 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

4. Sous entendu : ne provoquent pas (par leur audition) de 
mauvais jugement. 

5. II y a lieu de supposer ce sens, par analogie avec la fin du 
texte. M. Sachs me propose de lire N 1 ^, de la racine p*^, chanter, 
penser, medire, calomnier; ou N^"H> mauvais bruit; c'est-a-dire : 
" qu'ils n'entendent rien de mauvais sur Amtor." 

6. Peut-etre : " Quant a leurs ouvertures," terme metaphorique 
pour les yeux : "qu'ils deviennent aveugles quant a leurs yeux." 

7. Si la lecture de ce mot est bien telle, il derive de POU? ou 
POD* voir, regarder. 

8. Abrege des trois mots : Adona'i, Al (El), Alohim. " Le moyen 
infaillible de dompter les demons," dit M. Halevy {Revue des etudes 
juives, T. X, p. 62)," consiste a connaitrele nom du demon possesseur 
et a le conjurer par un des noms sacres transmis par la Bible ou la 
tradition." Ces noms sont reunis dans le livre cabalistique dit de 
Raziel. 

9. Ici, comme souvent, des lettres inutiles sont repetees du mot 
precedent ; le scribe ne peut rien effacer de ce qui est ecrit et 
consacre" desormais. Voir Revue d ' Assyriologie et d ' Archeologie 
orientate, 1885, pp. 11 7-1 9. 

10. Une telle succession de qualificatifs se retrouve dans le "ETP, 
premiere benediction avant le schema du matin au rituel juif 
quotidien. 

Ces invocations aux anges ont leur pendant dans la litterature 
chretienne. Dans une petite piece du XV e siecle, conservee a la 
Bibliotheque nationale (8° E 5730 inv. Reserve), on peut lire la 
conjuration suivante analogue a notre texte, sauf que les anges 
sont devenus des saints, cites a cote des anges : — 

" Conjuro te diabole per sanctum Michaelem, per sanctum 
Gabrielem : per sanctum Raphaelem et pet sanctum Uzielem ; et 
per omnes angelos et archangelos ; et per novem choros angelorum 
et per omnes virtutes celorum principatus et potestates, thronos et 
dominationes, cherubin et seraphin, Deo patri obedientes et ipsum 
semper laudantes, glorificantes in secula seculorum. Amen." 

J. 

Le British Museum possede (comme nous avons dit plus haut) 
une petite coupe talismanique ecrite en arabe. Les caracteres 
sont si grossierement traces, et emanent d'un scribe si ignorant, 

334 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

qu'il est impossible d'en dechiffrer le sens. D'ailleurs la piece 
a un aspect moderne si evident, qu'elle n'offre nul interet paleo- 
graphique ni philologique. 

II suffit de lui comparer les documents similaires deja. longue- 
ment analyses, ceux vus et lus en 1828 par T. J. Reinaud, Monu- 
ments arades, persans, et turcs, etc., T. II, pp. 324-359, puis ceux 
qu'a donne E. Rehatzek au Journal of the Bombay Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, T. X, 1872-3, pp. 150-162 et 299-315 ; 
T. XIV, 1873, pp. 199-218, avec planches. 

K. 

II ne faut pas croire que ces formules de talisman soient com- 
pletement perdues et hors d'usage. Seulement, les coupes ont 
fait place a des feuillets. De nos jours encore — et meme en plein 
Paris, specialement parmi les emigres polonais et russes — on ne 
manque pas d'epingler aux rideaux du lit d'une femme, lorsqu'elle 
vient d'accoucher, et au berceau de son enfant, un imprime hebreu, 
bizarrement dispose, contenant des objurations a l'adresse des esprits 
malfaisants, leur signifiant d'avoir a passer outre. Un grand nombre 
de nos lecteurs ne connaissent sans doute pas ce texte. 

Comme cette piece moderne n'a non plus nul interit paleo- 
graphique, ni philologique, il suffit d'en resumer rapidement le 
contenu :* En exergue, le souhait de prosperity. Pour titre : " Pre- 
servatif de l'enfant, d'apres la formule d'un saint homme." Au 
milieu, le premier cantique des degres, ou Psaume cxxi, entier. Au- 
dessous, l'invocation"Schaddai (Tout-puissant), dechire Satan," suivie 
de trois noms d'anges et de ceux des trois patriarches avec les noms 
de leurs femmes. Comme base, un carre, et a l'interieur, les deux 
noms : Adam, Eve. A droite et a gauche de ce carre, la prescription 
mosaique de "ne pas laisser subsister de sorciere " Exode xxii, 18), 
de chaque cote trois fois. Cette colonne mediale est encadree dans 
les versets bibliques suivants: A droite: Cantique des Cant., iii, 7 
et 8; a gauche : Ps. xvi, 1 ; xvii, 8, et xxxii, 7. Enfin, sur les deux 
marges externes, encastrant les deux angles de base de la colonne du 
milieu, on lit deux textes rabbiniques : Le premier (a droite) raconte 
qu'Elie ayant rencontre Lilith avec toute sa bande de demons obtint 

* Une telle feuille de preservation, dite ("171)1 D> se retrouve avec son 
formulaire dans l'ouvrage Amtahath Binyamin par Benjamin ou Benush b. Juda 
Lob Cohen (Wilmanstadt, 17 16, in-4 ), fol. 34a. 

335 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

d'elle, sous la menace de la petrifier, le secret grace auquel les nou- 
veaux nes echappent a ses atteintes ; c'est d'exposer nettement les 
divers noms cabbalistiques de la magicienne. Le second texte (a 
gauche) donne une autre fa^on de mettre la mere etl'enfant a l'abri des 
tentatives du demon et de ses malefices : c'est de piler du fenouil, 
ou de l'herbe de S. Jean, et d'en repandre sur le foyer ; la fumee qui 
s'en de'gagera chassera les esprits malfaisants (ou emanations mal- 
saines). 

En somme, dans les dix pieces dont les textes precedent, nous 
voyons les traces d'une superstition curieuse a plus d'un titre. 
C'est le reflet image de croyances populaires qui n'ont rien de 
purement mosaique. C'est un ecart tres marque des religions 
monotheistes, de ce qu'elles ont d'eleve, d'ideal, de sentiments 
spiritualistes. Ce n'est plus le materialisme grossier des idolatres, 
des polytheistes, mais un reste d'adoration des forces divinisees 
de la nature. II n'est pas etonnant de les voir se maintenir avec 
tant de persistance, si Ton songe que, sans remonter aux siecles 
anterieurs, on en retrouve encore actuellement l'echo en Orient. 
Ainsi, un voyageur, de retour du royaume de Siam, disait : — 

" Les superstitions des Siamois n'ont aucun rapport avec leurs 
croyances religieuses, bien plus, elles leur sont radicalement op- 
poses, puisque les doctrines de Bouddha les proscrivent severement ; 
mais en depit de ces memes doctrines, le brahmanisme indien 
a introduit parmi le peuple, generalement ignorant et naturellement 
porte au mysticisme et au surnaturel, certaines croyances grossieres 
tendant, soit a expliquer les phenomenes naturels, soit a conjurer 
les mauvais sorts, soit enfin a. donner un sens aux songes et aux 
changements de temperature, etc. 

" Corarae on voit, les fonctions de ces individus different de 
celles des magiciens et diseurs de bonne aventure, qui, de nos 
jours encore, jouissent d'un certain credit dans les contrees peu 
civilis£es de la vieille Europe." 

Esperons que la juxtaposition d'un grand nombre de ces textes 
contribuera h. resoudre les questions encore obscures de ce domaine;* 
leur contenu et leur langage fmiront par reVeler leur age encore 
indetermine. 

* Le dernier document connu en ce genre est celui qui vient de publier 
M. Harkavy, avec traduction russe, dans les Zapiski de la Societe imp. russe 
dArcheologie (T. IV, p. 83-95). 

33 6 



April] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1890. 



VOCABULAIRE. 

Pour mettre le lecteur a meme de suivre notre marche, de 
la controler, nous devons donner ici le vocabulaire des termes 
peu usites, employes dans les inscriptions qui precedent. Par ce 
procede on se rendra compte combien cette sorte de juxtaposition 
alphabetique, faite avec une certaine hesitation, en presence de 
lectures douteuses, a influe plus ou moins sur ces dernieres et sur 
les interpretations. Certains mots, ainsi ranges, se sont retrouves 
maintes fois ; grace a leur classification, ils ont paru offrir un sens, 
tandis que d'autres, marques du signe de doute (?), restent pour 
ainsi dire doublement obscurs, car fort souvent encore ce ne sont 
que des conjectures et hypotheses. 



nitOlMi A,nom. pr. (=^ni« 
mendaite). 

pN, I, oreille. 
NErW. F * (?nm«), terre. 
WIN ou rp\&> Fi (?) demontrer 
(de TO1)- 
p21i^> D, charge, lourd(ou de- 
rive de NpQmD, 
messager, Tal. B., 
Sanhedrin, f. 386). 
JjlNi h aussi. 

HN> *. ah - 
pfWi G,- py, temps, ou= 
1"TN> osier, jonc. 
•V^, C, quoi 6 (= \j, en 
arabe 6). 
IWN, et ^^ D, F, mere. 
"YlttENj *> nom P r -> Amtor. 
jniD^j G, separer, se retirer. 

NHlON. E > H > salut - 

«nsipD«» F > H > seuil - 

*")DN> *> ner > mterdire. 



mow. b, 

^QN» F, 
*)pN, G, 

m«. B > 

MBpm b, 

"TON, F, 

antm F > 

•wu* A > 

^n»i g, 

rwpr** b, 

Nnnw. b, 

-wain, f, 



bwWBTDi Ii 



337 



I, de*mon qui ruine 
(de -mD)- 

te"nebres. 

voir fp2- 

C, H, voie. 

terre. 

dominateur (lieu- 
tenant du roi). 

G, H, fort, heureux. 

engagement. 

feu. 

n. pr. 

foyer. 

(?) sera suspendu. 

1° Puissant, 2°saisir. 

F, femme. 

n. pr. d'ange. 

n. pr. d'ange. 

(?) en ses fils. 

n. pr. Badesor 011 
Bar-Esor. 

Badartousiel, n. pr. 
2 B 



April] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1890. 



W'jrrni l > n - P n d'an&e. 

pnN3> A > brillant (? Mercure). 
"*in*2> F > choisir, preferer. 
• NMlfrO^ F > n. pr. (? corrompude 

^^rm )• voir 

7123,' I) annuler. 
'H7*2p*<"2, I, Aux tenebres. 
p, G, fib. 
£123, > G, revolte. Voir aussi 

7N*H1D"2> *j Basouriel, n. pr. 
d'ange. 
*i}*"2, D, desirer, demander. 
k$*"Q 5 A, au dehors. 

^mi» c > sesfils(?dei-frrQ] 
oiseau, Tal. B., tr 

Houlltn, f. bib). 

TTQ» r > P ur - 

rro» A > fuir - 

/N^rn"!) *j Barahsiel, n. pr. 
d'ange. 

rmo in. (° u ttnsin). F > Bar Porat , 

n. pr. (ou par type)- 
\2Jr*2, I, mauvais. 
NEp"irQ> B > P ar la force - 
IVirQ? A > Bethunian ( ? — 
k *Jj""Q, Baravaia). 
VCWQ., G, dernier. 
i~)*Q;i, G, limites. 

nraa> G > force - 

2*73, A, briser, couper. 

Vj, F, pour if ou l^ ce, 
ceci. 
ND*0> G, approche, a cote ; 
etre grand, gros. 
fcVVb c > exciter. 



TU?«1> F > H > n - P r - ( de TEW, 
heureux). 



TtSVllt B , F , (=&j-!), ruisseau. 
N"*l"2"7> A, desert (? exterieur). 
■vyyf. A, Dews (ou : malade, 

triste). 
-pn> A, lieu (mot talmu- 
dique). 
prOIT. F > id- (au pluriel). 
fc$7")"T> F, celui qui va puiser, 

vampire. Sorte. 
WTi A > belle - 
N 77T7) G, tremblement. 
"H, G, que. 

nS^7l> c > n - P r - (Delala, ou : 
de Lala). 
HlDI* F > apparence. 

1*7, B, ce, ceci (celui, celle). 
prT07> B ) voisinage. 
N3"*n (?;, F, beau (ou = ara 
^J, ver). 

D>Dlin> A > (?) 6 roi (o BainAeus). 
p HPT- B > F > eloigner de. 

rrrm. B > ^ clat 

POD"!) B ) G, renversement, 
ruine, changement. 
tits G. achat, relations 
(? pf, temps). 

D^NT, F > ( ? = D^"r. Per- 
sistant). 

mtj F > coule r (? Dm n. pr.). 

n* i "*l'*> A, ce qui est jete. 

V^V*^, F, (fternument. 

^D^r?) x > immobilise". 

*2n ou "2^n> B > G, aimer. 

Pan* J > cacher. 

n^nn ou j^n, b, g, i, biesscr, 

ddtruire. 

Nmn.rrnn. b, g, neuve. 

t^lPfs G, chaud, chaleur. 
n^n- E, grave 



333 



April] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1890. 



Mm 

nwn, 

man, 

win, 

Nn:mn> 

•rain, 

ttnrii 

aza> 

nfi 
«*, 

■varnay 






C, E, dehors, ou : 


Nnrr. 


Houci, n. pr. 




G, serpent. 


two. 


F, blanc. 
C, animaux. 




G, force. — F. frapper. 


G,aigrie,oumelde (pour 

Twchrh 




D. Voir TO03. 
F, tourbillon de pous- 
siere. 


pro, 


F, be le-fille. 


ro> 


F, ruine. 


■Yd. 


E, G, interdit. 
C, E, I, sorcellerie ; 
sorcier. 


Trpi 


B, repandre. VoirT^^. 


rrbb* 


I, cesser d'etre. 


xbyb, 


A, bon (PfcTOB, ga- 
zelle). 
G, adhdrer. 




A, mont. 

G, enduit, ciment. 

F, cache". Rognons. 

G, mobilier. 

F, impurete* 

G, enfoui. 


ma, 
Nana, 


I, effort. 


NmnDi 


A, Oh (pour HN). 


mrm, 


I, aller. 

F, (?pour 1Q1D^» le 
couvrent). 


nana 


NE% G > h mer. 


NrpED. 


I, droite. 

(?), A, Espandarmir 
(mois ou jour per- 


M3fO. 


san). 


ru-m 


A, obscurite*. 


maz^D^, 


G, I, resider. 


"TOTE. 



339 



F,C,habitation(?pIacer, 
restituer), donner. 

I, vaincre. 

B, droit (ou : sejour). 

G > (- ?fc Tlj en toi, par 
toi). 

B, C, E, F, etoile. 

I, ce avec cjuoi. 

B, maladies. 

C, E, jujubier. 
I, categoric 
G, couronne 

I, nombreux. 
G, cceur. 

B, E, F, I, malediction. 
A, Lilith ( = <3.i). 

I, a jamais. 
F, vetements. 

C, E, localite, habita- 

tion. 

F, G, crane, cerveau. 

G, defaut. 

F, livrer, Her. 

A, sceptre. 

G, planete, destinee. 
H, n. pr. 

I, voyant, astrologue. 
H, nourriture, subsist- 

ance, etre. 
G, nom d'ange. 
C. Voir 3J£. 

B, F (? de N1t£)> obscu- 

rity, insistance. 

F, demeure. 

C, d'ou. 

G, mort. 

F. Voir n^tt^D 
F, G, (.'lever, jeter. 
2 B 2 



April] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[1890. 



ptPTOi G - Voir W- 
iSnn^j F > renouveler. 

Nn¥?n. c - F > p arole - 

WOftft* D > de source. 

"l^ft, G, nomme, p repose. 
*7NT0EB> F > n. pr. d'ange (derive 
de SfcWHO)- 
m?DD> G > ^ tre reDelle - 

12ft, Gj objets, ustensiles. 
IIDDi F > guerison. 
niTDQ ( ? )> C, devastateur(gril- 
lon). 
"DSflDs F > faiseur. 
TTttJOi G » ( ? ) argent (ou de 
rnE)> crane). 

pT^DDj B , fievreux (de ^-)Q, 

four). 
fc$rOp?2> I, maudisseur. 

"VHDj d > amer - 

njHftj E > paturage (ou : du 
mal). 
Nnt^ft> G, oint, onction. 

*QtL^2> F > q ui brise - 

TffTOOi Ij Hbdrd. 
pttfD> r » re J et ^- 

prunttfn, b. voir ptma- 

iTIEWD. F > n - P r - 

NlttHt^tt. F n - P r - (Talmudique). 
Nmmittft. !> residence. 

NVnirra, G > n - P r - 

fcWltt, F > corde. 

i^^2> G > femmes. 

P|7)0j F > '1 ddcouvert. 

pllS. F ' P° ur plTli et de 
ses fils. 



TO 

TO ou tu 
n*n3 

JTTOT 

naBTBwa 

raiaa 

to 

.^ 
•mo 

pfco 

HDD 

■•ODD 

iltSDD 



G, repousse*. 

B, C, lumiere. Outre. 

Trame. 
I, faiseurs de vceux. 
F, fondement, fonde. 
F. Voir J-pnCPtt- 

B, de'couverts. 

C, est devenu. 

E, I, repos. 

A. Voir -fi}. 

F. en face. 

B, F, sortilege. 

F, Stranger. 

A, Nod (chez les Men- 

daites). 

G. souffle. 

B, F, G, n. pr. (? chute). 

C, F, sortir. 

C, I, briller, vaincre. 

B, vengeance. 

G, percer, cogner. 

G, support, voie. 

B, I, ordre. 

B, mal, ce qui ecarte 

(? n. pr.). 
G, e"cuelle (=situla). 

A, obstacle, accusateur, 
Satan. 

A, qui se de"tourne 

me"prise. 
F, de penitence. 
I, sortir. 
F, G, poison. 

B, F, les noms. 
I, etre aveugle. 

F, n. pr. (du radical 
CD) mite). 



340 



April] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1S90. 



"WZODDj F > n - P r - (du radical 
DD> mite). 

N7DDD> B > n - P r - (du radical 
DC» mite). 

N11DD. E, F, n. pr. (le grand 
Sass). 

ITHD> B , pourrir, sentir mau- 
vais. 

py, D, Eden (ou J-py, 
temps). 

^iy> I, tracer un sillon. 

TTlJN F > sa ville, son entou- 
rage. 

rP!2T}7> B, abandon. 

JlpTi^j A, anneau. 

^NWy> G , n - P r - ( ? abre 'ge de 

"ji^i^, F, yeux (? VH^, veil- 
ler, dit Kohut, 16. 
p. 6). 

-py, F, ville. 

*p^, F > ta misere (? de la 
racine Y)ty). 

y*p$, C, E, sterile. 

Nft'H^. F, ruse - (le serpent). 

rPD"^> F > laisser. Faible. 
Nuque. 

p1}7- A, I, fuire, disparaitre. 

Np]"iy> B > ancien. 

tD1D> G, I; bouche, interieur. 

p"lD> A, D, E, sortir. 

mic ° u iq> F > n - p r - ( sor 0- 

□1"OG> F > renverser. 

b$2Q, B, se tourner. 

p n DQ> D > couper. 

^nD> I> fer. 

*H3r©> B, I, demons, spectres. | 



. . *2 (?), D, n. pr. 
*yV12> G , siffl er. 

na^Sj g, bord. 

}Q2, F, cacher. 
Dip, E>, bois, foret (? cri de 
chasse). 
rWDIpj F > sa hauteur. 
bap F > tu er- 
"PEp. i> attache*. 

rrhyp, e. voir pVop^a- 

mt^p> B, fumee, brouillard. 
Nceud. 
7p> B > F > voix. — G : ange 
Il7p. G , ( = *aXifc), prison. 
!TBp> A , E, devant. 
pip, C, I, acquet. 
D2p> h conjurer. 
f)2p» G > colere. 
"Hp, B, F, accident. Ville. 
nip) C, lisse, froid (?Nord). 
N*Hp> B . prince. 
"WW* I, Raiel, n. pr. d'ange. 
*T*WN1, I> Rasiel,n.pr. d'ange. 
KBITI, F > G, le grand (de ^). 
DJ""n> 'i misexicoidieux 

"VI, F, Ejection. Demon. 
m3l> E, chevaucher. 
fr^l; I> mauvais bruit. 
*?NS"1» I, Raphael. 
D")ttn> D> I> designation, trace. 
1irpm> B > J > bouillir. 
MrCnS^i h serment 
nmit?) *» habitation. 
T^, A, ddmon. 
1111^) F > assaillir. 



34i 



April] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. 



[1890. 



^'n'tt^j H, (abrdviation d'un 
voeu). 

rronm g, nid. 

NHtDlrTil^ F, consomption. 
pIlTttr. F, noir. 
NE^T 1 , C, voie. 

pu?> h voir - 

NI^T*^ > A, dominateur. 
"toE^. Ii cieL 
J"Wt^> C, analheme. 
mV^' B > G , heure - 
M^Q^» F, vallee. 

1Dt^> B , P r ^cieux. 
fctfl&pt^i F>, seuil. Vision, vue. 
rWWi F, principe(ou=mD)- 
N^Ht^> A > lumiere. 

fr$n!TYll^> F, lascive (demon fe- 
melle). 



i"^^, G, I, sojourner, reposer 

*H^, B, chose permise, dc- 
lie"e. 

fe$"V^W, B, commencement. 
]HTH1£?> F, commencement. 
vy-^, G, lacher. 

*H"^tZ?> F dominer. 
Nrmtt7> F (?) prairie. 

Dnt?> F devaster. 
rn^lTlj c > E > briser. 
NQpirb E > puissant. 

N-nn, F, bceuf. 
vb^rPfls G, sans doute pour 

*TNTrn, n - P 1 - 

fr^^ rip 1 ]!' A., l'homme puissant 
(Salomon). 

]vin, a, voir yrana. 



[The other illustrations to this Paper will be issued with the next 
Number of the Proceedings (May). W. H. R.] 




342 



April] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1890. 



THE NAMES OF ISIS AND OSIRIS. 
By P. Le Page Renouf. 

One of our respected colleagues* has recently quoted a state- 
ment which I made in these Proceedings more than six years ago, 
viz. : that " The real names of Isis and Osiris in the classic times of 
Egypt are as yet open questions."! Whatever doubts I had at that 
time were, however, dispelled before many months were over; as 
may be seen by a note in the May number of the same year of the 
Proceedi?igs. It may still be true that Egyptologists are not unani- 
mous on the subject of these names ; but that is because they have 
not paid attention to evidence which is palpable to all who will only 
take the trouble to look at it. 

The evidence to which I refer is found in the variants of the 
divine names invoked in the Litany of Ra. 

These names occur in a fixed order in the different royal tombs 
at Bab el Moluk, and also on a monument of the same period as the 
tombs, — the Temple of Ramese sat Abydos. % The order of file- 
names in the Temple only differs from that in the Tombs by alter- 
nating from the north to the south side of the chamber. The 
following table, consisting of the names from 11 to 22 inclusively, 
will show what I mean : — 



Tombs. 

No. n. Tmu. 

12. Chepera. 

13. Shu. 

14. Tefnut. 

15. Seb. 

16. Nut. 

17. j] g$ Isis. 

18. Nephthys. 

19. ^Horu: 

20. pSg^Nu. 

21. Remi. 

22. Huaai-ta. 



Temple. 
North Side. South Side. 

11. Tmu. 



12. Chepera. 
14. Tefnut. 
16. Nut. 

18. Nephthys. 

20. Nu. 

22. Huaai. 



13. Shu. 
15. Seb. 

17-^P^Isis. 

I9 "<i>^ HorUS - 
21. Remi. 



Civilta Cattolica, v, p. 664. t Proceedings ^ Feb., i{ 

X Mariette, Abydos, torn, ii, pi. 14 — 17. 

343 



b P- 95- 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

On comparing these lists it is impossible to avoid the conclusion 
that t] _p 1 1 ^ JJ auset was meant to be an equivalent of jj q, the 
ideogram of Isis, as truly as <-£-> j^ stands for ^| ^J Horus, 
or as the If) *|\ y ^ at Abydos corresponds to y r ^ | in the 
tombs of Seti II and Rameses IV. 

No importance whatever is to be attached to the beard which 
has thoughtlessly been added to the divine figure. I have referred 
to the undoubted name of Isis, JJ q,, which is written over a bearded 
figure in the papyrus of Suti Kenna. And I have during the last 
three or four years repeatedly met with similar blunders. 

That a goddess was meant, and not a male personage, is evident 
from the text. A prayer is addressed to each divinity, and the 
sex of each divinity can be seen by the pronoun attached to the 
verb. The imperatives addressed to Tmu, Shu, Seb, and Horus 
have the masculine suffix v_^o ; the imperative addressed to Auset 
has the feminine c ^. 

It can no longer then be said that the name of Isis has not 
been found phonetically written. It is so written on the temple 
walls of Abydos. 

Mistakes of course are conceivable ; and with reference to this 
particular name it might be suspected that _^> was wrongly written 
f° r .m- But if the JJ in Isis be the same as in JJ <s>- there 
can be no doubt that p 1/ is a necessary part of the sound. 
And in proof of this I appeal to a document of the same date 
as the monuments we have been considering. 

In the Hymn to Osiris with which the Papyrus of Ani begins 
we have the following play upon names : — 



~^$\ <=><& 



D 



h 



U=4 ^^ "^ -M* —n -^ ™ £*1" 

The name of Osiris is here connected by paronomasia with 

| |l us, just as Sekar is connected with |l $ ^ ^ sek. Brugsch 

has already quoted evidence of this kind from the texts of a later 

period. But there can be no doubt about the name at a time 

when it was written ]-o>-, jjU'^.ttWl, and P^^ ; for | 

344 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

has the value ^f) j^J' from the earliest times, and j\ J\ A, occurs 
with the value of -£) jj^ in the inscriptions of Rameses II at 
Karnak.* 

The usual Phoenician transcription *>*YD"!N * s m exact agreement 
with the hieroglyphic reading, and is more correct than "HDN- 

It is a very grave blunder to take the sign o o r © in the forms 
Jj O, Jj 0, J © &c, as having the value rd. The sign represents not 
the Sun but, as Champollion pointed out from the very first, the eye- 
ball, used (especially in cursive writing) instead of the entire eye 
<2>-. It is constantly used in the hieratic transcription of t)^5=^ \ 
aru 'attributes.' And even in the Turin Todtenbuch (c. 15, 46) we 
have fjo^fl 

The names which begin with the letter | h have nothing to do 
with that of Isis. They are different appellatives, and may even 
represent different personifications of the Dawn or Sunset. ] 1 < ~ => ^ 
Usert, ' the powerful one,' is not a variant but an appellative of Isis. 
And the same thing, I believe, must be said of ^-^ ^ Aaset. The 
meaning is not easy to recognise under this orthography, but 
\ !k A ^ as * s a ver y anc ient word signifying "quick, swift, 
speedy." A man tells his donkey in a picture of the pyramid period 
I] ^ 1 v_^J aas-ek, "quick!" The word still exists in the 
Coptic IHC. 

The name M4%| is not a variant of n^& but should be 

read Sexlt. It is written Q H Ijlj <=> JJ in the inscriptions of Rameses II 
at Karnak, § where it is brought into connection with the verb 

t/i seyit, and also with the words (J II (1 o \^ r . /vwvA * 



sexaita qen, ' the valiant hunter.' The pictures given in Cham- 
pollion's Monuments, pi. 52, from the temple of Dakke are interest- 
ing, but they are of a late period, and seem only to imply personifica- 

* Champollion, Notices, II, 187. 

t Denkm., II, So, c. 

X Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 813 ; Brugsch, Diet. Gcogr., p. 379, and 1329. 

§ Champollion, Notices, II, p. 41 and 42. 

345 



AlPRiL] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1890. 

tion of rural life. I do not know how far the ancient 'huntress ' is 
to be identified with the better known goddess | 2 n S e X*** 

For the edification of those who love such identifications, I will 
just add that the Egyptian Dawn-goddess Auset wonderfully re- 
sembles the Doric ««.'"?, Ionic ijws, and Aeolic al'w<i, and I mention 
it for the purpose of showing what such resemblances are worth. 

Far more important and instructive are the epithets of the evdpovo? 
and xpvaoOpovoi 'Hws. 

* Transactions of Society of Biblical Archneology, Vol. III. This goddess, 
who was formerly called Pasht, is now not less erroneously called Somchit or 
Sechmet by some Egyptologists, who in this way build mares' nests for the confusion 
of great scholars like Lagarde (Uebersicht iiber die im Aramaischen, Arabischen 
und Hebraischeti ubliche Bildung der Nomina, p. 12). In the days of E. de Rouge 
and Chabas it would have been dangerous to venture on so gross an error. Signs 

originally different are confounded in the hieroglyphic J, but when the phonetic 
complement is \s\ it has nothing to do with Sexet, and when the phonetic 
complements are ^ it has nothing to do with se\cm. There is just the 
same kind of mistake here as when the metal I v\ ^™1 is called uasem. 
The sign J is polyphonous, one of its values is uas, another is sent. There is no 
connection between the two, but some scholars persist in mixing them up into one. 
All is not progress in Egyptology, by any means ! 



346 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

NEITH OF SAIS. 
Nomina numina. 

By P. Le Page Renouf. 

In the preface to his interesting Dissertation on the Worship 
of Neith at Sais, M. D. Mallet is inclined to apologize for having 
attached too much importance to the name of the goddess. 

" La theorie, si brilliamment soutenue par M. Max Miiller, sur 
le role preponderant des mots dans la creation des personnages 
mythologiques, parait aujourd'hui fortement ebranlee. Le fameux 
Nomina numina, qui passait jadis pour une sorte d'axiome, est 
abandonne maintenant et singulierement demode. Nous le savons 
et ne pretendons point remonter le courant ni braver l'opinion 
nouvelle." 

M. Mallet continues : " En Egypte cependant, les noms divins, 
qui tous sont significaiifs, demandent a. etre examines de tres pres." 

This at least is most true. In Egyptian, as in all other languages, 
the divine names, like all names proper as well as common, are 
appellatives. Horus, for instance, Heru in Egyptian, is exactly 
equivalent to the Greek 'Yireplwv. It is immediately derived from 
the preposition her, 'above,' 'over.' It may often be difficult or 
even impossible to discover the etymological meaning of a word, but 
that the word had such a meaning is absolutely certain, and it is no 
argument against a philosophical truth, which Hobbes admitted as 
readily as Leibniz, that people differ about etymologies. True 
scholars are the only safe judges as to how far scepticism is allowable 
in this or that individual case. 

It is only among persons thoroughly incompetent to form a judg- 
ment that the doctrine of " Nomina numina " has fallen into dis- 
repute. I am not however going to argue upon it now, but only 
wish to show that the doctrine is one of the highest antiquity, 
even in Egypt. 

In the 17th chapter of the Book of the Dead the Sun-god 
says : — 

347 



.■nk!^kiTiT-~!Tn 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

" I am the great god, self-produced, who creates all his names ; 
the cycle of the gods." 

This is the uninterpolated text of the earliest period. At a later 
time, and in the manuscripts of the eighteenth and later dynasties, 
the foregoing text is explained by the gloss : — 



1$°\^\W^\\P^M]- 



/WAAA 



"It is Ra who creates the names of his limbs, which become 
those of the gods who are with him." 

The doctrine taught by the Book of the Dead is simply this : — 

The Sun has given rise to a diversity of names, and these names 
have become those of divinities mythologically associated with him. 
This is the exact truth, and it cannot be improved upon by modern 
theories drawn from the extremely aprocryphal facts and doubtful 
inferences of anthropological dilettantism. 

It is not probable that M. Mallet will long continue to defend 
his etymology of Neith from /VN ^ VX > a group implying (according to 
him) the idea of existence. "La conception philosophique per- 
sonifiee en la deesse Neit ne serait autre que celle-ci : L'etre, ce 
qui est, ou sous la forme feminine mieux adaptee a la mythologie 
vulgaire : Celle qui est." 

Even the last mentioned interpretation is much too metaphysical 
a one. Mythological names are always drawn from attributes easily 
apprehended by the senses. And M. Mallet has not considered 
that it is only in a secondary way that the pronoun vv ^ vv ) which is a 
compound of two words, mv*, en and ^ 1] ta or o _p tu, comes to 
be connected with the idea of 'being.' We might as reasonably 
look to the Greek ore for a mythological etymology. 

I am not sure that I can myself give a satisfactory etymological 
meaning of the name of Neith, but I will try. 

The Egyptian name of Neith is written p<^ , Q , 

*^ [J, J), Y , Y,mZ^, with other variants. The 

last one quoted has not been referred to by other scholars, as far as 

348 



April] PROCEEDINGS. 1890. 

I am aware ; but it is found as the name of the goddess on a Saitic 
monument at Florence (No. 1522), in a prayer beginning 

1 - A^+QF 

T =^=ai a <=> Idni 

The here mentioned, as on all the Saitic monuments, t 

Me 

denote the great temple of Neith at Sais, and the goddess who 
is here designated as the central object, T, in the temple is no other 
than Neith, 

I have long since X shown that the phonetic value of the wasp 
V-j^ is net or nat when it occurs in the titles of the king and of 

the royal official called \JkL ^ £*§ ( = ySL <=* W = e/ fl Q )• 
This Y is to be read phonetically in t w = tysfa 1 Suten Niit. 

I have also quoted § the proper name of the goddess as 

\SZ @ D (1 /vwwv 
appearing under the two equivalent forms is^ M Q and 

w [J . Another variant is ^ M .'' Ant is the name 

Q Q I Q QQ 1 /vw>AA Willi 

of a place where Neit and her son Sebak were worshipped together 
with other divinities. 

The reading se^et as applied to the sign %fa is absolutely 
without authority. The alliterative text^T which was supposed to 
include the sign in the s series does not really do so. The last 

name of Hathor in the column is y ^ -<2^ afe J and it is only 
the sign y which is affected by the alliteration. 

* Catalogo Generate dei Mitsei di Antichith {Serie sesta), vol. i, p. 223. 
Signor Schiaparelli translates the expression by "P Ape che risiede nei templi" — 
" espressione che dovera riferirsi a qualche trasformazione d' Osiride, ancora non 
ben nota." 

t The term itself, in this sense, is as ancient as the Pyramid texts ; see Unas, 
line 609. 

% Zeitschrift, 1877, p. 99. Cf. Brugsch, Die Aegyptologie, p. 211. 

§ Proceedings, 1886, p. 253. 

|| Antiquith, V, pi. 40. Cf. Sharpe, E.I., II, II, 3. 

TT Mariette, Denderah I, 25, line 5. 

349 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

In the older days of our science no other value but x e & was 
known for the sign \^. Is this the value of the sign in the 
name of the Saitic |\J^ I ? I know no proof of it, and 
Dr. Wiedemann calls the place Hat se x et. But unless there be 
evidence forthcoming it seems most probable that Mj^ | is like 
I ft I or %/ I Hat Nait, ' the House of Neith,' the sacred name of 

Sais. 

The great goddess is the Mistress of Heaven and the Mighty 
Mother of Ra. She is also the Mother of Osiris, and the Mother 
of Sebak.* 

Ra, Osiris, and Sebak are names of the Sun. Neith like other 
goddesses is generally identified with the Sky. But this identifica- 
tion is not sufficiently precise. The Sungod is not the Son of the 
Noonday or of the Midnight Sky. It is that part of the sky only 
where he is born that is his mother. The goddess who is his 
mother or sister is part of the solar phenomenon ; and this is 
indicated in various ways. The goddess is ;^ 2> j ° ^j ' Eye of the 

Sun,' or she is ^^t^l^J jj j) f ^ " the 0pener of his 
paths, in [or from] all her stations,"! as is said of Neith. The 
i^Jc uat, path or highway of the Sun, is clear enough: it runs 
from East to West. But what are the mansions of his mother, 
Nit, Hathor, or by whatever name she may be called ? 

To this question I reply in the words of a great and popular 
writer upon astronomy : — t 

" Each star rises and sets at the same points of the horizon 
throughout the entire year. The points of rising and setting of 

* This filiation was known from the late texts at Esneh (Champollion, Mon., 
pi. 145, quinq. 4), but it has now been found in the Pyramid texts: " Unas" (line 
629) "takes his place in the horizon, he rises r like Sebak son of Neith." 

It is impossible to quote more ancient authority. From what unknown source 
then is the information derived that Sebak was originally a mere deified crocodile, 
and only at a late period identified with the Sun ? 

t jj o is here to be read = -I - rl| ahait, 'station,' See Todt., 142, 13, 

14, 15- 

% Arago, Astronomy, VII, 3, English Translation, Vol. I, p. 164. 

35° 



April] PROCEEDINGS. [189c. 

the Sun, on the contrary, are continually varying. From the 2 1 st 
of December till the 21st of June, the Sun rises daily in situations 
which are more and more northerly. From the 21st of June till the 
21st of December following, we observe a movement of the opposite 
kind. The diurnal courses of the stars seem to be attached to a 
determinate horizon by fixed points ; we see, on the contrary, that 
the points of the same horizon corresponding to the apparent 
diurnal course of the Sun are continually changing." 

It is apparently in accordance with these facts, which are evident 
to simple observation without the aid of science, that in the 
mythological texts the Sungod is said to be born in Tattu, An, 
Sechem or other localities ; which in this connection are not to be 
considered as geographical realities, but are points on the horizon 
varying according to the season of the year. 

And this is also what, I believe, is meant by the J []jj, the 
stations of the Mother of the Sun, which change according to the 
season, and from each of which in turn she "opens the paths," i«? 

TfHpOVS 7]\tOU. 

If the true nature of Neith is once understood, as a personification, 
not simply of the Sky, but of the Sky giving birth to the Sun, it will 
not be difficult to arrive at a satisfactory etymology. 

The name of Neith has for determinatives the Shuttle \ and 
Arrows ^V* • The goddess is frequently represented on the 
monuments as in the act of shooting or holding a bow and arrows. 

And she is described in a canonical text, published by Brugsch,f 
as "fitting her arrow to her bow, and overthrowing the adversaries " 
of Osiris " daily." Between shuttle and shoot the connection is 
manifest in all our northern languages. The shuttle is shot. 

The Wasp V^, which has Nat for one of its names, has 
evidently the same original meaning. Its sting is the arrow which 
it darts. It is 'the Shooter.' 

Neith, JVdit, signifies "she who shooteth," >) to^o'tijs. 

The ancient Egyptian conception is preserved in the Coptic veil) 
Itex, It OX, corresponding to the Greek fidWetv, plmeiv. Itex CLJA.P, 

* See picture in Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 443, and plates 175, 2, and 177, 3. 
t Diet. Gcogr., p. 1064, line 63, 64. 

351 



April] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

is to "shoot out flames"; the Greek to^o't^? in Sam. 1, xxxi, 3, 
is rendered in Coptic by ItCX COOTTC, " shooter of arrows." * 

The arrows of the Dawn-goddess Neith are the rays of the 
Sun. The metaphor is a common one in Greek literature. The 
y\i'ov fio\ai are repeatedly mentioned by the Tragic writers and 
others. 'H t/}//3o? Trpb? yXi'ov /3oXa? and Kara yXi'ov fioXai are ex- 
pressions equivalent to 77/309 uktIvu, and in the Ajaxt of Sophocles 

we read of ti)u «0' yXi'ov /BoXu>i> Ke\ev0ov. 

The same metaphor is applicable to Neith considered as the 
Eye of the Sun. The o<p9aX/.iwi> y3o\>) occurs throughout Greek 
literature, down from the time of the Homeric poems. It is in 
direct connection with the widespread superstition of the Evil Eye, 
and the terrors of the "Jettatura." 



* The etymological sense of ]gQi nait, when signifying king or high 
official is more obscure ; but it may be pointed out that the Coptic ha? preserved 
the words ItOX, rtOO, 'shooting ahead,' in the senses 'magnus,' 'magnas,' 
' senior,' 'major,' ' dux,' 'princeps.' The t in nait is radical, and is palatalized in 
X and tfT 

I will add one more observation. The important name J] 
in the Royal Tombs is to be explained in this way. jgQ }gQ according to the 
analogy of many similar forms is equivalent to ]qq \^ nait-ta, \ ft he who is dis- 
tinguished by the red crown ^ . " See Lefebure's Tombeau de Sett I, part iv, 
plate 34. 

t Line 877, on which see the note of Lobeck. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 9, 
Conduit Street, Hanover Square, W., on Tuesday, 6th 
May, 1890, at 8 p.m., when the following Papers will be read : 

P. le P. Renouf (President), "The Priestly Character of the 
Earliest Egyptian Civilization." 

Rev. C. J. Ball, "The Terms for 'God' and 'Sacrifice' in 
Accadian and Chinese." 

352 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 

TLhc Bvoii3e ©rtiamente of tbe 
palace (5ates from JBalawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, b.c. 859-825.] 



Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus, the price for 
each part is now raised to £1 10s. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) £1 is. 



Society of Biblical Archaeology. 



COUNCIL, 1890. 



President. 
P. le Page Renouf. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Lord Halsbuky, The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Ven. J. A. Hessey, D.C.L., D.D., Archdeacon of Middlesex. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

The Right Hon. Sir A. H. La yard, G.C.B., &c. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles T. Newton, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c, &c. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c, &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 



Council. 



W. A. Tyssen Amherst, M.P., 
Rev. Charles James Ball. 
Rev. Canon Beechey, M.A, 
Prof. R. L. Bensly. 
E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. 
Arthur Cates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 



&c. 



Rev. Albert Lowy. 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.D. 

Rev. James Marshall. 

Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 

J. Pollard, 

F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A. 

E. Towry Whyte, M.A, 

Rev. W. Wright, D.D. 



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Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honoiary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



HARRISJN AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN'S LANE. 



VOL. XII. Part 7. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION, 

Sixth Meeting, May 6t/i, 1890. 



-<&&- 



CONTENTS. 

P. Le Page Renouf (President). — The Priestly Character of the 

earliest Egyptian Civilization 355 _ 302 

P. Le Page Renouf (President). — Seb or Qeb ; Sechet and 

Sechemet 363-367 

Karl Pieiil. — Notes de Philologie Egyptienne (continued from 

Vol. XII, page 125) 368-380 






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X 




PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTIETH SESSION, 1889-90. 



Sixth Meeting, 6th May, 1890. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq, President, 



IN THE CHAIR. 



-<8oe>-0o&- 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, Dr. A. Wiedemann : — Herodots Zweites Buch, 

mit fachlichen erlauterungen. Leipzig. 8vo. 1890. 
From the Author, E. de Bunsen : — Die Ueberlieferung Ihre Ent- 

stehung und Entwickelung. (2 vols.) Leipzig. 1889. 
From F. L. Griffith : — Two Hieroglyphic Papyri from Tanis. 4to. 
London. 1889. 

Extra Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund. 
From the Author, C. F. Lehmann: — Das Verhaltniss des agypti- 
schen metrischen Systems zum babylonisch. 

Aus den Verhandl. der Berliner Anthrop. Gesell. 19th 
October, 1889. 
From the Author, C. F. Lehmann : — Ueber das babylonische 
metrische System und dessen Verbreitung. 

Verhandl. der. Physik. Gesell. zu Berlin. November, 1889. 
Jahr. 8. November 15 th. 
[ No. xcil] 353 2 c 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890 

From the Author, Rev. C. A. de Cara : — Degli Hittim o Hethei e 
delle loro migrazioni. 

Civilta Cattolica, Quad. 954. 15th Marzo, 1890, and Quad. 
956. 19th Aprile, 1890. 
From the Author, Dr. A. Wiedemann : — Three notices of Books, 
from the Neue Philologische Rundschau (No. 1) and Bonner 
Jahrbiichern (88). 

The following Candidate was elected a Member of the 
Society, having been nominated at the last Meeting on 
4th March, 1890:— 

Edward Oxenford Preston, West Lodge, Cookham, Berks. 

The following Candidates were nominated for election at 
the next Meeting on 3rd June, 1890 : — 

M. S. Schekine, Menschikova Bachnia, Great Ouspensky Street 3, 

Moscow. 
Rev. Tupper Carey, R.D., F.G.S., Ebbesborne Wake, Salisbury. 
Bartlett D. Wrangham, 7, Claremont Place, Sheffield. 
Dr. Bruto Teloni, Via della Fortezza 4, Florence. 
Rev. Henry Walter Reynolds, St. Thomas Vicarage, Elm Road, 

Camden New Town, N.W. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 

Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

A Paper was read by P. le Page Renouf (President), " The 
Priestly Character of the Earliest Egyptian Civilization." 

Remarks were added by Rev. A. Lowy, Rev. C. J. Ball, 
and Rev. James Marshall. 

The President being obliged to leave, the Chair was taken 
by the Rev. J. Marshall. 



A Paper was read by the Rev. C. J. Ball, "The Terms for 
1 God ' and 'Sacrifice' in Accadian and Chinese," which will 
appear in the next number of the Proceedings. 

Remarks were added by Rev. James Marshall, Rev. A. 
Lowy, and Mr. J. Tyler. 

Thanks were returned for these Communications. 

354 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



THE PRIESTLY CHARACTER OF THE EARLIEST 
EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. 

By P. le P. Renouf {President}. 

Pure a priori assumptions as to what the condition of Egyptian 
society must have been whilst progressing from the savage state 
to a more civilized stage of existence are absolutely worthless. 
We know nothing whatever of the Egyptians until their earliei-t 
monuments exhibit a state of material civilization which was never 
surpassed. This early period was unquestionably preceded by a stiil 
earlier one, during which these arts and sciences must have been 
cultivated, without which it would have been impossible to raise 
the pyramids, to execute in diorite such a statue as that of Chafra, or 
to decorate the tomb of Ti. But of this earlier period nothing 
whatever is known beyond the mere names of certain kings. The 
Greek records respecting these monarchs, even if derived from 
Egyptian sources, are beneath contempt. The only authorities which 
deserve attention are the monuments belonging to the period which 
is being studied. 

The titles of the king of Egypt are still generally misunderstood, 
in spite of the explanations of M. Grebaut, which have indeed 
been contradicted, but have not been refuted. It has never been 
doubted that the king claimed actual divinity; he was the "great 
god," the "golden Horus," and son of Ra. He claimed authority 
not only over Egypt, but over "all lands and nations," "the whole 
world in its length and its breadth, the east and the west," "the 
entire compass of the great circuit of the sun," "the sky and 
what is in it, the earth and all that is upon it," "every creature 
that walks upon two or upon four legs, all that fly or flutter, the 
whole world offers her productions to him." Whatever in fact 
might be asserted of the Sun-god, was dogmatically predicable of 
the king of Egypt. His titles were directly derived from those 
of the Sun-god. 

There is not the slightest evidence that 1^ signified Kin- oi 
Upper and Lotver -Egypt. The King was like the Sun, master 

355 2 c 2 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1890. 

of the South and of the North. Whatever the Sun passed over 
or through was divided into two and grammatically took the dual 
form, as ~v\ n> X uia -> tne horizon where the Sun rises or sets, 

T^ , abta, the East, ft ^ , amenta, the West. The ' Two Earths ' 

===, do not signify Upper and Lower Egypt, but the Earth as 
traversed and divided by the Sun. The expression is a common one 
in divine titles. Osiris, both in his own name and in that of Ap-uat, 
i s OX \a ^ ' Qp * at * au > 'divider of the Earth.' Apuat of the North 
j X er P P et > 'director of Heaven,' and Apuat of the South is 



„f 



Y ^ffff^ x er P * au > 'director of the Earth,'* These two designations 
form the best commentary on the Greek expression of the inscription 

of Rosetta, Ka6c'nre(> o ?yX/o?, /le'^/as (3aai\evs t£v re uvus ical iCbv Kwrui 

XiDpwv, "like the Sun, the great king of the regions above and 
the regions below." $ ^Vi^ , sam-iau, "he who binds together the 
two Earths," is a well known title of Horus, and the act of this 
binding is represented on many royal statues from the earliest 
times. f It has nothing to do with the union of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, nor has the title <=; , neb mu, ' Lord of the two Earths.' 

The Egyptian king's claim to universal sovereignty, as son and 
living image of the Sun, finds a striking parallel in the title of the 
Babylonian and Assyrian monarchs, sarru kibrat arbai, 'King of 
the Four Quarters of the World.' 

It was in consequence of the royal claim to sovereignty over 
North and South that various government departments are habitually 
spoken of in the dual. The king is called ^^, and his officers are 

called k/"^~" k8° ^ nD ■ n « n 



and so on. There was but one department in each case, not one 
for Upper and another for Lower Egypt. 

The divinity of the King is however no proof of the priestly 
character of Egyptian society. The proof will be found in the 
accurate study of all the ancient monuments. Lepsius had already 
observed % that, from the numerous inscriptions in the tombs near 
the pyramids, he could almost draw up a Court and Official Calendar 

* TodL, 142, 5, 24, 25. f Denkm., II, 116. 

X Briefc aus Acgypten, p. 24. 

35* 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

for the reigns of Cheops and Chephren, and M. Maspero with equal 
justice repeats the assertion.* Now the most cursory inspection 
of the inscriptions collected by Lepsius, Mariette, de Rouge and 
Maspero, will show that almost every person who has left an inscrip- 
tion bearing his name, had among his titles at least one of an 
unmistakeably sacerdotal character, such as < ^~ > |J ^£7 x er 'l u ^^ 
or I j[ of Ra, Sut, Osiris, Horus, Ptah, Sekru, Chnum, Sesheta, Heqait, 
Maat, and other deities, besides those whose priestly offices were 
due to the ka of this or that sovereign. The ladies were priestesses 
of Hathor or Neith. M. de Rouge, speaking of the wife of Ti, says : 
" Comme toutes les princesses, Nefer-hotefi-s etait pretresse."t 

Of the few great personages of whom we cannot prove the 
priestly character, it is equally impossible to prove that they did not 
possess it. 

Besides the titles which are at once recognized as sacerdotal, 
there are others which are not less certainly of sacerdotal origin. 

It will be generally admitted that the ^^ y V, the I |\ V&, 

the °°/u, the -^s^ <~p> W ere essentially priests, whatever civil 

— -"*^ /WWW *» - J * 

functions they may also have discharged. 

Dr. Erman has directed attention to the fact that the important 
office of ^ ^ is combined with priestly offices of every kind, but 
particularly with the priesthoods of Maat and of Heqait. £ 

M. de Rouge, in enumerating the titles of a prince of the family 

of Chafra, says : " II porte le titre de 1 1 1 C7D _/3^ . . . le grand des 

cinq de la demeure de Thoth." And he goes on to say : " Le sens 
de ces mots m'a ete revele par la liste des principaux sacerdoces tie 
l'Egypte que j'ai trouve a Edfou ; e'etait le titre officiel du premier 
pretre de Thoth a. Sesun ou Hermopolis. Le prince Ra-en-Kau, 
cite plus haut, possedait la meme dignite."§ This is quite true, and 
it is certain that these important lists of priesthoods both at Edfu 
and Dendera, though actually written at a late date, are traditional 

* "Des renseignements recucillis clans leurs tombeaux on pourrait reconstituer 
/ Almanack Royal de la cour <le Khoufou jusque dans ses plus petits details." 
Histoire ancienne des Pcnples Jc I' 'Orient, p. 59. 

t Monuments qiion pent attribuer aux Six Premieres Dynasties, p. 97. 

% Aegypten, p. 125. 

§ Monuments des Six Premieres J dynasties, p. 62. 

357 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

witnesses of the existence of very ancient sacerdotal offices. Among 
these offices we find the ^ $& ^ Sitten at Heracleopolis and the 
IsQ "\\ ^ i^ Nata at Coptos.* The latter is particularly interesting 
because the standard of it is Mv Horus, wearing the Crown of the 

North V. It will be remembered that in republican Athens one of 
the Archons was called fiaatXevv, and that he had charge of the 
public worship. Republican Rome, when banishing kings, retained, 
if it did not actually institute, the Rex Sacrificulus. 

The Suteniu are known from other texts, and Brugsch f with 
great reason derives the name from I \\ , seten, to slaughter : 

=t JlL' su ? en , is ' one who slaughters an animal for sacrifice.' It 
was a priest of this kind who was ordered to kill the Bull in the Tale 

of the Two Brothers. This] ° D %L=/ll Q Jl\ S °, 

T AAA^AA _J± T MAMA ill _Ht^ H O n 

' Sutennu of the King in the Palace ' occupies a very high position in 
the list of priests mentioned in the Wood Papyrus ; and it is surely 
a gross mistake to translate the word by the term ' Butcher.' The 
acts of slaughter which he performed were not those of a tradesman, 
but of a minister of the gods. The same mistake is made in giving 

the sense of ' butcher ' to Q ^c\ ^~7jl , menhu, a term applied 



to kings and gods. The god is thus invoked as Suten, but certainly 
not as butcher, on a statue in the Louvre. 



\\ 



' O thou Cleaver, who dividest the heaven with the two feathers.'' % 

It is indeed quite clear that the title of a priest was in many 
cases one of the epithets or designations of the god he worshipped, 
and whose acts he symbolically performed. § 

But there is very much older evidence than the priestly lists 
of Dendera and Edfu. The funereal rites go back to the earliest 
times, and among the priests who officiate at the ceremony of 

* Brugsch, Diet. Giogr,, pp. 1374, 1377. 

t Diet., SuppL, p. 1 1 58. 

X Pierret, Inscriptions inidites, I, 3. 

§ Compare this view with Brugsch, Religion unci Mythologie, p. 65 and 

following. 

353 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

, at>-re, we find (besides the /J \ MA yerheb, the I v\ M+* , sem, 



V 

1 

the 5^ 2ll 2f' se - mer - e fi an d some other well-known priests) the 
D Mft, ^#, and the I T Mft , jv^r. 

The latter title, which meets us on countless inscriptions, has 
had a remarkable destiny at the hands of Egyptologists. M. de 
Rouge, seeing that many great personages at the Egyptian couit 
bore the title, mildly hasarded a suggestion about it. " Peui-etie 
doit-on le comparer au titre ptolemaique tov (fitXwv." M. de Rouge 
himself however did not attach much importance to this conjecture, 
and he would certainly not have ventured upon it had he known 
that the Ptolemaic <pl\oi or k-raipoi were not originally Egyptian 
but Macedonian.* They were introduced into Egypt and Syria 
by the Macedonian kings of those countries; and the Roman emperors 
imitated the eastern courts in their ' amici Augusti ' and in their 
'comites,' our Counts. There is not a particle of evidence that 
It ever meant 'friend.' It is impossible to quote a single Egyp- 
tian text in which the word is so used, and to quote the Coptic 
fXjc£>Hp as lts representative is to insult etymology. 

From first to last smer is the name of an officer, and it is in virtue 
of his office as smer that he officiates in the religious ceremonies of 
the Ritual. 

The title is not necessarily one confined to the male sex. Queen 
Meri-Seanch, for instance, at this court of Chafra, besides being 

priestess of Thoth and of other gods, was v\ IT , the Smerit 

of Horus. There is also the proper name I T | J, Smerit-ka, of 

a great lady who was priestess of Hathor. 



The □ erpa has a title which, in later times, was written 

_ a 

a ~ , and, in this form, naturally suggests the composition of the 

word, from <rr> and Q. But the scribes of the eighteenth and 

' o O 

* It has been thought probable that Alexander borrowed this institution, as 
well as others, from the Persian Court. This is not the case. The institution is 
older in Macedon than Alexander's father, Philip. The readers of Demosthenes 
are familiar with the irt'Ckratpoi, the foot-guards. The horse-guards were called 
tra7()0i or (piXoi. 

359 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

nineteenth dynasties are very blind guides as to the etymology of 
one of the most ancient words of the language. 

M. Maspero has lately discussed the word which he calls Ropait 
or Repai't, and he argues throughout as if this orthography was the 

ancient one. " Q ~ ropait apres avoir designe les princes inde* 

pendants qui se partageaient la vallee du Nil avant Mini," &c. The 
name was not so written till considerably more than a thousand years 
later. But supposing it had been so written, what would it signify ? 

" 0, a^r pait, pa'itou, un tres vieux mot qui sert a. 

<=> O a Q 1 1 1 

designer les homines de meme origine, le clan, la tribu : le Q _r . 

v) 

Ropait est done a proprement parler un chef de clan, un gardien 

d'hommes, a. l'epoque historique, le prince hereditaire d'un nome." 
Now whence is all this information derived ? Who has ever seen 
a text in which the Egyptian Pait signifies a clan or tribe? The 
Petit are undoubtedly human beings, but their place is not upon 
earth but in the Tuat or Auqerta. They are men of the past, just as 

tne /t\ / ^^ jj I; hamemit, are the men of the future, unborn 

generations circling round the sun. If any one knows of an Egyp- 
tian text which proves the Pait to be men still living upon the earth, 
let him produce it. 

The Erpd, whatever the etymology of the word may be, was 
certainly a priest. The great nomarchs of the twelfth and later 
dynasties had this title, and moreover, as M. Maspero rightly ob- 
serves, " Les princes de Minieh etaient pretres de Hor et de Pakhit 

et les princes de Oun etaient chefs du sacerdoce de Thot."* 

But the priestly office of the Erpd is more ancient than the feudal 
dignity. 

The word is a designation of the god Seb from the earliest 
times. If I could see my way clear to accept the derivation er +pd, 
first proposed by Dr. K. Piehl, the sense would be clear enough. 
Seb (the personification of the Earth) has in his keeping all those 
who are buried, all the past generations. The mythological enemies 

of Osiris are in this way said (Todt., 19, 14) to be ^ 
£ X n *%> J <ni "*- er sau ^ e ^ <uno ^ er tne custody of Seb.' 

* Ret ■ licit, I, p. 179. 
360 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

In any case it is certain that Erpa is like Suten and other titles 
the epithet of a god which has been assigned to an Egyptian priest- 
hood.* 

The two next priesthoods which I shall mention may serve as 
illustrations of this kind of transfer. 

The other priestly title of the princes of Minieh to which 
M. Maspero refers is ^\~\, the true reading of which I have shown 

to be ut'cb.\ In the later times it is often called <X seut'eb. 

Another title which goes back to the most remote periods is 

that of ^^^j at mer. The references given by Dr. von Bergmann, % 

1 — 1 
leave no doubt as to the correct reading of the title, which is 

also written c=^> on a monument of the time of Taharqa. And 
another variant on the same monument j£s Z_ f i- s evidently 

the equivalent of the \ "^^ Vy& 1 of Edfu (mentioned on an inscrip- 

,EE3: ^ ' o\ 

tion of Dendera) who at Edfu itself are simply called ^^ )Kh 1 and 

enumerated among the priesthoods of the temple. There were 

also priests of the same kind at Dendera. 

> — c at mer is an epithet of Anubis in the Pyramid Texts. || 

I will mention but one more title, which has been generally 

understood in the wide sense of favourite. \ hesu appears in all 
the ancient texts to designate a distinct office. The JU' Jr V\t> 1 and 



* The relation between the title and the god is sometimes alluded to. See 
Denkm. II, 17, and III, 25, q ^ /vw^a \£\ II. 

t Proceedings, May 6, 1884, on the Egyptian god f\~\ $}. Without having 
seen what I have written Brugsch appears to have arrived at the same conclusion 
as mine with reference to the reading of this name. lie says, "iiber diesen 
noch unbekannten Namen (Ut'eb) des Gottes werde ich die Beweise in den 
AZ liefern." Religion d. a. Acgypter, note 1043. 

X Recueil, VII, p. 176. 

§ Mariette, Denderah, I, p. 15. 

|| Pepi I, 80, Merenra, 709. * \\ dt signifies 'cutting, cleaving,' and 

is an appellative of the ship " .-^ /j >£&£* our Cutter, and of the fish ■■ . _J ] "^^S 
dtu, the Cleaver, as well as of the god who cleaves his path through the heavens. 

36l 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLJCAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 



I 

1 on 



8 f| "" _fl ^j ! who came after the \ V& 1 and the /j J 

the ancient tablets were persons bound by religious duties of an 

official nature. Queen Meriseanch was "^^ hesit tirit. This does 

not mean that she was a 'great favourite,' but that she was 'arch- 
priestess ' of some religious body. 

This rapid enumeration of some of the most frequent and 
important Egyptian titles is, without entering into minor details, 
sufficient to direct attention to the striking fact that, for many 
centuries of the Egyptian monarchy (which in theory always re- 
mained a theocracy), almost every noble and wealthy personage 
employed in the administration of the different departments of 
the State, belonged to one or more of the many priesthoods of 
the country. 




362 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

SEB OR QEB; SECHET AND SECHEMET. 
By P. le Page Renouf. 

The sketch* in outline, which Dr. Brugsch is now publishing, of 
the results of Egyptological research, is everywhere being read with 
the interest which is necessarily attached to all the utterances of one 
who more than any other living scholar has furnished material to 
every branch of Egyptology. 

The readers of these Proceedings^ will remember that two years 
ago Dr. Brugsch honoured me with a letter on the subject of the 
Egyptian god " dont la lecture Seb ou Keb demande de nouvelles 
preuves." And he quoted "an instance which militates in favour of 
Keb." 

I did not think it necessary to reply, and my respectful silence 
was occasioned by the fact that Brugsch's "striking instance," how- 
ever explained, in no way contradicted anything that I had said in 
my paper on the god Seb. I had expressly stated that the god's 
name in the latest period was often written Aj, but I showed that 
the A was derived from a cursive form of *?£_, and ;=-) , which also 
occurs in the god's name, is equally derived from another cursive 
form of the Bird. There is consequently nothing surprising in such 
a passage at Edfu as 

It is Brugsch himself who has placed the "(sic)" under the 
sign □, which is probably an error. I will just alter it into \7, which 
is a well known determinative of | JO jk w^j) — I JO jk50 se ? ? <' n7 > 
a word which like the Coptic Ctoiil has the meanings "laugh at, 
mock, treat contemptuously." In the classic days of Egyptian 
orthography this word was never written with an initial \^*, but at 
the time of the Edfu texts ^5* is the commonest of variants for the 
letter | s. Taking the sign o<>£> as the determinative of spitting, 

* Die Aegypiologie, ein Grundriss dcr Aegyptischen Wissenschafi, von Prof. 

Dr. Heinrich Brugsch. Leipzig, 18S9. 
t June 5, 1888. 

363 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

the passage may be read alliteratively : sebda-k em ta ye r Seb, " thou 
art contemptuously spitten upon the earth, in presence of Seb." 

In his new work (p. 172) Dr. Brugsch refers with satisfaction to 
his letter in these Proceedings, and then gives another instance from 
the Pyramid of Merenra I, col. 126. 

akabkab ab en mut-ek her-ek em re?i-ck en Seb, which I translate : 
"the heart of thy mother wails over thee in thy name of Seb;" and 
I do not see what possible objection can be raised either to my 
transcription or to my version. Brugsch takes no notice of "0» "the 
heart." l^&jflj) akabkab is the regular reduplicated form of 
j^flij^j) akab, which every one can see in Brugsch's Lexicon 
signifies 'wail, cry.' My learned opponent conjectures "bent" as 
the meaning of akabkab, and refers to his work on Egyptian Religion 
and Mythology for an explanation, upon which I have already 
spoken at length.* The verbal alliteration which he sees in the 
above passage presupposes as proved something which is yet in 
question. And it must be remembered that rhyme as well as 
alliteration had a large part in the Egyptian play upon words. 

But what surprises me most in this discussion is the apparent 
inability of my learned friend to see that a cartload of "striking 
instances," every one of which is in perfect harmony with what 
I myself have written, will not advance his case until he has disposed 
of the difficulties which beset it. Is it not certain that the god's 
name is written fj, and that the star ^ has the value Seb ? Is it 
not certain that the god's name is also written j 1 j S\, and that the 
number five has the phonetic value Seb ?f Do not the signs 5^- and 

* Proceedings, Feb., 1887, p. 94. Since I wrote that paper my attention was 
attracted by what M. Maspero calls a new determinative of fD "awakening," 

Recueil, III, p. 198. That determinative fully explains the picture of Seb at 
sunrise. 

t Proceedings, 1887, p. 87. To the proofs there given let me add another 
which is interesting for its own sake. One of the gods in the Book of the Tuat is 
called x \\c±\> seb-tu (Lefebure, Tombeau de Scti I, pt. IV, pi. 33). The word 
means "armed with the knife called f] J slid," cf. Brugsch, Lexicon, p. 1188. 
I suspect that sba is the name of the 22nd Nome of Upper Egypt ^^ , which 
Brugsch first called Seft, and later on Matennu. 

364 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Q}, with which the god's name very frequently begins, express in 
every other case a syllable beginning with s? If it be granted that 
each of these signs is polyphonous, where can a case be found of 
four polyphonous signs being homophonous in more than one value ? 
Are Egyptologists to shut their eyes to these and other difficulties 
which no one has attempted to solve? If it can be shown that the 
god's name is written keb, let it be so called whenever it is so written, 
but it is most unscholar-like to read it so when it is written 5^* J 
or ^Jj, which is most certainly Seb. Qeb Aj I have proved to be 
an erroneous transcript of the hieratic ^* J. 

2. When I protested in a recent note against the practice of 
calling the goddess (> Sechet by the name Somchit or Sechmet, 

I carefully avoided denying the existence of a goddess who might 
rightfully bear the latter name. And I was fully aware that there 
was evidence which might tempt the unwary to identify Sechet with 
Sechmet. But the temptation is precisely one of those which a well 
grounded scholar is bound to resist. 

Among the deities whose pictures are given in the different 
copies of the Book of the Am-Tuat there is one whose name occurs 

there as () , and in a much more ancient text, both () and 
{e.g., on the Sarcophagus of Necht-her-heb) as Ift V\ ^,* but else- 
. Now surely, it may be said, here is evidence of the very 



best kind. The evidence is certainly undeniable, but what do the 
witnesses really say ? They must be rightly understood before any 
conclusion is drawn. 

Nearly a quarter of a century ago M. Chabas, on the authority of 
these very texts, asserted that the ^^ in the plural pronouns was 
non-phonetic. " La question est tranchee par la variante decisive 
....?PTT7 = ?P[). DoncYff = P J ) = ce."t 

In reply to this I pointed out that the texts read, not ] "^^ but 
I /wwvs ^^ ( two ^ an( j t ^ at nQ one ^you]^ ma j n tain that the Coptic rt 

in CIt<LT corresponded to a non-phonetic «^. f M. Chabas was 



* Antiquites, V, pi. 41, 5. Sharp e, Inscr., II, 12, line 6. 
t Voyage a" tin Egyptien, p. 349. 
X Zeitschrift, 1867, p. 53. 

365 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

convinced, and so was Mr. Goodwin, who had been inclined to 
agree with him.* The truth is that , [| "^T" an0 ^ 1 ' 1 are not 
phonetic variants, but different readings which have come down 
from independent texts. 

And this is the case with all the double readings assigned to the 
names of these gods on the sarcophagi and sometimes in the papyri. 
They agree in most cases as is quite natural, but there are occasional 
discrepancies, and it requires the exercise of a critical judgment to 
decide when this is the case. 

The palaeographical argument is of considerable importance. In 
the two most ancient cursive documents f which admit of the com- 
parison, the initial sign of () is different from the initial sign of 

(? / . The hieroglyphic sign V m these groups stands for two 

different things, and consequently with two different values. 

When it is followed by |^ the value is sex^ni, not sex + em > 
the ^ may be omitted without altering the sound of the group. 

P ® l^js sex em was tne name of a sceptre having the form of j, 
as may be seen in the plates 28 and 38 of Lepsius' Aelteste 
Texte. At a later time sex^n came to signify a ' sistrum.' 

When the sign is followed by the complementary letters ® 
the value is se\\et, a word which is susceptible of various meanings. 
The name of the goddess sometimes has for its initial sign a sistrum 
WJ It is evident therefore that the sceptre and the sistrum have 
been confounded under one hieroglyphic sign,§ and the ambiguity 
caused by this confusion easily explains differences of reading. 

Y ^ niay be read either as sex^t or -as sex^met, and a copyist 
would supply a Q or a |\ according as he understood the text. 

I will give one or two instances in proof of the necessity of 
subjecting to criticism these most valuable lists of gods, before 
using them in evidence. 

* Zeitschrift, 1868, p. 107. 

t The Book of the Dead of Queen Mentuhotep, c. 26, 4 and elsewhere, and 
the Berlin Papyrus I, Tale of Sinehit ; cf. line 45 with lines 189 and 21 1. 

% E.g., the great Harris Papyrus, pi. 43. 

§ The difference was still recognized by the latest scribes. See the Calendar 
of Edfu in Brugsch, Drei Fest-Kalendcr, pi. II, line 14, fin, where the name 
of the goddess is written with a different sign from that of the word which 
precedes it. 

^66 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

One of the cynocephalous gods in the tomb of Seti I is called 
^, dbdb-ta or (I (I 1 dab* This second form is the error of 

a careless copyist, who has omitted the first J and the final . 

In writing the name of this god in the tomb of Rameses IV, f 
the artist has twice misread "^™ for =. The true reading is 
unquestionably neither dab nor dbdb-en, but (| J (j J = 3 dbdb-ta. 
Another deity, on the same row as a'bdbfa, is called A \s\ ^ \ 

/ jF^» ka-ta et?i x au - s or \ <=> ' Y H • The latter reading is 

constant on the monuments, but it is most certainly wrong. The 
sign Y is a mistake for )$,, the value of which is equivalent to j^. 

A closer examination of these texts will reveal a host of other 
mistakes. 

Let me finally^ refer to a diorite statue of the goddess, of the 
time of Amenophis III, at Turin, upon which her name, according 

to Lanzone, is phonetically written I as well as () .§ 



* Lefebure, pt. IV, pi. 26. t Dathm., Ill, pi. 225. 

X I have taken no notice of the apparent or real play upon words in the 
Destruction of Mankind (lines 14 and 15) between se\em and Sexit, which cannot 
possibly justify the inference that the name of the goddess must be read Sochmit. 

§ Dizionario, pi. 363, 1. 




367 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S90. 

NOTES DE PHILOLOGIE EGYPTIENNE. 

Par Karl Piehl. 

{Suite*) 

— fl—. 
rs. Le mot <rr> ; 14. Des mots a /www intercale, ayant des 

#7 ; 

doublets, derivant directement d'un radical; 15. Le groupe hiero- 
glyphique Q \\ ) Xnfa ; 16. Le radical c ^ et ses derives; 
17. Passage des textes de Chnumhotep de Beni-Hassan. 



13. <crr>. Sous cette forme, les textes ptolemai'ques nous offrent 

quelquefois un mot egyptien, dont le sens parait etre " collier, 
ornement de cou." 

A Edfou,f un roi presente un collier a. " Horus d'Edfou, dieu 
grand, seigneur du ciel, beau de face, dont les yeux sont en fete, 
seigneur des colliers, pourvu d'ornements, dont la splendeur egaie 
les deesses." Au-dessus du roi se lit la legende suivante : 

i\^7 ^^ r "\ ■? o ^^37 r~ ^j n a n 

qfcW&i <^ , ( prenom \g\_ nom royal I II U I 

1-^2 ^^ V. J\ J^r sin v. A I 2 J. 



^A/W\A 



>£2*c — *— ~ c a 



" Le pharaon pare la poitrine de son pere et orne son buste 
du collier appele dn-rec/i (?)." 

Au-dessous des bras tendus du meme pharaon a et6 trace : 

iTAisez^Uo ° <=> & ~ ? ^Mw -*<=<=* 

" mettre des chaines autour du cou de son pere, parer son buste 
de an-rech (?)." 

Le parallelisme des phrases, appuye par la representation sus- 
mentionnee, rend notre acception du mot nouveau absolument 
indiscutable. 

* Continued from Proceedings, Vol. XII, p. 125. 

t Comparez Piehl, Monvelle Serie cf Inscriptions Hiiroglyphiques, copices en 
figypte (Leipzig, J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandl., 1890), pi. I, ligncs I, 2. 

368 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Ne sachant la vraie lecture du groupe ptolemaique <=zr>, j'hcsite 

O 
s'il faille le rapprocher du copte ^jP^S 1 ) Torques, Moni/e, Pondus. 

Evidemment, ce dernier mot est derive du verbe £|Opcy, gravis 

esse (cfr. Brugsch, Wbrterbuch, VI, page 834), et en choisissant 

comme designation du collier, le mot &PHCLJI, on a eu pour 

point de depart l'usage qu'avaient les Egyptiens comme d'autres 

peuples de porter suspendus autour du cou, en guise d'ornements, 

les anneaux qui dans le commerce servaient de poids. 

En admettant pour <rr>, la lecture dn-rech. le sens du nom de 
O 
collier en question devient "l'inconnu, le tres-pre'cieux," designation 

qui convient fort bien a un objet que Pharaon pouvait offrir 
h. son dieu. Neanmoins, cette lecture admise, il n'y a pas d'im- 
possibilite de rapprocher notre groupe du mot copte &PHCIJI, 
les lois phonetiques favorisant un pared developpement (an-rech 
< arech <( aresch < h "resell ) ; surtout comme nous ne savons 
a quel genre appartient le groupe qui nous occupe. Mais alors 
il faut accorder a l'etymologie populaire* sa part dans le developpe- 
ment que nous venons de presumer. 

14. Parmi les particularites qui caracterisent le dialecte thebain 
par rapport au- dialecte bohai'rique de la langue copte, on a releve 
l'intercalation en certain cas d'un rt la, ou devant la lettre finale T~ 
ce dernier dialecte n'en emploie pas. Suivant Peyron (Grammatica 
Lingua Copiiciz, page 18), il parait que la forme thebaine dans ces cas 
soit anterieure, quant au temps, a la forme bohairique. Stern (Kopt. 
Gramtnatik, page 52) laisse la question de l'age des formes respec- 
tives indecise, car il dit : " Im sah. Dialecte ist It einige male im 
Inlaute vor auslautendem T eingefiigt oder erhalten worden" A la 
verite, si Ton excepte la particule relative eT boh., itT th&b., je 
crois que les autres exemples, cites par M. Stern,| parlent unanime- 
ment en faveur de l'anteriorite des formes bohairiques. C'est que 
ces dernieres s'expliquent directement d'anciennes racines £gyp- 
tiennes 011 le n intercale n'apparait que par exception. 

* J'ai deja assez souvent eu l'occasion de faire valoir l'etymologie populaire 
comme moyen d'expliquer certains mots egyptiens. 

* Aux exemples cites par M. Stern, on pent ajouter : JULITA.ItT'C, 
theb. [Zoega, Catalogus, 101, 102] = JULTWTG, boh.; OJ^rtT", ///<'/'., 



" nez" = CrJ<LI, boh. [de l'ancien <r=> <£?.] 

369 2 D 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

Cette tendance du thebain d'inserer un it devant un T" final a 
du reposer sur un gout particulier pour la combinaison de son -nt, 
gout propre aux anciens habitants du Said. Cette observation est 
confirmee par le fait, que certains mots a un ancien -n final, ont 
adopte au dialecte thebain un / paragogique. Par exemple, <LXItXK 
theb., "sans toi " = ^ r T(fhotK boh.; cotertT (+suffixe) thkb.-=- 
COTCIt ( + suffixe) boh. S'il y a, comme je crois, une liaison entre 
les deux particularites, il faut supposer que la combinaison de son 
-nt dans ce dernier cas a ete supporte par une voyelle non-accentuee 
[ou peut-etre par une voyelle, ayant un " demi-petit accent " ; car nous 
ne connaissons pas encore les differentes especes d'accent du copte]. 

Comme une curiosite, on peut noter que, encore aujourd'hui, on 
rencontre au Said des traces d'une predilection pour la combinaison 
de son nt, la ou les habitants de l'Egypte du nord se contentent d'un 
-/ simple. Comparez le mot arabe signifiant "fille," qui a Thebes se 
prononce bent, tandis que le Cairotes prononcent bet. (Le t a dans 
les deux exemples un timbre emphatique.) 

Maintenant, on peut se demander, si la loi de transition que 
nous venons d'observer pour les dialectes du copte, est refletee par 
la langue ancienne. En effet, nous pouvons relever dans les textes 
hieroglyphiques un nombre de mots qui soit intercalent soit omet- 
tent la lettre n devant un -/ final, par exemple : 



a. cote de <=> \Tt 

r-^rn o ill rTm s ^- 

Jwwva n v 

<wwv\ w „ I < 3 

en/ H 



1 1 1 /VWAA I I I ^X7 „./, L „ 

c-^-,® » " «, "Egypte. 

1 l 1 V^7 l l l o © 

etc., etc. 

* Je crois qu'il est inutile de lire Seclicniti, le nom de la deesse V _> m 
appar tenant au nombre des consonnes qui servent a elargir les racines. 

370 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

A cote de ses exemples qui nous fournissent les deux formes, 
celle qui intercale le ?i et celle qui l'omet, nous pouvons citer une 
serie de mots a -n intercale, pour lesquels nous n'avons pas note la 
forme non elargie. En voici quelques preuves : — 

* , me/ient. <^* resent, \\ ~wwv C F=0 Pap. 



Harris, N° il udennunt, ^ ^ smedent [Brugsch, IVorterb., 

* LTZD 

Pi /wwv\ gj . — . 

VII, p. 1066] ■ ^X? .... nt* ^^ ( ? )- 

Mill <^ /^AyV\A 

et d'autres encore, dont au moins quelques-unes doivent avoir des 
correspondants sans -n intercale. 

L'examen de la liste que nous venons de donner de mots hiero- 
glyphiques, ayant des formes a ou sans -n intercale, montre bien 
que, si dans quelques cas, la difference entre les deux formes 

J /www n —1 

^^ par rapport aO "^2, a du etre 

purement dialectale, il y en a d'autres, 011 Ton a aspire a produire 



des differences fondamentales [comme p. ex. pour Q par 

L * * III ^7 

rapport a j'J ^@1. Cette consideration me porte a supposer, que 
le caractere de marque dialectale de l'intercalation de la lettre //, 
dans le cas qui nous occupe, est relativement recent. Je ne serais 
point etonne, qu'originairement, elle fut un moyen de differcjicicr 
deux mots de source commune. P. ex., il serait possible, que les 

deux vieux verbes >-JJ*j "descendre le Nil" et (1 m 

" remonter le Nil," fussent d'une meme racine c/ief, "bouger, aller, 
marcher, partir," ou quelque chose de pareil, et que pour etablir 
une distinction entre "aller vers les sources du Nil," et "aller vers 
son embouchure," on ait cree une nouvelle forme a n intercale. 
Cela ne serait pas plus dur que, p. ex., lorsqu'on a differcncie la vielle 
racine/*/ dans les deux formes p— ^ "ciel " et PL^ j=k. "arc," ou 
quand, dans le copte, l'ancien mot J I] ^ — •& _^ " epervier " s'est 

La plupart des egyptologues semblent conferer a la desinence de 

■ I,.. _ \JLS et de vocables analogues, la valeur de particule relative. 
Ainsi p. ex. le groupe Q est transcrit par suit (hb 11/) [Brugsch, 1. 1. 

VII, 1066.] 

37' 



May 6] SOCIETY OK BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

fendu en &.HX, &H<5" ' accipiter, 6.&(J0K, milvus, <L&UJK, &&.OK 

corvus* 

Par les remarques qui precedent, j'ai voulou fixer l'attention des 
egyptologues sur un probleme qui merite d'etre serieusement pris en 
consideration, j'entends la question tres importante de decider, si 
la terminaison en par rapport a celle en c± represente reelle- 

raent une particularite dialectale, et dans ce cas, a quelle epoque il 
faut faire remonter l'emploi de la terminaison "^^ dans ce role. 
Comme je viens de le dire, la sus-dite terminaison me parait 
originairement avoir servi de moyen de differencier des mots d'un 
meme dialecte. 

15. Le Dictionnaire (Brugsch, VI, page 905) renferme un 
groupe t<c\i], \ufa, b®J% j|, x n f l h comme subst., ®^p §, X ">, 
I Pill ' % au f u -> Q ul est cens 6 etre une forme recente du mot 



aJSLmii!' x ^ a ' *~ M.A, correspondant au copte CXj^qoq, 
imporiare, co?igerere. 

Selon moi, le sus-dit groupe f doit se lire x u ^ a i X uia,l i X au ? u > 
et je citerai en faveur de cette lecture les exemples que voici : 



p4 ^-<^^c,& fiK\.%\-. "II a rempli 

les magasins de grands ustensiles en or et en argent. "{ 
<2 



j\ vr io> I X y ^^^ D i ^3r "J e t'apporte un vase a libations, 
rempli d'eau fraiche." § 

D ^t\ ( ^ 3) -fl-* 1 "%?* ^^ ® ' ' '. "La chambre dit 



^ ~ _M^ 1 1 1 Jl V7 -w 111^ 
Ab-t'fa est remplie de ses cadeaux."|| 

* De m;m;, 6JUL0V "chat" et XKOt "lion" me semblent etre des 
formes diffirenciees d'un meme mot. Le miaulement du chat etant tres bien 
rendu par le son des deux formes, je regarde le chat comme anterieur au lion 
dans la connaissance des Egyptiens. Cette remarque n'est point sans interet 
quant a l'histoire de la civilisation egyptienne. 

t Les exemples que cite M. Brugsch pour le pretendu groupe \ufa, pro- 
viennent, tous, de publications dues a d'autres savants, moins habiles que lui 
dans Tart de copier des textes hieroglyphiques. 

% De Rough, Edfou, LXXIII. § BERGMAN N, Ilia: Inschr. 

\ DUM1CHEN, Tcmpcl-Insch'-., XXVI. 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. fjSgo. 

Tres souvent, le signe revet ici une forme qui le rapproche 
de celui qui represente le dard de la queue du scorpion, (^, bien 
que dans le cas present, la plupart du temps, la pointe de ce dernier 
soit tournee du cote gauche, c'est-a-dire contrairement a l'usage 
generalement adopte, ce qui vous amene a douter que le signe 
"le dard de la queue du scorpion " soit de mise. 

Voici quelques exemples de cet ordre a. ajouter a. ceux donnes 
par M. Brugsch : 



h 



-*— =20t>- cir ^ y"AA^^A 



O <^ ® <=>1k (E=3) kJI «=»" 



II 

" II te presente le nome mendesien avec ses produits precieux, 
le dit nome remplit 1 'adytum d'offrandes pour ta personne."* 

ta maison de produits provenant du pays, dit Mentis \ 



. " Rem- 
I I 

plir la Grande Place de provisions." % 



la Grande Place 



r^^i, 3 etc., etc. 

II faut faire remarquer qu'une forme ayant *^-. , a la place de ((, 
n'a pas ete relevee pour notre groupe, circonstancc qui milite 
fortement en faveur de l'acception que nous soutenons. 

Quant a. l'etymologie du mot qui nous occupe, je voudrais le 

subdiviser en deux parties originairement independantes : kj -j- 

c±TL ^==n A . ""2==® , <=> '7L (E3 _, 

~ \0\ ou peut-etre mieux '^s -+■ ._, V\ . En d autres 

termes, nous aurions affaire a un compose, forme sur le meme type que 

dhj^TiT' ^Jn d°i> — *J ??! ( v ° ir brugsch ' 

Supplement du Dictionnaire hikroglyphiquJ). Toutefois, ce n'est la 
qu'une hypothese, car l'etymologie populaire a pu fort bien donner 
a notre groupe l'exterieur qu'il offre actuellement. Cette supposition 
est appuyee par le fait, que la forme ^J D ^ °^^ et varr. ne 
se rencontre qu'a partir de l'epoque ptolemaique. Je ne connais 
d'ailleurs aucun vocable copte qui puisse etre regarde comme equi- 
valent du mot chuta. II se pourrait cependant que nous ayons 

* Mariette, Dendirah II, 27, 16. t Mauiettf., ibid., II, 12. 5. 

X Dumichen, Kalend. Inschr., LVII. § Dumichen, ibid., LIE b. 10. 

373 2 D 2 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

ici un emprunt, fait a une langue etrangere, par exemple, le grec. 
C'est qu'a l'epoque ptolemai'que la langue egyptienne est inondee 
par des vocables d'origine grecque. 

16. Le radical N et ses derives ont ete l'objet de monogra- 
phies tres instructives et tres judicieuses, qu'a inserees M. Brugsch 
dans son Dictionnaire Hicroglyphique (Vol. IV, page 1413 et suiv., 
ainsi que Vol. VII, page 12 13 et suiv.). Ce nonobstant, nous 
venons de voir paraitre un article * sur " le verbe ^S^ \—J\ et ses 

* On lit dans cet article (Recueil de Vieweg, XI, page 118) les paroles sui- 
vantes : " C'est du reste un fait bien connu que le "J de l'epoque des pyra- 
mides alterne avec le <— =^3 sous la Xlle dynastie, lui cede presque (!) ccmplete- 
ment la place a partir de la XVIIIe, et devient 01 apres les Ramessides. D'ou 
une certaine puerilite, ce me semble, a recueillir des exemples pour prouver 
qu'un signe comme H^ a trois valeurs | , SS^ et jGl . La chose va de 
soi ; tout signe syllabique qui, a Vorigine, co/upreud un 1 about it ne'eessaire- 
nient an a en passant par le c— =^3. Pour ma part, je n'eprouve nullement le 

besoin d'avoir des exemples pour admettre qu'un signe comme Y s'est lit T ]) 

d'abord, puis Y c=^>, puis Y a ." Notre auteur a ici procede par induction, 

ce qui nous amene nccessairement a examiner sa these. Cela se fera plus longue- 
ment dans un autre endroit. A present, il suffit de faire remarquer que le traitement 
des sons intermediates et finales souvent est tout autre que celui des sons initiaux, 
en egyptien comme en d'autres langues. II est connu que le ) final et medial 
de l'ancien empire passe- regulierement plus tard a c— =^, observation qu'ont deja 
fait M. de Rouge et M. Le Page Renouf et apres eux, grace aux textes des pyra- 
mides, beaucoup d'autres savants. Mais nous n'avons pas de temoignages formels 
de la meme regularite de transition quand il s'agit du | initial (comme, par 
exemple, dans le syllabique ]%). Nous pouvons certainement constater beaucoup 
de cas, oil meme ce \ s'est change en c=^3 a l'epoque des Ramessides. Mais 
il y en a d'autres oil il s'est conserve, presque jusqu'aux basses epoques. Cfr. par 

exemple ^ \ %, ^, ^ ^ \\\ (Pe P i I, 94), ^\\\\ 
(id., 282), oil des mots comme "* | , _f^, ,-2ZJT) > etc - Tant c l ue des f° rmes 

n'ont pas ete relevees pour ces mots quant a l'epoque des Ramessides — j'en fais 
bien entendu abstraction des textes enigmatiques — on a assurement de quoi noter 
la forme 5=? pour le signe j^ du temps de la XVIIIe dynastie (Pikhl, 
Zeitschrift, 1887, page 1 17). L'expression, peu convenante, donl a use M. 
Victor Loret a notre adresse, retombe done sur lui-meme. Par son " presque " 
insere an debut de la citation, il semble d'ailleurs a cet egard etre du meme avis 
que nous. 

374 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

derives" qui debute par l'assertion suivante: "S'il est un mot egyp- 
tien dont la presence dans un texte ait pour effet d'embarasser le 
verbe traducteur et deconcerter sa sagacite, c'est bien certainement le 



L'auteur du dit article en faisant remarquer le peu de valeur des 
explications, jusqu'ici fournies, pour le groupe en question, nous 
enseigne " qu'il est utile d'etudier ce mot a nouveau et proceder 
methodiquement dans cette etude." Malheureusement, cette nou- 

velle etude sur le mot ^H £ /] n'est ni utile ni methodique. Loin 

d'avancer nos connaissances de la matiere, elle ne sert qu'a les 
embrouiller. Quiconque a lu les articles de Brugsch sur la meme 
question nous donnera sans doute raison. Nous allons maintenant 
entrer en examen de la dite etude, ce qui permettra au lecteur de 
juger de la verite de l'assertion que nous venons d'emettre. 

Le signe c * => ^ represente la peau d'un animal ecorche, corium 
\cfr. par exemple ^1^ §| (1 UA "enlever la peau," Rec, IV, 

44 1 . Si nous consultons les scenes d'offrandes, nous le retrouvons 
assez souvent parmi les cadeaux funeraires. Dans ce role, l'objet en 
question forme quelquefois le sommet de la pile que constituent les 
differentes denrees, apportees au defunt. Du sens originaire " peau 
enlevee " decoule tres-naturellement le sens " outre," qui n'est nulle- 
ment primitif, corame le pense l'auteur de la nouvelle etude sur 
2^> E P . mais bien au contraire doit se regarder comme une signi- 
fication derivee. A ce sujet, on peut citer les grecs a<r*ro9, fivpoa, qui 
signifient i° " peau ; " 2° "outre." 

Le copte a garde des traces, tres-visibles de la transition de sens 
que nous venons de constater, car a cote du substantif bohairique 
^)OT, uter, il nous offre le verbe ^)^-T, excoriare, iicBetpeiv, 
" ecorcher." Outre la forme reguliere ^^> v ^, que nous con- 



naissons comme designation de la peau d'animal, employee en qualite 

d'outre, notre auteur cite les variantes <=^», z=^>%%™, selon lui, 

ayant ce meme sens d'outre. J'avoue ne connaitre ni l'une ni 
l'autre de ces deux variantes. La premiere n'a et^ relevee nulle 
part a ma connaisance (voir pourtant Levi, Dictionnaire H&rogfy- 
phique sub voce), et la seconde resulte d'une mauvaise lecture d'un 
passage de texte qui du reste pr^sente quelque difficulte. Nous le 

375 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890. 

retrouvons dans le Auswahl de M. Lepsius, ou la ligne 5 legerement 
corrigee, de la planche XII renferme l'expression que voici : — 



/W0M 



/VWW * — M — l\ <Z — i» 7~\ < r^ > O "fY n (5L /www — — w — A ra ^\ 



\> 111 



/"» c— =^3 ffl /WWW /WWW M r^-, £5 y^p-^- J* \> <R> f 

;^, ^^ w^a J&HH III IN 



W LI I I II <=> ZZZ IJ 






LIMN 

En comparant ce passage a celui-ci, emprunte au Grand Pap. 
Harris (VIII, 6) :— 

LJ rP\ ^- V^ /WWW 

, v , , , . ... (S& , -=-^ /www 

on est amene a etabhr une analogue de sens entre ,-J£-~ S§*? AAAA CC 
du premier et || Q J^ v^£w^ du second exemple. Pour ma 
part, je crois tout simplement que < %^ c^g^ %$%£ doit etre cornge 

— (P — ^^^ 
en ^ww^ ou quelque chose de pareil. En tout cas, le sen s 

v\ /WWV\ 

" outre " est ici inadmissible pour le mot en question. 

Si mon observation est juste, ce que je crois, il n'y a pour le 
moment aucune raison d'attribuer au mot ^^\ ^ " peau, outre " 
un autre son initial que 1 w 1 . 

A ce sujet, il est bon de noter que le copte $<LO, $OT, 3-UOT, 
crassus, pinguis, obesus, "dont l'equivalent hieroglyphique," suivant 
M. V. Loret, "n'a pas encore ete rencontre," ne renvoie guere a "la 
meme racine qui a donne _p ^ fL , j\ par developpement ; " le dit 
mot copte ne parle en aucune maniere en faveur de l'existence d'un 
® initial, dans le radical primordial ^fy>, car un 1 w i ancien 
repond souvent a un © recent. Du reste, &1L&, ^OT, $(JUT~ 
existe dans la langue ancienne sous la forme ^^ ("£3 et varr. qui se 
voit [Lepsius, Denkmiiler, III, 30, 11; III, 32, etc.] dans des 
expressions, comme < ~p > ^^ ^^H (^5 1 1 , "deux oies grasses," 
^^^1 " des oiseaux chet-aa engraisses." On ne serait peut- 
etre pas trop hardi, en presumant une parente etroite entre ce 

376 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

^\ fkj et le tres-commun ^\ [X3 Q U1 a le mgme sens " S ras > 
engraisse" [Brugsch, Worterbuch, VII, page 1386]. 

****** 

Le sens "se gonfler" qui, suivant M. V. Loret, est le sens primor- 
dial de 2^\ ne me semble admissible pour aucun des cas ou il veut 
l'introduire. Quand meme il le serait pour c _fL , ou _£> < -^=-^ „ il ne 
s'en suit de la, qu'il le serait pour ^^>, car en reconnaissant la 
possibility d'une origine commune pour ces trois radicaux, il faut 
bien que les formes diverses qu'ils ont revetu aient des raisons d'etre, 
c'est-a-dire qu'elles presentent des differences de sens marquees. 

Dans la signification originaire "outre" que M. Loret attribue a 
2^\ \ ^7, il n'y a rien d'ailleurs qui aurait force le sens "gonfler " 
pour le radical ^^, car "der Name eines Dinges enthalt nur ein 
Merkmal statt des ganzen Begriffs."* Et si nous examinons les 
racines, qui dans les differentes langues ont servi a former des mots 
signifiant " outre," nous verrons qu'une fois cette racine signifie 
"mettre, vetir" (lat. titer, franc, outre), une autre "avaler" (allem. 
Schlauch), une troisieme fois "etre place, couche, reposer" (isl. tegt'll), 
une quatrieme fois " porter " (isl. berilt), une cinquieme fois 
"gonfler" (goth. balgs), et ainsi de suite. On doit regretter que des 
personnes qui s'occupent de questions etymologiques, n'ont pas 
d'idee des faits les plus elementaires et fondamentaux de la science 
etymologique. 

Plusieurs des preuves citees en faveur d'un sens "se gonfler" du 
mot 2^H sont du reste mal lues par l'auteur de la nouvelle etude 
sur ce radical. Ainsi les deux exemples que voici: — 

Insck., XV, 32) et 

2.rlQ 1\ V\Q(} ' (Brugsch etDuMicHEN,i?«w«7, II, 54) 

ont-ils ete rendus, l'un par "il est comme un lion qui se gonfle, 
se dresse pour terrifier des gazelles," l'autre par (celui qui) "se 
gonfle, se hausse avec des beuglements," le signe °°\ ayant ete 
remplace a tort par celui de =*=\ Ce nest du reste pas le seul 
cas ou notre auteur ait remplace un °^\ juste par un c *=*\ faux, 

* Pott, cite par Le Page RENOUF, Transactions of the Soc. of Bibl. 
Archeology, VIII, page 197. 

377 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

car il a agi de la raeme maniere vis-a-vis de deux passages de 
l'inscription d'Ahmes, dont voici la teneur : — 

r ) LORET : r. \ f <=> \\ ^r- 1 - 



IJUk 



(I/iscr. d'A/nes, ligne 12). 
{ibid., 1. 20). 



Le sens de ces deux exemples selon le meme auteur serait : 
"mais voila qu'il se met a monter sur la berge"(3). — "J'amenai 
deux jeunes chefs, pris sur le bateau" (4). 

En principe, on peut reprocher a la substitution qu'a faite 
M. V. Loret de c * = *\ a la place de tx= \, dans les trois premiers 
des quatre exemples que nous venons de citer, qu'elle viole une 
loi de l'ecriture hieroglyphique, loi qu'a etablie notre maitre a tous 
Brugsch. J'entends la loi des " indicateurs phonetiques." Origin- 
airement, appliquee H l'effet de faire valoir la distinction entre 
deux lectures d'un meme signe, cette loi vise encore deux ou 
plusieurs signes differents qui se ressemblent exterieurement, comme, 
par exemple, c'est le cas de e *= s \ et oca \. Le premier est reguliere- 
ment suivi de c-°^ , pour qu'il ne soit mele au second qui a cer- 
taines epoques, exclut l'usage d'exprimer dans l'ecriture le \ qui 
lui appartient comme complement phonetique. Je traduirai les 
trois premiers des exemples cites de la maniere suivante : — ■ 

1. "II est comme un lion qui s'efforce* de terrifier les gazelles." 

2. "(Celui qui) se met a beugler " (ou peut-etre : "celui qui 
saisit les craintifs ! "). 

3. " Voila qu'on le mene, pince, sur le chemin " (c'est-a-dire : la 
digue). 

Le quatrieme des exemples cites se traduit, comme l'a fait 
M. Loret. f 

* Dans ma dissertation academique, intitulee Petitcs Etudes Egyptologiques 
(Vienne, 1SS1, page 22), j'ai, le premier, fait remarquer que les verbes "saisir, 

prendre" I r (H~ , r- \ , etc. I, dans les textes egyptiens, quelquefois jouent 
le role d'auxiliaires. 

t Un cinquieme exemple, oil le dit auteur a tort a substitute c^ 3 ^ a OG=> \, 
se rencontre a la page 124 (passage de texte, emprunte au Rccueil de BRUGSCH, 
IL 54). 

378 



May 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Je ne vois pas du reste qu'aucune autre preuve solide ait etc 
alleguee en faveur d'un sens "se gonfler" pour le groupe 2^H ^-=Q, 
dont le determinatif ne correspond nullement a une telle significa- 
tion primitive. Nous pouvons done parfaitement considerer le dit 
sens comrae inacceptable. 



[The remainder will follow in the next number^] 



o-^O^ fcg-^^ 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 9, 
Conduit Street, Hanover Square, W., on Tuesday, 3rd 
June, 1890, at 8 p.m., when the following Paper will be 
read : — 

Prof. G. Maspero : — " Sur les Dynasties Divines de l'ancienne 
£gypte." 



379 



May 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 



THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Botta, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1S47-1850. 

Place, Ninive et l'Assyrie, 1S66-1869. 3 vols., folio. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler Vols. 

I— III (Brugsch). 
Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publies par 

H. Brugsch et J. Dumichen. (4 vols., and the text by Diimichen 

of vols. 3 and 4. ) 
Dumichen, Historische Inschriften, &c, 1st series, 1867. 

2nd series, 1869. 

Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1886. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1S62. 2 vols., folio. 



Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele. Folio, il 

Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c, 1S80. 

Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 

Wright, Arabic Grammar and Chrestomathy. 2nd edition. 

Schroeder, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Haupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 

Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 

Burkhardt, Eastern Travels. 

Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1S62-1873. 

Le Calendrier des Jours Fastes et Nefastes de l'annee Egyptienne. 8vo. 1877. 

E. Gayet, Steles de la XII dynastie au Musee de Louvre. 

Ledrain, Les Monuments Egyptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 

SAR7EC, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

Lefebure, Les Hypogees Royaux de Thebes. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Lefebure, Le Mythe Osirien. 2nd partie. "Osiris." 

Lepsius, Les Metaux dans les Inscriptions Egyptiennes, avec notes par W. Berenct^ 

D. G. Lyon, An Assyrian Manual. 

A. Amiaud and L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 

et Assyriennes. 
2 parts, Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 
Robiou, Croyances de l'Egypte a l'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologic des Lagides. 

Pognon, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 



380 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 

Ube Broii3e ©rnaments of the 
palace (Bates from Balavvat 

[Shalmaneser II, b.c. 859-825.] 



Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus, the price for 
each part is now raised to jQi 10s. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) ,£1 is. 



Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1890. 



President. 
P. le Page Renouf. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Lord Halsbury, The Lord High Chancellor. 

The Ven. J. A. Hessey, D.C.L., D.D., Archdeacon of Middlesex. 

The Right Hon. VV. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

The Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, G.C.B., &c. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles T. Newton, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c, &c. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c, &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 



Council. 



W. A. Tyssen Amherst, M.P.,&c. 
Rev. Charles James Ball. 
Rev. Canon Beechey, M.A, 
Prof. R. L. Bensly. 
E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. 
Arthur Cates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 



Rev. Albert Lowy. 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.D. 

Rev. James Marshall. 

Alexander Peckover, F.S.A, 

J. Pollard. 

F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A. 

E. Towry Whyte, M.A. 

Rev. W. Wright, D.D. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



HARRISON AND SONS, I'KINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN'S LANE. 



VOL. XII. . Part 8. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



&# 

VOL. XII. TWENTIETH SESSION. 
SeveHtk Meeting, June $rd, 1890. 

356 



CONTENTS. 

FAGE 

Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S.— The Winged Figures of the 

Assyrian and other Ancient Monuments (4 Plates) 383 393 

Rev. C. J. Ball.— The New Accadian. Part V 394-418 

PROFESSOR Maspero. — Sur les Dynasties Divines de l'Ancienne 

6gypte 419-432 

Professor Karl Piehl. — Notes de Philologie Egyptienne (ton- 

tinned from p. 379) 43j-43 x 

Professor E. Lefebure. — Sur differents Noms Egyptiens 439-456 

('.. A. SlMCOX. Tyre 457-459 

P. le Page Renouf (President). — The Sun-stroke in Egyptian... 460-461 

Hyde Clarke. — Cypriote and Khita 462-470 

*# 

PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

11, Hart Street, Bloomshury, W.C. 
1890. 



[No. xciii.] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

ii, Hart Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



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obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., II, Hart 
Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OK 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTIETH SESSION, 1889-90. 



Seventh Meeting, yd June, 1890. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq., President, 



IN THE CHAIR. 

3S& &* 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Trustees of the British Museum : — The Book of the 
Dead ; Facsimile of the Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum. 
folio, 1890. With an Introduction by P. Le Page Renouf 
(President). 
From the India Office : — The Sacred Books of the East. Vol. 
XXXIII. Oxford. 8vo. 1889. 

The Minor Law Books, translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. 
Narada Brishaspati. 
From the Author, M. Joachim Menant : — Etudes Heteennes I. 
Paris. 8vo. 1890. 

Extrait du Rec. de trav. rel. a la Philologie et lArcheologie 
Egypt, et Assyr., Vol. XIII. 
From the Author, M. E. Autran : — Sur certains rapports entre 
TArabie heureuse et l'ancienne Egypte, resultant de son dernier 
voyage au Yemen, par le Dr. G. Schweinfurth. Geneva. 8vo. 
1890. 
Trav. presente a la Soc. de Phys. et d'Hist. Nat. de Geneve 
6th Feb., 1890. 
[No. xciii.] 381 2 E 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGV. [1890. 

The following have been purchased by the Council for the 
Library of the Society : — 

Ein Neuer Kambyses-Text. Von Dr. Lauth. MiAnchen. 1S75. 

4to. 
Notice sur les inscriptions en caracteres cuneiformes de la col- 
lection epigraphique de M. Lottin de Laval, par M. J. Menant. 
Caen. 8vo. 1858. 

The following Candidates were submitted for election, 
having been nominated at the last Meeting on 6th May, 
1890, and elected Members of the Society : — 

M. S. Schekine, Menschikova Bachnia, Great Ouspensky Street 3, 

Moscow. 
Rev. Tupper Carey, R.D., F.G.S., Ebbesborne Wake, Salisbury. 
Bartlett D. Wrangham, 7, Claremont Place, Sheffield. 
Dr. Bruto Teloni, Via della Fortezza 4, Florence. 
Rev. Henry Walter Reynolds, St. Thomas Vicarage, Elm Road, 

Camden New Town, N.W. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 

Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

The following Candidates were nominated and by special 
order of the Council were submitted for election and elected 
Members of the Society : — 

Nathan Ball, Heanor, Derbyshire. 

Daniel Isaac Marshall, 7, Rose Street, Newgate Street, E.C. 

Adolf Augustus Berle, Harvard University. 

J. Vallentine, St. Stephen's Club, S.W. 



A Paper by Prof. Maspero, received 24th March, " Sur 
les Dynasties Divines de l'ancienne Egypte," was read by 
the Secretary. 

P. le P. Renouf (President) read a Paper, entitled, " The 
Tale of Joseph and Aseneth," which will be printed in a 
future number of the Proceedings. 

Remarks were added by Dr. Gaster, Rev. R. Gwynne, and 
Rev. A. Lowy. 

Thanks were returned for these communications. 

382 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., /ion, 1890. 



(H 




^^^^^^~x\ 












/^I^iI^SIt /^f" 




^^m®m 




2 


^ 

A 


Mj 


Bin 

1 esJctx \ 


cz 




- 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 





Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



PLATE 



Pi'K. Soc. Bibl. Arch., June, 1S90. 





Fig. 5. 



Fig. 9. 




PLATE II 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., ftme, 1890. 




Fig. 16. 
P LATE I II 



Proc. Soc. Bibi. Arch., /tine, 1S90. 




Fig. 17. 




Fig. 19. 



Fig. 20. 



PLATE IV, 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



THE WINGED FIGURES OF THE ASSYRIAN AND 
OTHER ANCIENT MONUMENTS. 

By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.RS. 

Read &,th March, 1S90. 

The following observations have arisen out of the preparation of 
one of my Gifford Lectures delivered before the University of 
Aberdeen during the past winter. In examining the nature of 
Spiritual Beings as defined and represented in the religions of the 
world, I was led to examine with more care than heretofore the class 
of Winged Spirits, and especially those quasi-human forms on the 
Assyrian monuments whose importance in the history of religious 
art has been lately coming into view.* 

That the winged figures of Assyria were derived from or sug- 
gested by those of Egypt, may be taken as the accepted and probable 
opinion. Egyptian figures of the kind may be grouped in three 
classes, viz., the winged suns, the winged monsters of the Theban 
tombs, and the winged deities with human bodies. The Assyrian 
monuments present well-known forms more or less corresponding to 
these three classes. Firstly, the sun is represented as a winged plain 
disk or ring, also with an archer sun-god standing within this circje. 
Secondly, the animal-monsters have their grandest representatives in 
the colossal winged bulls and lions, and with these are to be included 
the winged horse, griffin, &c. Thirdly, we have the human-bodied 
figures, of which, though they are familiar objects, typical sketches 
are here inserted (Plate I), from the valuable work of Perrot and 
Chipiez, "History of Art in Chaldaea and Assyria," and Layard's 
"Monuments" in order to keep their characteristics clearly before 
our minds. Some are man-headed, others (to use the ordinary 
term), eagle-headed. Some are represented with four wings, some 
with two, which in a measure agrees with the mention by Berossos 
the Chaldean, of the primaeval two-headed men, some with two 

* See preliminary letter in Academy, June 8, 1SS9. In following out the 
subject, I have had the advantage of referring to scholars specially conversant with 
monumental evidence and chronology, among them Professor Sayce, Professor 
Percy Gardner, and Mr. E. Wallis Budge. On botanical points I have been able 
to consult Mr. W. T. Thiselton Dyer and Professor Vines. 

383 2 E 2 



June 3J SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S90. 

wings, and others with four, of whom delineations were preserved 
in the temple of Bel at Babylon. Looking at the Assyrian figures 
themselves, it seems a possible conjecture that they may always have 
been imagined as having four wings even when two only are shown, 
for these are ill-matched as a pair, while divine figures otherwise 
similar are represented either with two or four wings. It is not 
reasonable however to criticize too closely the anatomical adaptation 
of the Assyrian wings, which may be taken as symbols in a religious 
picture-writing, indicating that the divine beings who wear them 
can freely traverse space. As has been well pointed out by Lang- 
behn, they never fly.* It is interesting to notice with reference to 
the conventional adaptation of these symbolic wings, that the 
Assyrian human-bodied winged figures follow the analogy not of the 
Egyptian human-bodied winged figures, but of the winged monster- 
animals. In Plate II, fig. 13, the Egyptian goddess Nephthys is 
seen to be constructed on a comparatively natural plan, the bird- 
feathered wings being attached below the arms and moved by them, 
in remarkable contrast to the Assyrian figures, in which all scruples 
as to anatomical possibility are set at nought. 

The Assyrian quasi-human winged figures, whether man-headed 
or bird-headed, two-winged or four-winged, in standing or walking 
attitude on the walls of royal or sacred buildings, are in frequent 
apposition with the so-called " sacred tree " or " tree of life," of 
which a typical form is shown in Plate I, fig. 1 (see also figs 14, 15, 
19 and 20). That these tree-figures represent date-palms is now 
recognized. An early remark to this effect is by Prof. G. Rawlinson : 
" I suspect that the so-called ' flower ' was in reality a representation 
of the head of a palm-tree, with the form of which, as portrayed on 
the earliest sculptures (Layard, 'Mon.,' pi. 53), it nearly agrees. "f 
I insert here (Plate II, fig. n) a copy of the representation of the 
head of a date-palm in Assyrian landscape, scarcely less conven- 
tionalized than in the "sacred tree," which may probably stand for 
a group or grove of palms. To this group of palms the winged 
figures are seen presenting an object resembling a fir-cone which 
they hold in the right hand, while in the left hand they carry a 
basket or bucket. The likeness of the object to a fir-cone has led 

* Jul. Langbehn, " Flugelgestalten dor altesten Griechischen Kunst. " 
Munich, 1881, pp. 31, 39. 

t G. Rawlinson " The Five Great Monarchies," Vol. II, p. 7, note. 2nd 
edition, 1871. 

384 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

to its being generally considered and called the fir-cone. The As- 
syrian drawing of plants is, however, rough and conventional, 
and forms more or less like this do duty for several botanical 
purposes, as appears in Plate II, where fig 10 shows the branches of 
a tree, perhaps coniferous ; fig. 1 2, a portion of a vine with leaves 
and bunches of grapes; fig. 9, the heads of a marsh-plant- — all from 
Layard's " Monuments." The pictorial resemblance of the object in 
the hands of the winged deities to a fir-cone is thus insufficient proof 
of its being intended as really such. Also, if the tree which the 
winged deity approaches is admitted to be a palm, there is no 
obvious motive in a fir-cone being presented to it, so that writers 
who adopt this view of the scene have been obliged to treat the 
whole proceeding as a mystical ceremony. In such cases, however, 
it is always desirable to look for evidence of that intelligible mean- 
ing which underlies religion as it does other institutions. It occurred 
to me that it might be connected with the artificial fertilization of 
the date-palm, which has been remarked on by naturalists since 
antiquity. The principal ancient accounts of this process are the 
following: — - 

Herodotus, describing the Babylonian region, writes : " Palm- 
trees grow in great numbers over the whole of the flat country, 
mostly of the kind which bears fruit, and this fruit supplies them 
with bread, wine, and honey. They are cultivated like the fig-tree 
in all respects ; among others, in this. The natives tie the fruit of the 
male-palms, as they are called by the Greeks, to the branches of the 
date-bearing palm, to let the gall-fly enter the dates and ripen them, 
and to prevent the fruit from falling off. The male-palms, like the 
wild fig-trees, have usually the gall fly in their midst." " Elerl cd o<fii 

(potvacef 7rc(/)VKOTa ova ttuv to 7reCioi>, 01 JrXewi/es (tinCcv Kap~u(jjt>iM)i, i\- 
twu kcu anta hai omou km /u:Xi 7roievvTai- toi<<s auKe^wv jptnrov Oepa- 

TTZVOVGi, 1(1 T6 llWu, KUl <j)OIVlKWV, TOI'S (//HTevUV E\\»yl'6V KakeOVffl, TOVTUSU 

Tov KapTrov TTepiceovai tijgi f3a\(tvr](fiopottn rwv <f>oivucici>, Iva vewaivn T6 <r</»» 
o ijrijv T>}f jiaXavov iffSvvivv Kat [uj airoppen Kapwos [o] rot) (fiut'i'ticov • 
i/^/yj'as rya/) ci] (poptovai iv tu" icap—td ol epoeves, Kara vtp in oi o\vvOot."* 
It is not necessary to criticize here the historian's erroneous com- 
parison of the fertilization of the date-palm with that of the fig. 
What is required from him is merely his record of the Babylonian 
method. The next account is that by Theophrastus, who mentions 

* Herodot., I, c. 193. The translation is from Rawlinson's " Herodotus "j see 

also the notes in Larcher. 

385 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 

the difiference between the male and female flowers in a passage of 
great interest to botanists as distinguishing plant-sex. Further on, 
after describing the caprification (iptvatr/ttk) of the fig, he continues : 
" In the palms these" [aids are given] " by the males to the females. 
For they cause the staying-on and ripening. Which some call from 
the similarity 6\w8agetv. It takes place in this way. When the 
male blossoms they cut away the spathe on which is the inflorescence 
forthwith as it is, and shake down the bloom and flower and pollen 
upon the fruit of the female. And when thus treated, it keeps on 
and does not fall away." 4 ' T u« Be <polvi}*iv ai airo tuiv upp&vwv 7rpb<i 
t«s 0)j\eias- oinoi r (ap eicriv 01 ewtiicvetv 7roioi>i>7e<s kcu dcTre-neiv- o 
KiiKouai Tive? ix T/ys- o/noioTnTo? v\vi>Oa<£eiv. Yii'crat Be rovbe tov Tpoirov. 
Otclv ai'dij to uppev, inrojefivovai 71)1' cnrnOtji', £(f> ?)? to uvOo<;, ebOv* 
wairep <\ti, tov Te yyoov kcu to uvOos Kai rov Koinojnov Kinaaetovai kutci 
iot> Kapirou T/ys Otj\eia^- kov touto TrdOij, Sia/rnpei, kcu ovk a7roftaWet. 

Pliny follows in his "Natural History," remarking on the sexes of the 
date-palm, and adds that the fecundation is even contrived by man, 
from the males by the flower and down, sometimes even only by the 
dust being sprinkled on the females. " Adeoque est Veneris intel- 
lectus, ut coitus etiam excogitatus sit ab homine, ex maribus flore ac 
lanugine, interim vero tantum pulvere insperso feminis." f 

From these ancient accounts we may pass to that of a well- 
known traveller of the last century, Thomas Shaw, who in describing 
the date-palm cultivation, states : " It is well known that these 
trees are male and female, and that the fruit will be dry and insipid 
without a previous communication with the male. In the month of 
March or April therefore, when the sheaths that respectively inclose 
the young clusters of the male flowers and the female fruit begin to 
open, at which time the latter are formed and the first are mealy, 
they take a sprig or two of the male cluster, and insert it into the 
sheath of the female ; or else they take a whole cluster of the male 
tree and sprinkle the meal or farina of it over several clusters of the 
female. The latter practice is common in Egypt, where they have 
a number of males ; but the trees of Barbary are impregnated by the 
former method, one male being sufficient to impregnate four or five 
hundred females." J 

* Theophrast. "Hist. Plant.," II, c. 2, 6, c. 7, 4. 
t Plin., "Nat. Hist.," xiii, c. 7. 

+ Thomas Shaw, "Travels or Observations relating to Barbary." Oxford, 
1738, Part III, chap. i. 

386 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

The invention of artificial fertilization, however far it may go 
back in antiquity, presents no difficulty in explanation, being only 
a facilitation of the natural process. It has been stated in the 17th 
century that the groves of wild palms in the deserts of Africa without 
any cultivation produced good and plentiful crops of dates, the wind 
conveying the pollen from the male to the female palms.* Whether 
anything of the kind has been observed of late years I have no 
information, but it is obvious that the produce of such natural fertili- 
zation, depending on the number and position of the male palms, 
must at best be scanty and irregular. It is not to be wondered at 
that artificial methods have come to prevail generally where the 
culture of the date is carried on. These methods are seen from the 
foregoing passages to be three in number. That described by 
Herodotus consisted in tying male inflorescences to the fruit-bearing 
branches. In modern times the more economical arrangement of 
inserting one or two sprigs, mentioned by Shaw, is in general use in 
date-growing districts. There is an elaborate illustrated description 
of it by the eminent botanist Kaempfer. f Lastly, it appears that 
the plan of shaking the pollen from the male over the female flowers 
not only obtained in ancient, but has been continued in modern 
times. It is this method which especially concerns the present 
argument. 

I now proceed to examine the form of the male inflorescence 
which is conveyed to the fruit-bearing date-palm, in order to show 
its close resemblance to the sculptured cone carried in the hand of 
the Assyrian winged deity, of which a figure is here inserted (Plate 
II, fig. 6) from one of the colossal bas-reliefs in the British Museum. 
In Kaempfer's treatise on the Palm already mentioned, a drawing it- 
given of the male palm-inflorescence, stripped of its spathe and with 
the flowers open and ripe for scattering the pollen, that is to say, in 
the precise condition required for comparison ; this drawing is here 
copied (Plate II, fig. 8). Actual specimens are, however, more 
satisfactory to deal with. By the kindness of my friend Mr. Thomas 
Hanbury, who has sent me from his famous garden at La Mortola, on 
the Riviera, several date-palm inflorescences, I am able to exhibit these 
to the Society, and photographs from them are copied as illustrations 

* Prosperus Alpinus, " De Plantis ^Egypti," Tadua, 1640, p. 25. Juliu 
Pontedera, " Anthologia," Padua, 1720, cites this passage. 

t Kaempfer, Amcenitat. Exotic, Fasc. Y. Lemgo, 17 12, Fasc. IV. 

3S7 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S50. 

(Plate IT, figs. 5, 7). In comparing the whole series, it will lie 
noticed that Kaempfer's drawing, which represents the flowers open, 
resembles the sculptures in this respect more closely than my own 
figures, taken at the stage when the flowers are only beginning to 
unclose, and this similarity is increased by the conventional drawing 
of the botanist, which approaches that of the ancient sculptor. On 
the other hand, the real specimens come closer to the sculptures in 
showing the cone in its early pointed state, whereas the botanical 
drawing represents a somewhat later stage, when the point is 
beginning to break up. 

The similarity of the sculptured cone to the real palm-inflores- 
cence, taken together with the fact of its being shown as carried to 
the date-palm, might be considered to prove that the scene at the 
sacred tree represents the artificial fertilization. The further exami- 
nation of the monumental evidence, far from invalidating the 
argument, confirms it by consistent details. The basket or bucket 
held in the left hand corresponds with the basket carried at present 
in the East by the cultivator to hold his supply of pollen-bearing 
inflorescences when he climbs the fruit-bearing palms to fertilize 
them ; this is the more necessary from the dropping of the flowers 
and the shedding of the pollen, much of which would be lost if the 
cones were carried loose. Thus sometimes the bucket carried in the 
hand of the winged figure serves to identify the scene even when 
the cone is not shown in the other hand. This is the case in Plate 
IV, fig. 20, an impression of a cylinder (from Lajard) which has the 
interesting peculiarity that the palm-tree is drawn realistically below 
the winged sun, showing clearly that the conventional trees usually 
forming part of the scene were well understood to be palms. 

The conventional outlines and combinations of the various parts 
of the palm-tree, though difficult to follow, especially when they have 
passed into ornament, often seem to show that the artist has the 
sense of their meaning. Thus on Plate IV, fig. 19, the inflores- 
cences on their long bending stalks may be intended as partly seen 
through the opening of the split spathe, and they are often more 
conventionally rendered in ornamental borders. Or they may be 
shown without the spathe, as on the royal robe from Nimrud, of 
which a portion is here figured (Plate III, fig. 15). My attention 
has lately been called to Sir George Birdwood, in his dissertation 
on "The Knop and Flower Pattern," having identified the long- 
stalked cones which flourish out from the fan-like head of the 

388 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

date-palm as being its fruit-clusters, recurring also in more 
conventional forms in ornamental designs.* I am glad to be able 
to cite this dissertation, one of the most important contributions 
to the theory of art-development, to show that its writer, approach- 
ing the subject from quite a different point of view, so long ago 
arrived at this opinion as to the representation of the female in- 
florescences or young date-clusters in Assyrian art. 

Having now considered these points of evidence separately, it 
remains to apply them to those pictorial groups fortunately preserve 1 
in the figured decoration of royal robes, where the whole argument 
is, so to speak, summed up (Plate III, fig. 15). There the winged 
deities with cone and bucket not only approach the sacred palm-tree, 
but are bringing into contact the male and female inflorescences, 
and the scene of fertilization is complete. 

On the question with what motive this scene was so continually 
represented, some remarks may now be made. The winged sun, 
adopted from Egypt into Assyria, continues to hold on the Assyrian 
monuments the same dominance over scenes of religious significance 
which belongs to it in Egyptian sculptures and paintings. That it 
was not transferred as a mere ornament, but with meaning and 
purpose, may be clearly seen in a sculptured group of which the 
copy published by Layard is here reproduced (Plate III, fig. 14). 
Here the winged sun is held by ropes in the hands of two kneeling 
figures. These are obviously the two deities who are seen from a 
different point of view on the inscribed stone belonging to the shrine 
of Samas, the Sun-god of Sippara, now in the British Museum. It has 
been described by Mr. Theo. G. Pinches,! whose argument is hardly 
open to doubt, that the beings holding the sun with their ropes 
(which I may incidentally remark end in conventional palm-heads) 
are the guides or directors of the sun, who keep him in his straight 
path. In the group we are now examining they hold the sun over 
the palm-tree, doubtless to ripen it, while behind them stand the 
two winged figures with cone and bucket ready to fertilize it. The 
whole scene, which with more or less variation is repeated on 
cylinders in the British Museum and elsewhere, had obviously a 
well-understood significance in Assyrian nature-worship, of which at 
least the practical theme seems apparent, doubtful as its full religious 

* Sir George Bird wood, " Industrial Arts of India," p. 3^5. 
t Trans, Soc. of Bibl. Arch., Vol. VIII, p. 164. 

389 



JUNE 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1890. 

significance may be. The importance of the palm-tree in the Meso- 
potamian region is measured by the fact that even in modern ages 
a failure of the date-crop amounts to a famine. Kaempfer mentions 
the Turks being turned back from an expedition against Bassora by 
the threat of cutting down the male palms in the invaded district, so 
as to leave the soldiers without supplies ; but this step, calamitous to 
the population, being delayed in execution, the invasion was accom- 
plished.* Thus it is no wonder that the Assyrian winged beings who 
carry in their hands the fertilizing cones, should occupy so con- 
spicuous a place before the eyes of the nation on the palace-walls of 
Nineveh. Their high divine rank is shown by their prominence and 
their association with the sun. But any confident suggestion as to 
their names, or even the decision whether they represent the fer- 
tilizing winds, or national deities whose fertilizing influence comprised 
or was typified by the process of fecundating the date-palm, must 
be left to be settled by other evidence than that which I can deal 
with here. 

It has to be remembered, however, that there appears on the 
Assyrian monuments another quasi-human figure carrying the palm- 
cone (Plate I, fig. 3). This is the deity clothed in the skin of the 
fish, or with a fish-tail, whom Prof. Sayce identifies with Ea or 
Cannes, f At first sight the marine nature of this being seems 
incongruous with the cultivation of the date-palm, but the record of 
the Chaldean historian Berossos offers a solution of the difficulty. 
The description of Oannes, who appeared on the Erythraean sea- 
coast of Babylonia, and of whom a representation was preserved in 
the historian's time, amounts to identification with the figure on the 
monuments. His body was that of a fish, with another head under 
the fish's head, and human feet joined to the fish's tail. Now to 
this Oannes were attributed the origins of Babylonian civilization, 
and among other arts he made them distinguish the seeds, and 
showed them how to collect the fruits. In his hands, therefore, 
the cone and bucket may be the symbols of a god of agriculture. 

Passing from the significance of the winged beings in the 
religion and art of Assyria itself, we come to their world-wide 
influence among other nations who adopted them, probably with 
little exact preservation of their original meaning. Thus since the 

* Kaempfer, p. 706. 

t Sayce, " Religion of Ancient Babylonians," p. 131. 

39° 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [189c. 

Assyrian sculptures became familiar to European eyes, their suggestive 
effect on the ancient Hebrew mind has been often thought of. One 
striking point of comparison with the mystic visions of Ezekiel was 
noticed many years ago by Layard. It is that the four forms of the 
living creatures of Ezekiel, man, lion, bull, eagle, are precisely those 
of the Assyrian monuments. The winged bull and lion are made up 
of these and no other, and if we add to them the winged walking 
figures, they fall into the same scheme. As Eayard argues, " These 
coincidences are too marked not to deserve notice ; and do certainly 
lead to the inference, that the symbols chosen by the prophet were 
derived from the Assyrian sculptures."* Through long ages of 
religious art, this quaternion of mystic creatures is to be traced 
henceforth. Within Christendom the four beasts of the Apocalypse 
reproduce those of Ezekiel ; and at last the series passes into the 
attributes of the four Evangelists. 

I have now to point out that the argument for the derivation of the 
Cherubim of Ezekiel from the Assyrian monuments may be carried 
further. In the prophet's description of the living creatures who 
he knew were cherubim, he says that " they had every one four 
wings, and the likeness of the hands of a man was under their 
wings." Now these are two special characteristics belonging to such 
an Assyrian deity as is here shown (Plate I, fig. 2) majestically 
striding with the fertilizing cone in his hand. They form a combina- 
tion which can hardly have repeated itself by accident. Modern 
observers are not indeed struck at first sight by the express mention 
of the hands under the wings, which to them seem almost a matter of 
course. But this is because the genii and angels to whose forms we 
are accustomed are themselves derived from the winged figures 
belonging to Assyria. It is improbable that at the time of Ezekiel 
there were any other types in the world answering the description of 
the four wings and the hands below them, except such Babylonian- 
Assyrian winged deities, and the adaptations of them by neighbouring 
nations. Through the Phoenicians the Assyrian figures had long before 
become familiar to the Hebrew mind, as appears when the Tyrian 
workmen are related to have adorned the temple of Solomon " with 
carved figures of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers." This 
shows that among the Phoenician art-figures of Assyrian origin, familiar 
to us by many specimens, the cherub was a definite figure known by 

* Layard, " Nineveh," Vol. II, p. 465. 
39 l 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

name, and not only was the conventional sacred tree of Assyria 
depicted beside it, but this was understood to be the date-palm. The 
types from which the visionary living creatures modelled themselves 
in the prophet's mind in his vision on the banks of the river Chebar, 
stand thus almost completely open to the modern student.* 

As an example of the transplanting of Assyrian types, Plate IV, 
fig. 17, represents a group from Persepolis illustrating those combina- 
tions of winged animals with trees and other sacred objects which 
are commonly engraved on cylinders, etc. It is hard to guess whether 
they continue to embody some religious conception, or have passed 
into the merely decorative stage, but there is still evident in them a 
consciousness of meaning which makes their details instructive. In 
the present figure, the drawing of the palm-tree is important, for 
above its almost naturalistic shaft the head of the palm stands up as 
a half rosette. The comparison of these with the complete rosettes 
in the figure, makes it probable that the latter were intended as 
representing the head of the palm seen from above or below. Such 
rosettes are known in Assyrian ornament accompanying cones, leaves, 
and fan-heads of the palm (see Layard, "Monuments," 1st series, 
pi. 34-38), and it seems a reasonable explanation that the wheel-like 
objects to which winged deities are presenting the cone in the 
enamelled archivolt at Khorsabad may be the palm-trees. In Plate 
III, fig. 16, I give a sketch of a group from this remarkable series, 
which strikingly recalls the alternate cherubim and wheels of 
Ezekiel's vision. In Plate IV, fig. 18, is part of the decoration of 
the Francois Vase at Florence, which shows groups of the nature 
of that of Persepolis travelling into Greek art, the tree before which 
the griffins stand being the well-marked conventional palm-group 
of the Assyrian monuments. In more degenerate forms the art- 
student may trace the influence of such groups in the ornamentation 
of the Renaissance, as in the Loggie of the Vatican. 

It is needless for me to bring forward evidence here on a topic 
now becoming acknowledged in classical archaeology, that the 
Assyrian winged deities whose nature and functions have been here 
remarked upon are the predecessors of the winged genii whose 
graceful forms pervade Greek, Etruscan, and Roman art. In later 
times, when Christianity became an imperial religion, the Victories 
and Cupids and guardian genii of pagan Rome with slight change 

* Ezek. x, xl; I Kings, vi, vii; 2 Chron. iii. 
392 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

gave rise to the Christian angels, and as such have ever since retained 
their artistic place; so obvious is this, that mere comparison is the only 
proof it needs. It is a remarkable instance of the permanence of 
art-forms once established in the world, that the Assyrian palm-tree, 
though separated from the winged deities whose office was to make 
it fruitful, has none the less made its way also over the world. 
From the time of the early Assyrian discoveries, it became evident 
that its conventional form had given rise to the Greek ornament 
often called the "honeysuckle," but the real nature of which is 
now acknowledged in the term "palmette." Reduced to mere 
decoration, this pattern pervades modern buildings and furniture, 
repeated with wearisome iteration by craftsmen from whose minds 
the sense of original meaning in ornament has long since died out. 
It is curious to see sometimes on a church wall the honeysuckle 
pattern bordering a space round sculptured angels, and to remember 
how far off and how long ago it was that the ancestor of the angel 
tended the ancestor of the plant. 




393 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S90. 



THE NEW ACCADIAN. 
By the Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A., Oxon., 

CHAPLAIN OF LINCOLN'S INN; FORMERLY CENSOR AND LECTURER IN 
KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 

{Continued from page 287, and including the substance of a paper 
read April 6, 1 890. ) 

The Ideogram >f-. 

This character, called by the Babylonian scribes Bant, and Masit, 
from its two principal values, might be read bar, par, bir, pir, even ba 
(2 R 56, 36 c), and mas, mas, perhaps raus ; but its usual sounds were 
bar and mas. A relation between mas and mar, like that between 
kus and kur, gis and gir, is probable on the face of it. Moreover, 
bar (bas) and mas (mar) are to be regarded as roots really cognate 
with each other, and not as two wholly distinct roots which have 
been arbitrarily represented by a single character. This follows 
from the well-known dialectic interchange of b and m, in both 
Accadian and Chinese ; a fact which, as we shall see, is fully 
illustrated in the case before us. Similar meanings are found under 
the two sounds. If bar (or bir) is a brother, mas is a twin ; if mas 
is to neglect, to forget, bar is to let go, cast off, abandon ; if mas 
was produce, harvest, so also probably was bar (cj>. bar, to sprout, 
and the Hebrew ""&, wheat). The same thing is seen in the 
Mandarin mo, Amoy, bck, wheat; Mandarin, matt, Amoy, bb ( = ba), 
barley. 

The Assyrian scribes have connected a great variety of meanings 
with this character. I have been able to verify most of them from 
the Chinese. In many instances the Mandarin sound corresponding 
to the Accadian bar is pao ox p'ao. Now the twentieth radical, of a 
few characters mostly relating to wrapping and inclosing, is pao, "to 
wrap up," " to envelop," " to contain," "a bundle." The sign *~j is not 
altogether remote from T__, a form o >f- which has been thought to 
be the original character for the sound bar, while *^- was originally 
mas. The Chinese sign in combination with fan, " head," means a 
head-band or fillet ; cp. bar, to enclose, surround, bind (kcwui), and 

394 



June 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1890. 



bar, the enclosing walls of a town (kamatii). To wrap, inclose, 
infold, and bind, are kindred ideas ; and if the Accadian sign be set 
up, in its original position, thus, Mf, its likeness to the Chinese ' J 
becomes obvious enough. Other instances, in which the Accadian 
bar answers to the Chinese pao, are the following : — 



Accadian. 
bar, "brother, side" {aha). 



bar, "hyena" {ahu). 



Chinese. 

pao, "placenta, brotherly, uter- 
ine"; fung-pao, "brothers" 
(lit., same womb); pao, "to 
unite." 

pao, spotted felinae, as the 
leopard, panther, jaguar, etc. ; 
"spotted, marbled" (dialectic 
p'ao, pa, bo). 

bar-kak, "a spotted deer" (the p'ao, Shanghai do (=ba-r), "the 

male, as indicated by £^<y spotted deer." *kak is "horn" 

nita added to the expression ; the Mandarin kioh ; Cantonese 

Assyrian dassu) ; bar-kak, "a kok ; Amoy kak, "horn." 
gazelle" {sabitu, fern.). 

bar (nam-g'u), a "bird of the pao, "the spotted bustard." 
field " {dudu, ibbiltu). 

bar, " robes " {subat cluti, " dress of /tf<?,"long (embroidered) robes,' : 
honour"); bar-dib, "clothes." such as the sovereign gives; 

pao, "a swaddling-cloth"; 
p'ao, "a robe." 
bar, "to weave"; us-bar, "the p'ao so, "to throw the shuttle" 
loom" (Oppert). {vide bal) 

bar, "side, bank, fence, wall" pao (and /'«\ "a low wall for 
{ahatu, itiatu, kamatu)" castle, 
town '' {mahasu) /*-£:yyBARRA, 
"village" {kapru "1B3); bar 



defence"; "a small earthwork 
or fortified town"; "a citadel"; 
"ahamlet"; "walls" (of a city); 



* Also called piao, dialectic pin, pio {— IHR?). Under pin (old sound bio) 
we find piao, the markings of a tiger, a kind of tiger-cat, streaks, veins. /'./. 
is also a white spotted horse; cp. /'<>, white, dialectic p t o,p i b, bu, ~ PA-R, ru-r. 
There are other related words, e.g., p^i, dialectic/'/,//, bi, a leopard (= pi-r. 
ki-r) ; /'/, a hear spotted black and white. The Accadian BAR (BIR, BUR, 
clearly meant discolor, 7toiki\oc. Cp. BAR, " the iris ' of the eye (burwu). 

395 



June 3] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

Accadian. Chinese. 

in bar-nun) "defence," pao, "to protect," "defend," 
"bulwark" (Jiilsii) ; bar- "guard," "a protector" (cp. 
barri, "a citadel" (birtu). bar and kur and sis, "bro- 

ther.") 

bar, "family," "clan," "tribe" pao, "a group of ten families," 
(kimtii). " a tithing " ; pao, "a hamlet " ; 

" a division of a township, 

ruled by elected head-men " ; 

pao, " luxuriant " (of plants) ; 

" sprouts " (of a tree) ; cp. the 

Heb. WC& Asyrian nannabu 

= the Latin sobo/es. 

bar, "to fly," "flee," "run away" p'ao, "to run," "hasten," "run 

(parasu naprusu). away." 

bar (in gis-bar) "fire" (isatu) ; pao, "scorching heat" ; pao, "to 

bar, "to sparkle or flash," burn," "hot." 

of fire {kababu sa isati), "to p'ao, "to roast"; pao, "to sun " 

shine," "glitter" (naniaru); " to air." 
bar, " the sun " (samsu). 

bar, "to leave," "let go," " aban- pao, "to throw down," "to cast 

don " (insu-BAR, masaru; su off"; p'ao (in p'ao pHeh), " to 

= shau, "hand.") leave," e.g., one's home. 

bar, " belly," " body " {zumru, pao, " the crop of birds ; to 

pagru, 2 R. 30, 46 e ) ; bar, swell up " (the same as pao, 

" flesh " {siru) placenta) ; p'ao, " a bladder." 

(Both written with the deter- 
minative flesh). 
bar, "to bring together," "to pao, "to grasp," " to compress"; 

collect," £.£;, food; "to close," pao, "to store up " ; pao, "to 

e.g., the mouth {iissuru ; sa- wrap up." 

naku). 
bar, "to sink or fall down" (sa- p'ao, " to fling or throw down." 

hatii) ; causative " to throw 

down." 

bar, "to hurt," " damage " (nazd- pao, "violent," "oppressive," "to 
ku) ; bar, "vexation," "oppres- strike," " to waste " ; p'ao, "to 
sion" (kisittit). cut." 

396 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Accadian. Chinese, 

bar, "to offend," "sin against" p'ao, "to strike," " beat "; pao, 

{saldpu ; Syriac pa. "to "passionate"; nu, "violent" ; 

strike through," wound") ; nu, "anger," "fury"* ko old 

bar-nun, " enmity," " wicked- ka, " culm of bamboo." 

ness" (siliptii); bar-ka, "whip" 

(naglabu). 
bar, "lady" (beltii); cp. "the pao, "precious" ; "honourable," 

next." " noble." 

bar, "top," " surface of a thing " pao, "to praise, extol"; pao, 

(elltu, fern, of clu, "high," "on " noble." 

the top.") 
bar, three vessels (dug) of small p l ao, "a calabash"; p'ao, "a 

size (banda) ; perhaps used gourd" (used as drinking - 

as measures of capacity {ada- vessels) ; pao, " to contain,"' 

guru, kupputtu, sutii). "to hold " ; pao, "an earthern 

pot." 
bar-bar, " to think " (/jasdsu). pao, "to feel," "to have in the 

heart." 

Thus far, I have purposely confined my comparisons to two 
sounds only. But a modification of the vowels, which is so common 
in Accadian that it may be called normal (bar= bir, bur), would en- 
able us to adduce many other Chinese parallels. Thus the last 
instances above may be compared with piao, old sound bio, i.e., bir, 
Cantonese piu, Shanghai pio, " the highest peak of a ridge," and 
piao, " the topmost branch of a tree"; also, "to rise," and "best," 
"fine." The Chinese pao, "to sit on eggs," "to hatch," implying 
a primitive ba-r, may be at once connected with fit, old pu = pu-r, 
bur, "to brood on eggs"; and both with the Accadian JjTr| 
kin-bur, and its Assyrian replica kinburru (sa issuri), "a bird's 
nest." (With kin, cp. Chinese kin, "a clay hut or cabin"; or 
perhaps rather kin, "birds," the class Aves, in which case KINBUR 
would mean the brooding of birds. But as the character is also read 
ab-lal, which is explained to mean kinnu sa issfiri, "a bird's nest," 
it seems probable that kin-bur is synonymous.) 

The Accadian bar, in some of its senses, has duplicates in bad 
(>-< and fetl^y). Thus we find bad, "to depart," "remove," 

* bar-nun resembles fa-nu, " angry, to express anger " {fa, old sound bat = 
bad, means " to shoot " ). 

397 2 f 



Tune 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

"transport " {e.g., a people), "distant" {nisu), and "to open" {pitu) ; 
and bad, "wall," "citadel," "high" {duru, elii), as well as bar, "to 
depart," "remove," "distant" {nisu, nussii); bar, "distant places" 
(rikatu ; cp. ki-bad, nisatii) ; bar, "to open" {pitu); bar, "walls," 
"fortified town" {kamatu, mahazii), and "high" {clitit, elatu). 
Further, bad or bid, "dead," "corpse" {mitu, pagru), answers to 
bar, "a corpse" {pagru). Hence we see that pa, old sound pat 
or bat (= bad), "a sacrifice to the gods of the road, made at 
starting on a journey," may be cognate with bar, " to depart " ; and 
so in other cases. The intermediate sound may have had final s 
(=tj d) ; cp. er and es, "to weep," gir and gis, "heaven," with 
(g)u§ (or gis) and gud, "blood," (g)tjs, "to set up" {emedu) 
'high" {saku, elatu), and gud, "high" {elu). There are numerous 
instances in which we find a Chinese term with final -k, i.e., G, in 
place of Accadian r and L. As final d and G interchange so 
frequently in Accadian, this is not surprising. The Accadian bar, 
" iron " {parzillu), may perhaps, therefore, be compared with the 
Chinese poh, dialectic /<?£, bok, i.e., bag = bar; in the compound, 
poh-t'ieh, "raw or unwrought iron.''* 

Hence also bar, "liver," "feeling," "disposition," may be com- 
pared with p'oh (bag), dialectic p'ak, p'ek, p'ak ( = bag, big), "the 
animal soul," "the senses"; bar, "to transport," "remove" 
{nussti), with p'oh "to banish, exile, drive into the desert"; bar, 
"a brother," with poh, "eldest brother," dialectic pak, pek, pak 
{■= big, beg, bag); bar (in babbar = bar-bar) "white," with po/i,f 
"white," dialectic pak, pek; andpo/i, "a piebald horse," dialectic/^, 
pak, bok {■= pag, bag) with bar, "spotted, striped, variegated." On 
the other hand, poh, "back to back," the 105th radical, dialectic 
////, pwat (puat), beh, has final d (bad, bud, bid) = bar, "back," 
"behind" {arku, arkatu, ahru, ahratu); and p'o, "white," 
dialectic p% bu, old sound ba, seems to point to ba(r), bu(r). 
Similarly, p'o (ba-r), dialectic po, p'wan, bu {=■ bar, ban, bur), 
may be compared with £^y bar, "a stone." The Chinese term is 
defined " stones like flint or obsidian, which can be used for spear 
or arrow-heads." It is not likely that the numerous values of the 

* The Chinese call t'ieh, "iron" (old sound dit = Canton fit), the black metal ; 
dit is perhaps, therefore, related to "^—YYYy > DIRI » DIR > "black." 

t The planet Venus is called T'ai-po//, which irresistibly recalls the Accadian 
dh.-bad, Ai\t<pd.T (Hesych.)j the planet Venus. 

398 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Accadian character for stone, za, si, na, dag, dig', bar, were all 
identical in meaning ; they must have denoted different kinds of 
stone. 

As the character just cited has the values dag and bar, so Z^.\ 
is read par in the sense of spread out (napaitu), and bara in that 
of " to spread, outspread " (suparruru, suparrurtu) of a fishing-net, 
and, with the prefix gis, par (parru), "a fishing-net"; but dag also 
in the like sense of strewing, laying out, e.g., a bed [rapddu, ~TE"} ), 
and laying oneself down ; cp. >-^- bar, a bed itenu). To this bar 
(par) the Chinese p'u, old p'o (= pa, ba), "to spread out," 
"arrange," "lay in order," e.g., a table or a bed, and then "tired," 
"to sleep with," "bedding," answers very well ; cp. also po, old pa, 
Cantonese /#, Shanghai pu, "to strew, scatter abroad," and////, old 
pik (= big) "a fishing-net," /^/ (dialectic//,/!?), "a fishing-creel." 

With /'<? (ba), "not, "we may compare the Accadian ba, "not,"' 
ba-ra {Id), and ban, " not " (ban = ba + na). It would be easy to 
extend these comparisons ; but I think the table given above will 
be sufficient to convince unprejudiced minds (1) That the numerous 
meanings assigned to the sound bar by the Assyrian scribes are not 
arbitrary but really belonged to it in the old non-Semitic language 
of the country; and (2) that the closest possible relation connects 
that primitive tongue with the language of China. 

The Ideogram ^f>-^. 

This group is explained as meaning, " to be bright, or pure," 
"to make bright," "clean," e.g., hands, and so ''pure," "holy," 
" purity," " to wash, or cleanse " (damaku, bararu, minimum, 
damku, dumku, ubbubii). It is a compound of 4^-, life, and ^\, 
the sun ; and thus exactly answers to the Chinese character Jji 
sing, Chifu shing, "a star," sing-sing, "the stars," "white hair"; 
a character composed of £J , sun + ££, slicing, old shing, Chifu 
sang, Amoy seng, "to bear, to live, life." The connection between 
the ideas of being born and coming to light, being manifested or 
made visible, is seen in the old verse of Ennius : "Tu produxisti 
nos intra luminis oras," whence the Lucrctian "Inde enascitur 
atque oras in luminis exit." Hence, to open, to come out, to grow, 
and to shine, are all expressed by the common ^f^f (A^'j <*?#, 
rabii, sihu, namaru, dru, supd, etc.). 

The Accadian ^f^f, therefore, pronounced shig, with phonetic 
complement shig-ga, or shing, shinga, "bright," is absolutely 

399 2 P 2 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S90. 

identical, both in the character and the sound, with the Chinese 
sing, shing ("bright"), "star," which was originally identical with 
shing, Pekingese skang, "light," slicing, "wise," "holy," for which 
additional characters were naturally invented at a later period. 

The line, E.I.H., iv, 30, which I left unrendered, is to be read, 
sa-kin alam shing inatertia, "(Samas)who puttest the good thought 
(or desire) in my mind." alam, " image," " thought " (salmii), 
recalls eiSos, Idea, euw\oi>, and may be compared with Ian, lam, 
to desire, Ian, lam, to see. Elsewhere in Nebuchadrezzar's inscrip- 
tions, as I have before pointed out, we have the similar Musaskin 
anna khiim ina tirtia, "Putting the right desire (annu, pn> pro- 
pensus fuit, l ^j s ^-> desiderio affectus est) in my mind." The idea 
of looking or gazing at is connected with that of desiring, longing for, 
thinking of, in other Chinese and Accadian terms (see kin-gad, infra). 
I suppose that salmu was selected by the Babylonian scribe to 
explain the Accadian term alam, because of the similar sound. 

The Ideogram {flf . 

This sign is read suku, with a phonetic complement 4^f £|, 
§ukum-ma, and rendered kurmatu, kurummatu, "food" (field or 
garden produce, D - ^)- When joined with the ideogram «-| *~y\, 
ninni, the goddess Ishtar, it is rendered nindabu, taklimu, "offer- 
ing"; for offerings are the food of gods. 

suku = sukum = sukkum = sug-kum; and sug is "grain," 
"seed," ^, as we see in j^ »-{£, sukkul (sug-kul), zeru, "seed." 
With the Accadian kul, "seed," cp. the Chinese ku, "grain, corn, 
the seeds of cereals," in Cantonese kbk (= ka-ka, fruit); with 
sug, "grain," the 202nd radical shu, "the panicled millet," 
" sorghum," and shu, older shok, " edible pulse of any kind." kur 
and kul are not far apart in Accadian ; and the Chinese character 
ku, "grain," means also "good " and "lucky," much as in Accadian 
kur is "to eat" (akdlu) and kur is "lucky" (damku)* kum, the 
second element in su-kum, is kung ($t), " to place before, offer," 
" to supply," " to give," " grain for troops or revenue in kind " (cp. 
gun, billu) ; and, with a different tone, " to nourish," " to support " ; 
" offerings," " presents." In Cantonese the character means " to 

* The preceding ku, " a ravine, a porge," when joined with fang, " the 
wind," gives ku-fang, "the east"; cp. Accadian KIR (kur) in kir-ruu, 
" ravine," and KUR, "the east." 

400 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

eat one's fill." Compounded with shang (old shung) it yields the 
phrase shang-kung, " to offer in worship " ; the exact equivalent of 
the Accadian sukum(-ninni). 

The preceding and following homophones of kung, which mean 
"to revere," and "to give," "to present to," "reverential," are 
obviously identical in origin. 

The Ideogram <^F^. 

This character, read *>^\ t| ^, si-gis-se, means an " offering," 
or "sacrifice" {niku, kitrubu). It is noticeable that the sign for 
"grain," ^, is involved in the ideogram for " offering " {vide supra). 

The word sigisse may be analysed into si-gin-se. Now si has its 
equivalent in fg,, si, old si, "to sacrifice," "a sacrifice," in Amoy su 
(as in Accadian si is dialectic for su) ; gin answers to jjfj|[, yin, "to 
worship with pure intention and clean sacrifices," which appears 
compounded with the former, in yiu-si (= gin-si), "a pure sacrifice," 
" a sweet-smelling offering " ; and se, originally sheg, shig, shing, 
may be compared with $£> shang, old shing, "sacrificial animals, 
victims." 

As the Accadian term was accented on the penult, si-gi'sse, it is 
probable that gisse has survived in the Chinese hi-shang, old sound 
ki-shing or gi-shing, " animals offered in sacrifice " ; a term which 
appears in Japanese as gisei, " a sacrifice." The character for /ii, 
" victims," is composed of animals + breath, just as a synonym hi, 
" living cattle anciently offered to the gods . . . provisions, food, 
grain " {vide supra), is composed of eat {shih, shik = Accadian she, 
seg, sug, " grain," " food ") + breath* 

The Ideogram ^y<|>-y and the Name Merodach. 

This sign is ^f»~ the eye, to see, life, soul, spirit, within >-^|| 
seat, city (sedes hominum); of which the archaic forms are <J 
and ,— 1~| . Combining the two in their original vertical position we 

get n . This ideogram was pronounced silig, "the strong," or "the 

champion" {sagapuru), "\S^y (Ps. xix, 5), see below, p. 415; and 
asaru or asari, as a title of the god Merodach (2 R 55, 68 c). The 

* The saying I-ivo ts'i-ming, yii-ivo hi-yang " with me grain bright, with me 
a pure ram," i.e., " my vessels are full of clean millet, and I have a pure ram, to 
sacrifice," illustrates what is said above. lYi must be zi, "grain," Qua (?). 

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June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

coincidence of sound with the Egyptian Asari or rather Uasar 
( JVasdri) is evident enough ; but that might be the result of mere 
chance, were it not for the fact that the Accadian and Egyptian 
ideograms also coincide : H (a seat + an eye) is the common 
hieroglyph for Osiris. Uas is a seat ; cp. Uas-t, Thebes* for the 
natural transfer to the meaning of city, dwelling-place. But the 
reason of this ideogram does not appear from the Egyptian. 
Whether Accadian throws any light upon it we shall see. 

It is obvious that the name t^f]— ^f^j mar-dug, is non-Semitic ; 
and as each of its elements admits of various meanings, e.g., dug 
is " good " (^), and dug is " head " (t£] >^]]]^), and dug is " to see " 
(do.), and dug (^ ^) is " to melt," we can understand that various 
interpretations might be put upon the entire name by the Babylonian 
literati. Hence, as mar means " to sit," " dwell " (asabu), and dug, 
" to see " (p. 414 infra), the god might be indicated by a combination 
of eye + seat, without necessitating the assumption that the old 
Accadians were scientific etymologists, either in this or in any other 
instance. Yet, at the remote period when this curious ideogram was 
originally invented, the meaning of Mardug as an appellative may still 
have been transparent to the ancient people who used the name. And 
when we consider that the forms uru (gur), gal (whence Assyrian 
alu), "ty, "IJ^tLV ""V"y> ERI ) on tne one hand, and the forms gan, kar 
(^f), and unu (gunu), gun (£<3« J, subtu, "seat," sedes) on the 
other, really imply that in Accadian the oldest terms for "seat," 
"city," were gar (gan, gal, etc.), gur (gun, un), and mar (mer, 
er) ; and, further, that the ideas of seeing and living (tin, hatu, tin, 
balatu), eye and spirit (shi), were expressed by the same terms, 
in that ancient idiom ; we may be disposed to think that Mardug 
was originally thought of as the eye or guardian spirit of man's 
seat or dwelling-place.* 

The title of a god, «~ f -eft -f^ ( = — f --ff <f-), which 
seems to mean "Spirit of the City" (3 R 66, 29 e.), and the 
designation of Merodach as »-»-y ^|>- >~y<y, "the Bird that sees" 

* Cf. tin-tir, Subat baldti, perhaps rather Subat napisti or niSSi. On the 
other hand, as tin meant "a seat" as well as "life" (^ffi >-^\ ill kis-tin, 
kussti = Ki-is--<^, kis-du ? = VfEl DU, Subtu), it is possible that the ideogram 
>-^y<y>-y was originally seat with the determinative or defining spirit added 
thereto. To live and to dwell are naturally connected ideas. 

402 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

all things, or watches over man (5 R 46, 28 e.), seem to lend 
support to this view. To the old mythologist the Sun is the 
Divine Eye that sees everything. Consequently Samas, who is 
but one of the many doubles of Merodach, is like Osiris the 
Judge of man. 

"Heaven," "God," "King," "Spirits," in Chinese 
and accadian. 

The Accadian *-*-|, Archaic ifc, read ana, is defined saw//, 
"heaven," and Anu, the god of heaven, or heaven personified 
(Dyaus). Read dingir, and dimmer or dimer (dimir), it is defined 
ilu, "god," and sarru, "king." Read anu and essu (= an-sug)* 
it is defined subultu "ear" (of corn), and subultu sa se'vn, "ear 
of corn"; while an is sissinnu, "a palm branch." The definition 
kakkabu, "a star," probably belongs to dingir; that of saku, 
"high" (~-y, «-f *+■]), elu, "high," "on the top," is to be con- 
nected with ana, often written >~>-y *~^~], an-na (cp. ngan, an, 
"a bank, a high cliff, a high forehead," etc.). I have already given 
reasons for regarding gan (ngan) as the primitive root which appears 
in ana, "high," "stalk," " heaven " (that which is upheaven), en, 
belu, "lord," and other related words. The sign »-»f- is also ex- 
plained by belu, "lord"; in which sense it was probably read an. 
an-na, like en, en-na, "lord." It also meant resu, "head," which 
agrees with the Chinesejv^//, dialectic un, gwan,yii n , "a large head," 
and yuen, "the first, the head, the principal, eldest." The yet 
further meaning of " lead " (the metal), an-na, afterwards read 
nagga, niggi, agrees with the Chinese yuen, also read yen, called 
" the azure metal " and " the black metal," terms which indicate 
why the Accadians called it " sky "-metal, dialectic tin, yan, i", the 
Japanese en; the Peking chHen (=din), which is related to the 
Accadian niggi ( = ningi). Lastly, an in the sense of seru, "common, 
waste, desert," for which we find >->~y >^y an-na alone, and 
->~y t^^ >~^y AN-DiNNA,f is to be compared with /$ yuen. 
"plateau, or high and level field, waste, common," dialectic un, 
gwan, nii n , as also with ^y gan a, " field " (eklu), and yuen, 

* AN-sUG, i.e., >->~y^\ In Chinese wheat is called lai, because "it came 
down from heaven." 

t Or ana-edinna ; but may not an have become EN and then fi, as in the 
instance p. 414 note, so that E-DIN sprang from gan-uin ? 

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June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890. 

"garden, park." The Assyrian seru, siru, is probably related to 
siru, "high"; so that we have here another reason for supposing 
a real connexion between (g)AN, "heaven," and (g)AN, "plateau, 
terrace, field," fieri, "heaven," and fien, "field "= din, e-din. It is 
probable that dingir, dimmi'r, meant "heaven," and then "heavenly 
being," "god," upon the following grounds: — (1) We have the 
equation gi-ir-ra (girra) = an-na (anna or ana) = same, "the 
heavens," and this girra (dialectic Mf rra) may be the second element 
in dingir, dingirra; (2) din, dim, the first element, answers to *~ < 
idim, edim, samu, " heaven," di'mma, " king " (same), and to the 
Chinese fien (tin, din), "heaven," which itself "though without 
definite personality, is employed more than any other Chinese term 
to indicate God," much as the Rabbis used shamdyim, and as we 
speak of the will of Heaven : (3) the term dingir thus appears to be 
an ordinary combination of two synonyms, such as we have already 
often met with, and of which a trace perhaps survives in the 
Chinese 3EIR i"ien-k'i, "the weather" (heaven + air). 

The second Chinese character for fien, "heaven," ^[fljtf,, in- 
volves the signs tsHng, "blue," and k'i, "air" or " ether." It at once 
recalls the Accadian ^Q- zikum, saw//, "heaven," which is doubtless 
to be analysed into zig, zi ( = sig, arku, which, like the Chinese 
ts'ing, meant both green and azure) + kum. What was kum? The 
Chinese expression ^^ k'iting-ts'ang, "the azure canopy, the 
empyrean, the abode of the higher powers," may inform us. Ts'ang, 
"the green tint of plants — the azure of the sky," is a synonym of 
tsHng (zag = zig);* cp. ts'ang-tsHng (zag-zig), "the greenish-blue of 
distant hills " : k'i/ing or k'ung (the sign is cavern + bow, as if arched 
cave) is defined "lofty, high and vast as the sky, empty, a hole." It 
is evident that k i iiing-ts i ang (=kum-zag) is identical with the Acca- 
dian zi-kum ; the elements being reversed, as in zu-ab, ab-zu, and 
other Accadian expressions. kum is concave (cp. rum=g'um, in 
kirrum, " hole "). This agrees with the fact that >-<, idim, 
means a "hole" (nakbu), as well as "heaven" (samri)j 

* Here and elsewhere it will be noticed that Chinese ts, ts', = Accadian z. 
This rule is as general as that Chinese ch, ch', = Accadian D (or T), or that 
Chinese y = Accadian G, g' (or a lost initial g). I was not quite clear upon this 
head in my first paper. Strictly, ch = T, and j = D. 

t The other value of the Accadian sign read zikum, "heaven," is tu, a/>s/i, 
"the abyss." Cp. the Egyptian r^ci, tua-t, "the nether-heaven." The 
signs, as well as the words, correspond. Both are star + house. 

404 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

The saying Then ta kivo shan, " Heaven is greater than the 
gods," presents us with shan, old shin, dialectic shan, sin, zang 
(= shin, sin, zig), "spirit"; a term corresponding to the Accadian 
zi, shi, "spirit," " divine being " (zi-anna, zi-kia). The Chinese 
say that shan denotes the yang (yeung, yong = gin, gan), " the 
powers above, the superior of the dual powers in Nature, the male 
(Accadian gin) as opposed to the female or receptive element," which 
is called yin, dialectic yam, im, yang (= gim, im, gig = Accadian 
gimi, gin, "maid," "girl"), and which means "a shadow, dark, 
Hades (gig, g&, the Accadian for "night," "dark"), the inferior of 
the dual powers." Hence we understand why zang is also Shanghai 
for jan, " man," and why shi, Amoy si, means " strength " and 
"virility of males," and shi-lih, Amoy se-lek, "strength, prowess" 
(= Accadian silig). 

But when the Chinese speak of a particular god, as the God of 
War, or the God of Fire, they use the term %, ti, a character of 
obscure origin, which is defined to mean " one who rules by his own 
power, a god, a divine being," and, like the Accadian dingir, 
dimmer, is also applied to the sovereign ; while like *-*-], it also 
means "Heaven" The term is, I think, identical with the Accadian 
»-<!< ti, til, "to live" (balatn), and "to dwell" ( as a hi) ; and the 
character is not altogether unlike the archaic* — c,-^, that is, 

y. This Accadian ti, til, is closely related to (H, old form \, 

tin, Din, meaning "to live" (baldtu), "seeing" (haitu), "strong 
drink " or " spirits " (sikaru), and " male " (zikarit). Comparing 
this with what has been said above, it becomes highly probable 
that the fundamental idea is seeing. The seeing are the living 
(oi fiXeTrovies:); the living are endowed with life or spirit; the male is 
the spirited animal, and the source of life or spirit by procreation ; 
while the transfer to strong liquids which rouse the spirits is natural 
enough. Hence the Chinese writer who said, " Ti means a lord of 
living things," came nearer to the truth than he was aware of. 
Hence too we understand better why a god is represented by an 
eye (p. 401); and we may feel justified in drawing up the series zi, 
zin, shi, shin, di, din (nin), ti, tin, gin, kin — "to see," "to live," 
"spirit," "man." 

* Cp. the Egyptian •¥•, cinch, "living," the prominent attribute of gods 
and of the blessed dead. 

40 5 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

The sign >-< {vide supra) was also read til, in the sense of 
"to live" {baldtu), and "to finish," "cut off" {gamdru, katii); with 
the latter we may compare fieri, "to terminate," and "exterminate." 

Further, as £K tin or din means "seeing," it answers im- 
mediately to the Chinese Hen, "to consider," tien, "to glance at," 
" regard with attention." 

The Chinese _£. ^ Shang-ti, " the supreme ruler, the highest 
being in the heavenly Pantheon," also called fien-ti, "the ti of 
heaven," may now perhaps be explained. "The radical idea of ti" 
says Dr. Williams, "is a ruler of the highest kind," and he gives 
" to judge " as the first meaning of the character, for which, how- 
ever, the next, viz., f^ (the same sign with the determinative words'), 
ti, "to judge," "to examine into, to decide between," is now used. 
This latter plainly corresponds to the Accadian ^f^z di, " to judge," 
properly "to distinguish between" (discerno, and then decerno); 
the d-form of zi, shi, and the rest of the series of related terms 
meaning "to see," and then "to know." But the primitive meaning 
of ti, "a god," was, as we have concluded, "a seer," or "spirit"; 
and the word di, " to see," occurs in the Accadian compound 
^f>- tfyyy ^y^f= sin-di (or igin-di), " to look at " {naplusii) ; cp. 
Pjft ti, " to gaze at,"'Cantonese tei, " to see," " to look." The idea of 
seeing is the fundamental idea of the primitive di, ti ; that of judging 
is secondary. 

There is a saying, Shang-ti t'ien ye, "Shang-ti is heaven," 
which recalls the fact that «~y is both heaven and the god or spirit 
of heaven (Anu), like Dyaus, Zeus, Jupiter. In the Accadian J^: J^: 
ni-ni, " god," later, i-li, we have an n-form related to the t (d)-form 
ti, "god," as J^: m, "male," is to tin (din), "male." The 
emperor is called ti-ivang ; wang, old wung=mung, mun, Cantonese, 
wong, Amoy, ong (=mang, ang, man, an), " king," may be compared 
with ^ man, " king " {sdrru), ^ u-mun, un, " lord," " lady " 
{belu, beltu), >t^ mu, " king " {sdrru), and " heaven " {samu). 
These m-forms are, of course, related to g-forms like gi, " king," 
yuen, dialectic iin, gtvan, nil" (Accadian UN, " lord," *— YTT» NUN > 
"magnate," "prince," rubft, £-£f, nin, "lady"): cp. also ang 
( = ngan), "great, high, to raise the head," with an, "high." 

As to the Shang of Shang-ti, it obviously is identical with the 
Accadian *^\\^f- sang, shang, " head, top, great, chief, first-born," 
of which the oldest form is T| . Shang means "top, above, high, 

406 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

that which is above or high ; Heaven ; superior, excellent, honour- 
able, exalted"; thus agreeing very well with the Accadian term. In 
my last paper I pointed out that the Accadian ^fs^: £^f, " head," 
ought to be read as it stood, sag-du or sang-du. I have since come 
across this very term in Chinese, viz., _£ Jlji, shang-fau, "the head 
or chief." The Shanghai equivalent, zong-dii = Accadian zag, zang, 
"head" + DU. A god is mentioned under the title of dingir 
sang-dugga, which is paraphrased by the Assyrian ilu banisu, " the 
god his father " ; and Caivan 01 Saturn is called sang-us, and Nin-fb, 
sang-tar, forms which are parallel to Shang-ti. And just as shang- 
shang means "of the best quality," so sang-sang is "great" or 
" excellent " (kabtu, " heavy," like gravis). Finally, I have said that 
<K, tin or din, "life," is also "spirits" or "strong drink." 
Accordingly, we have ^Ifs^ £K, sang-tin, not as a title of the 
highest god, but of the best spirits or liquor.* 

The Ideogram fc££^. 

This character is compounded of tl£^, man, and ^ other, 
brother. It had the sounds sis, phonetically spelled Si-Es(fs), and 
sis, as appears from the word ^^ ^|y sis-si, as well as uru. 
Like its synonym kur, the term denoted both brother, and enemy 
(aku, limnn) ; which may be explained by the fact that in polygamous 
countries a brother is often a rival claimant for the father's 
favour and the family inheritance {cp. Ishmael and Isaac ; Joseph's 
Brethren). 

sis or rather sissi appears to be compounded of sin + si(n), the 
pronunciation hovering between sh and s for the initial sound , a 
hesitation which is faithfully reflected in the writing, sin(sin), there- 
fore, would seem to be a primitive term for brother in Accadian, as sen 

* The ideogram has the gloss (ku-run), an Accadian term, which is 
explained saint, the Hebrew N3D vinum ; cp. the Chinese jf^f, ku, " new spirits," 
and nung, Amoy long, " thick, rich," of spirits ; kan-nung, " sweet or oily wine" 
( = karran, i.e., karan, kar&nu, "wine"). The Accadian (K tin (din), "strong 
drink," is not to be directly compared to tsin ; it is more nearly related to the 
Amoy chili (=&u). But ting, "drunk"; fan, Shanghai tc" (=tin), "fond of 
wine"; fan, Amoy tain, Shanghai de n (=din), "generous wine," and /';', 
Amoy t'e, Shanghai di, "reddish, but pure clear liquor," " rich wine," are closer 
representatives of tin, niN; cp. also tien, " to pour a libation "; /'/<•;/, "well- 
tasted," of wine ; t'ien, " to strengthen spirits." All these terms except the last 
two have the prefix yii, " strong drink." Ching, " to distil spirits "= ting, tin. 

407 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

(sin) is in Egyptian.* It is a curious circumstance that the moongod 
is designated in Accadian by a group of characters which contain this 
ideogram sis, «-| ^^^ ^Irf- This group is denned «~y<«, Sin 
(4R1, 29b. etal.). Sin, the ordinary Assyrian (yet non-Semitic, because 
uninflected) name of the moongod, is homophonous with sin(sin), 
brother; which may account for the use of this ideogram in writing 
his name, even if the two roots were originally unconnected. The 
group «-| tZmt ^lij was rea d nanna, according to one passage 
in the documents (na-an-na : 5 R 23, 32 g.) ; but this, of course, does 
not exclude other possible values. Comparing nanna with ninni 
( *± nin + nin), I think nanna may be equivalent to nan + nan, 
"great man," "lord." nan and nin may both mean " man," for 
which, in both Accadian and Chinese, we find terms destitute of the 
marks of gender, and denoting, therefore, either man or woman 
(lord or lady). In Chinese, as in Accadian, terms denoting sex are 
prefixed to these sexless words for the sake of precision. Jan 
(=din) being "a man," which in Cantonese is pronounced yan 
( = gin), in Amoy jin (=din), in Shanghai niang (=nin), a China- 
man says nan-jdn for a man, as opposed to a woman, nii-jan. But 
I have already shown, by comparison of the Accadian forms, that 
nan, dialectic nam, lam, ne" (=nin), and nil, dialectic nil, lu, are 
themselves originally ambiguous as regards gender ; cp. Accadian nin, 
"lord" and "lady," lam (=dam, "wife"), which, with the prefix nita, 
"male," means " husband," ^^ lu, "man." mu-lu is explained 
"man," "lady," and "people" (amelu, bcltu, nisii). gin is "male," 
("IT"^ zikctrti) and gin is " maid " (^V" amhi) ; cp. Chinese yin, 
"a bride," dialectic yan, in, ydng (=gin, in, gim : cp. Accadian In, 
"lord," and gimi "maid"). ■£-, the common determinative prefix 
for "female," had the value gal, as well as sal (cp. sao, Amoy sb = 
sa-1, " a woman," " a matron ") and rag (cp. lag, lug, servant, lam, lu, 
man, and Chinese lang, a man) ; but gal is also "man" (^^ had 
this sound also). The root-idea of gal, "man," may have been 
"great," strong," or "high": cp. £p- gal, "great," t:]]\ kala, 
" strong," " high ;" en, " lord " = an = gan, " high ;" and so on. In 
Chinese we have lao, dialectic lb (=la), iiau, "large," "great," 

* The evidence of this and other common vocables, points to a very early 
connexion between the primitive languages of Babylonia and Egypt ; although 
the latter has developed on quite independent lines, and been influenced by its 
own environment. 

408 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

which in the Cantonese means "a man," "a fellow;" lih (lik) = 
Accadian lig, "strong." 

Ar to the <|E| ki in *-*■} r^ m ^ ^IeJ> *' * s natural to compare it 
with the Chinese ko, old sound ka, Shanghai ku, "an elder brother"; 
cp. also ki, "the youngest of brothers," and kin, "a wife's sisters," 
" sisters-in-law." In this case, the whole group, dingir + sis(si) + ki, 
god + brother + brother, means the Brother God, that is, I suppose, 
the kinsman and protector of his worshippers. 

But now, what Chinese term corresponds to sissi, "brother"? 
We have seen that the term may be analysed into sin + sin, just as 
ninni is nin + nin. The duplication expresses greatness, and so 
the deep respect of the speaker; just as in Chinese niang-nidng 
(= ninni) is "Lady," and ko-ko, "my elder brother." I think 
I have found the equivalent of sin, brother, in 5£> hHiing, or as 
some write it, hsii'mg, "an elder brother," which is used also as 
a title of respect, like Mr., Don, Sehor, etc. RHiing or hsiiing 
is a modification of h'im or h'in (hsim or hsin), as niang is of 
nin. Dr. Wells Williams remarks that the initial sound, which 
he writes h', is like the Spanish x in Quixote ; " sh would be too 
much," to represent it. This seems to savour of the Babylonian 
hesitation between sin and sin; cp. sikka and sukka, "he-goat'' 
(atudu). At all events, the fact that se, "an elder brother," is 
given as the equivalent of this character hHiing in the Japanese 
lexicon, strongly confirms our identification of it with the Accadian 
sis(si) or ses(si).* The other value of ££w^> URU > a synonym of 
sis, appears to be a worn form of kur, "brother," "enemy." (See 
March .Proceedings.) 

In speaking of an elder brother, you may say kia-h l in/ig, "my 
elder brother." Kia, dialectic ka (Canton, Amoy, Shanghai), but 
also kia (Swatow, Chifu), Peking chia, means " a household, a family, 
a home," and then "a house, a building," and even "a village." 
It is also used as " a title of a husband and of some dignitaries," 
and is "a suffix to nouns to denote persons"; finally, it means 
" the country or government," and " to dwell " (cp. ^gf, ki and 
ki-a, " to dwell, dwelling, place, land," etc.). In the expression kia- 

* The transition from sibilant to spiritus asper, so familiar in Aryan languages, 
hardly needs illustration : Sanskr. shash, saptan, Latin sex, septem, Greek 
t'E, itrra, six, seven, occur at once. So in Chinese under SUH we find characters 
pronounced h'ii, and under sin, h'iin ; just like Sanskr. sunus, Zend hunu, 
Sohne, son. 

409 



Tine 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

hHung, its force seems to be "family" or "clan" (as in kia-cfrang, 
kia-tie, etc.). As a title kia also occurs in the phrases tHen-kia, 
" hea.ven-kia," and kwoh-kia, "country-£/tf," meaning the emperor. 
It seems very probable that the Accadian sis-ki (or ki-sissi) is 
the ancient equivalent of the modern Chinese kia-hHung ; so that 
the moon-god was called "elder brother of the clan," or simply 
" the elder brother." This reminds us of a great number of Semitic 
personal names, in which the Deity is claimed as kinsman or 
brother of the family ; Ammi-shaddai, Ahi-yah, etc. 

The archaic form of the Accadian <ffi ki, as exhibited by 
the Sfek des Vautours, viz., <% , which when restored to its original 
upright position is \jj> , favours this opinion ; for the Chinese 
character ^ with which we are comparing it, originally consisted 
of a shelter and three perso?is under it, although now ^ shi, a pig, 
has taken the place of the three men under the roof, probably by 
confusion with j£ shi, "a family, clan, gens, a clansman"; a term 
which also once denoted " the head of the clan," and accordingly 
was anciently a title of honour. This last term is perhaps related 
to the first element in sfssi. 

But the Accadian >^ ^ ^||, si'ssi, means, "evil," "hostile" 
(limnu), and not only "brother." If, therefore, hHung answers to 
the group in the one sense, it ought to in the other, assuming that 
the two terms are really related. Now the very next character 
pronounced hHung in the Chinese lexicon is [XJ, hHung, "unlucky, 
baleful, malignant, cruel," and this is followed by 3E> hHung, 
"malevolent, inhuman, cruel, malignant, wicked, vicious " ; meanings 
which are all included in the Assyrian limnu, "unlucky," of days 
and events; "evil, malignant, cruel," of demons and human enemies. 

The Ideogram < **mtt . 

A distinguished foreign professor has lately alleged against my 
views that "any Chinese word may mean anything whatever." The 
language, however, is far from being so accommodating to my com- 
parisons as this would imply. In the present instance there are. 
only ten leading characters pronounced hHung, and these are not all 
independent of each other. And as regards the tones making all 
the difference to the meaning, hHung, " elder brother," hHung, un- 
lucky," and hHung, "malevolent," have the same tone or shing, viz., 
the shang pHng tone ; and are thus perfectly homophonous, as we 
should expect them to be, from their common origin in the Accadian 

410 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

si'ssi. Certainly, it cannot be alleged, except in jest, that "any 
Chinese word may mean anything." The statement is signally 
false in the case of this particular sound h'/ung, which means exactly 
what a knowledge of Accadian would lead us to expect. Let us 
follow it a little further. The next two characters are )]tfc) h'iung, 
"frightened, startled" (heart -{- breast), and jz»J, h'iung, "the thorax, 
the breast, the feelings, the heart, the affections ; clamour, brawling." 
Now this second character is meant to represent " the thorax en- 
veloping the heart," and, consequently, answers exactly to the 
Accadian < ^rrr , which, in archaic form would be y) . It is the 
heart (^fyf) within an enclosure.* The recognized terms for 
"heart" in Accadian are sag, sab (= sam), and sa ; and the oldest 
known form of "^YTT ls ^ ■ ^ n Chinese, >\j>, sin, old sound sim, 
"the heart," appears in the dialects as sam (= sim), sin, sing, 
and shin. By a natural transfer of ideas, the term also means 
"middle," "mind," "will," "affections," "desire," "origin," "source." 
The common Accadian phrase >->~y ^]] ^TII^ ana-sagga, " the 
middle of heaven " (kirib same), is parallel to the Chinese tHen-sin 
(din-sim), " the meridian, the zenith " ; and the Chinese fa [JJ , 
sin-fien (sim-din), " design, intention," seems to supply the d-form 
corresponding to the Accadian "^YYY *"TT"^ *"**"! sag-ginna, "^"YYY 
HfT"^ > ^ y sag-gin-gan, " wish design " (bib'il, or babal libbi). 

Now the Accadian <^mtt_, which we have seen to have been 
originally a form identical with jaJ Wiling (sin or sim), "the thorax," 
is rendered "heart," and "middle," and "bosom," by the Assyrians 
(libbu, kirbu, surru = " Herzbeutel," Delitzsch), just like -*^YYY ^ A 
(b, g) ; while, among its sounds, we find sim, which is explained by 
the rarer synonym halhallatu, "heart" (cp. J.jJ.^Su "the heart," and 
also "the liver"). It was a great satisfaction to me to find this word 
sim, so closely corresponding to the old Chinese sim, "heart"; and 
to which sab (=sam) is related as man, "two," is to min "two." 
I trust my readers may be equally satisfied. t 

* Cp. Nos. 236 and 258, Amiaud and Mechineau, Tabl. Comp. 

t In regard to LI-KIR, the other value of the ideogram, rendered "heart" 
(Hblnt), I cannot help remembering that Li means " in," properly " the inside," both 
in Accadian and in Chinese, much as libbu and kirbu themselves are often used in 
combination with a preposition to indicate the same idea. As to kir, A'iao 
Cantonese k'iu, "a hole," "cavity," "the heart," may perhaps be compared 
(£'*'« = ki-r). And Japanese kokoro, "heart," may be related. 

411 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

The three characters which involve h'iung, "breast," viz., h'iung, 
"frightened," and h l iung, "to brawl, to scold" (words + breast), and 
h'iung, "the rush of water, bubbling; tumultuous, clamorous;" 
h'iung-h'iuiig, "the reveille of drums, din," "excited" (of anger), are 
all obviously derived from it, for it includes the notions of anger and 
clamour: e.g., >J* A £sj fej> siao jan h'iung-h'iung, "Petty men 
(are) quarrelsome," lit, small man brawl-brawl. The idea of anger 
is included in the Accadian < jMtt . {uggatu or uzzatii) ;* and noise 
is a manifestation of that passion. With this sense of the root we 
may perhaps further compare >^y^y sun or sin, " battle " (kablii). 
This ideogram consists of >-£z]] skin, flesh, body -f- ]^ water/ cp. 
h'iung, water + breast, for "clamorous," "noise of drums." 

The relation between Accadian words with initial k and s(s), 
already glanced at, is observable also in Chinese. If the sound 
hiung presupposes an older sin, sim, on the one hand, it presupposes 
an older kin, kun, on the other. Hence a relation becomes visible 
between ko (ka), Shanghai ku, " elder brother," kiu, do., Accadian 
ku-r (=kus), "brother," and hiung (sin), "elder brother," Japanese 
se, Accadian sis ; which is just like that between Accadian kin(gin) 
in kin-mis, " old man," " grandsire," (bursumu), ^f>f f ^JTT, and 
si, sig, sun ( = sin), "old" {labiru), <^^tj- (This character 
seems also to have had the sound of kur in the same sense ; cp. the 
Chinese £f kit, "ancient," "old," and kiu, "old." Chinese has 
also si, dialectic sik, "old," sien (sin), "first, the ancients," and 
sau (su), Shanghai sit, "an old man"; in exact agreement with the 
Accadian. So $J sung, " pine-tree," including firs and yews, is 
written with the phonetic kung, showing that it once had that sound; 
and the same character with the radical ts'ao, "plant," ^ is pro- 
nounced sung, "cabbage," a general term for such plants. Compare 
this with the Accadian ^^y| sim, "greens" (urkitu), and ^^fy 
«-^E=yy siM-Li (?), "pine" (burdsii). Compare also tfyyt sam 
(sam), the common prefix of vegetables, which also had the values 
kus, gus, gud, whence, by abrasion, u. So, again, ^, kung, "an 
insect," read sung in the sense of "grasshopper"; cp. ki-sim, a 
kind of locust or grasshopper. The same ideogram is read su-rin, 

* Siao, "little," dialectic siu, siau, sio, shew, seems to indicate a primary sir, 
shir, shar : cp. £>|; SIR, "little." With jan, jin, cp. M din, zikaru, "male," 
" man." 

412 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

in the sense of "grasshopper" or "cricket" (sasiru, ^TVI); which 
reminds us of the relation between initial R and s exhibited by the 
ideograms J^^ff sim (and rig), »^M sun (and rug). To 
both the meaning "bright, pure, white," is assigned (ibbu, Hlu). 
With rug (rig) in this sense we may compare su-rus, " to flash, 
sparkle, flame, shine" (hamatu, kababu, sabdbu, samu). But we 
also find su-g'us with a similar sense (sabdbu, samu) • which shows, 
as Haupt has pointed out, that the Accadian g' (=r) is really a 
sound akin to the Semitic guttural strong Ayin (~), resembling r 

grasieye. This accounts for the few characters given under yuug 
(gug, gun) in the Chinese lexicon, which the Pekingese pronounce 
like rung: ^.yung, rung, "glory, splendour," "blood" (cp. run in 
Accadian gu-RUN, "blood," damn); ffc rung (3 fires + roof) 
"sparkling," "blazing," |f> rung, "lustre of gems," "lustrous."' 
" to brighten," and one or two other characters. The Accadian 
^^y| rig also means " to surround," " enclose " (in ^^yy 

jr<yy and ^z5jz<yy t^ 3=L l=L- ^ ru * ^ u ) 5 c p- V±fz run St " to 

revolve" (of eddies); rung, "rills," "rivulets"; ^ rung, "to 
wind, tie around, coil around; go around." Considering that an 
initial r is not found in the Chinese lexicon, except in these few 
instances under yung, these coincidences seem to me to be very 
significant. 

Returning now to the Chinese vocable with which we are chiefly 
concerned, we may point out that $ff hiung (bird + arm), "a cock 
bird, the male of insects and small animals ; the best, masculine, 
martial ; brave, heroic," is clearly related to Q hung, " prince, 
lord, master; the male of animals; husband," on the one hand, and 
to sin, sim, shim, "heart" (as. "hearty," "courageous," "spirited"), on 
the other. The leading idea, as in |J hiung, "pre-eminent, high, 
exalted," seems to be that of brightness, and so superiority ; cp. 
>^y^y, sun (sin), " pure," " glorious " (ibbu, ellu), ^ ku, 
"glorious" (ellu), ^z kun, "to be bright, to shine" (uamdru) : 
also S ^y^T uku, "day," and "king" (umu, sdrru). ft hiung, 
"the bear," which involves the character (or flame, is difficult ; but 
this element of fire, and the fact that the character repeated is 
used of brightness, in the phrase ki-kwang hiung-hiung, " the glare 
(was) intense," seems to connect it with the same idea. Perhaps it 
originally meant the white bear (— Sun or sin, " white," ibbu). 

413 2 G 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1S90. 

The sole remaining character with this sound is §jHJ, hiung, "to 
spy about, observe, watch, inform." In Accadian it is well-known 
that terms denoting light and sight are closely related, and we find 
the same sign with the meanings " to be bright," and "to see" 
(namdru, amarii). This use of the Chinese sin, shin, is therefore to 
be compared with ^|>-, §1, which includes those two senses, and 
moreover with the groups 

which I read si-in (sin),* si-in-dug-ga (sIn-dugga), which are both 
explained " to see " (am&ru). The transition from seeing to causing 
to see, making known, informing, as in ^f^^TT , pad, "to shine, to 
see, to show, to say," is easy enough. ^|>-, shi (shin) may be the 
s-form of zi, "to know," and of di, "to judge" (discern). C/>. 
Chinese shen, "glittering," shen-kien, "sawit an instant"; shen {eye -f 
blaze), "to glance at, to peep," she n-mu, "to take a look at," sken- 
shen, "glittering"; shun, "to wink, to glance." 

If after this demonstration of the close relation between the 
Accadian sin, sin, sim, sim, and the Chinese hHung or hsiung, people 
still incline to the opinion that any Chinese word, or any Accadian 
word, may mean anything you please, I will ask them to consider 
whether it is likely that corresponding compoiuid terms should have 
fortuitously arisen in the two languages, and then to examine the 
following list: — 

Accadian. Chinese, 

si-gisse (f) (= si-gin-se), a sacri- yin-si, a sacrifice; Japanese, gisei 

fice. = Chinese hi-shang, victims. 

sukum (= sug-kum), an offering, shang-kung, to offer in worship. 

zikum (= zig-kum), heaven. h'i/'/ug-ts'ang, heaven. 

gukkal (= gug-kal), ram. yang-ku, ram. 

* That ^||||) archaic |r[rjz| iE| , E (i), "house" (bit 11) originally had the 
value IN is clear from its use in in -gar, 5 R 42, 56 g. in became E (i) by wear- 
ing down, as IN, "clothes," became the Chinese ?', "clothes," or as c-in became 
Gi ; cp. *~11, in, Siptit, withtTy, E (i) habu. But, further, this IN (en), "a 
house," like its other Accadian homophones, represents a primitive GIN (can), 
gin, "house," and gin, "clothes," both meant shelter, covering; cp. j 
yen, (gin), dialectic im siam ngc" (gin), "a shelter," of which the original form is 
said by some to resemble a house. The character is the 53rd radical, and enters 
into the composition of characters relating to dwellings. 

414 



June 3] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1890. 



ACCADIAN. 

kingad, love, to love. 

ka-lum, fruit. 
lu-gug, sheep, ram. 
si-lig, leader, strong. 
sag-du (sang-du), | head. 
su-shi, a corpse. 

sag-gigga, the Black-headed (a 
name of the Accadians). sag 
is the Chinese sang, sing, and 
gig \syih,yik, "black." 



DIL-BAD, Ae\e0nT (Hesych.), the 

planet Venus. 

LlG-Bl(-KTj), WOlf. 

ban-sur, dish, banquet, feast. 

ninni (= nin + nin), The Great 
Lady or Goddess (Ishtar). 

(sis-)si-ki, elder brother (Sin). 

kud-din, younger brother. 

(mu)ku, a timber tree (sign = 
mu, tree + ku, dioell). 



Chinese. 

ts'i'n (formerly kin)*-ngai, love. 

kien-ngai, to love all equally. 

kwo-lo, fruit (of all kinds). 

ling-yang, a sheep-like deer. 

shi-lih (old lik), strength, prowess. 

shang-fau, the head or chief. 

s'i-shi, a dead body ; Shanghai 
s'i-su. 

k l ien-sliau, Black-heads ; a name 
of the Chinese (cp. Accadian 
kan, "black") from Ts'in-Chi- 
Hwangti's time {circa 225 B.C.), 
according to the native au- 
thorities ; but probably much 
older. 

T'ai-poh, the planet Venus. 

lang-pei, wolf. 
fang-si, a plenteous table (full 

goblet ox plate + table), a feast. 
7iiang-niang (= nin-nin), lady 

goddess. 
kia-hiung (ki-sin), elder brother. 
ko-ti, younger brother. 
(mu) ku, a timber tree (sign = 

mu, tree + ku, dwell). 



It should perhaps be mentioned, though the fact will be evident 
enough to Chinese and Accadian scholars in their respective depart- 
ments, that in no case are these compound terms hypothetical 
formations of my own (like pin-lut = the Accadian billudu, for 



* As the phonetic of the character indicates. 

t sag (sang), "head," and "chief," was dialoctically shag (shang). It is 
related to Chinese sang, "forehead," and sin, sing, " the sinciput " (Cliifu shine) 
as well as to shau (old shug), Shanghai sit, " the head.*' Further, such an alter- 
native as sin or sing, "the sinciput," enables us to understand how Sag shang) 
or sag can be "mountain," "peak" in Accadian, and SHAN ( — shang), " moun- 
tain," in Chinese. 

415 2 G 2 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

example). All are taken from the accessible repertories of the two 
languages ; and my task has been simply to find and compare them : 
indice monstravi digito. 



As a result of our comparisons thus far, certain laws appear to 
emerge : — 

I. Laws of the Modification of Elementary Sounds : as, e.g., 
for initial consonants, that Chinese y = Accadian g;* Chinese ch 
(ch ( ) = Accadian t (or d) ; Chinese j = Accadian d; Chinese ts (ts') 
= Accadian z; Chinese f= Accadian p (b) ; Chinese h (h') = Acca- 
dian k (g), s (s) ; Chinese w, v= Accadian m (v) ; and Chinese 1 = 
Accadian 1, d, or r. 

For final consonants, that Chinese ng may represent (a) an 
Accadian final m or n, as in kung = kum, /7/;/^=kun (in gu-run), 
/u'ung= sin, sin, sim; m'dng=NiN' } Hang, leung, Hong, "humane," = 
lim (cp. me-li) = lam (in nita-lam), "man," as jan, " humane," = 
jan, "man" (Accadian din = gin): or (b) an Accadian g (ng), as 
yatig, yung, yeung, yong, = gug (gung), " sheep," sang, shang, zong 
= sag, sag, zag (sang, shang, zang), "head"; ts'ing, "green," 
" azure " = zi(G),f sig (zing, sing), "green." 

That a Chinese final vowel (1) may represent a final Accadian 
vowel, pa = ba, ti = di, mu = mu ; or (2) may imply, as in Acca- 
dian itself, the loss of a final consonant, k, p, t (g. b, d), s, r, 1; as 
pao = ba-r, ba-l, mao = ma-s, "leader," "foremost," yi (yik) = 
gig, "disease," pa (pat) = bad, "high," kin, kit = ku-r, ngai 
(ngat) = ga-d, "to love," p'ai (pat) = ba-d, " to open," si (sik) = 
si, sig, " clothes," " grief," and so on. 

As to internal vowels, a and u interchange in the dialects, and // 
and i everywhere show the closest affinity to each other, exactly as 
in the Accadian. 

II. A law of Dialectic Correspondence ; as when we find that 
chHh, old dik, "a step," is chHk ( = dig) in Cantonese, and ts'ak ( = 
zig) in Shanghai, or that chHh, " red," is ch'ik in Cantonese, and 

* Or a lost initial g; yuen = AN, "waste." My original instance, yc, 
" night," " darkness," agrees more exactly with the Accadian than I then per- 
ceived. The dialectic ye, ya, ya, point to 01 and ga, while the elements of the 
character (sik, "evening," + yik, ek, "also" 1 ) show that the final sound was 
k (g). In Accadian the character was called GA-GIG, and had each of those 
values, as well as GE or Gf. 

t In zi-kum, "heaven." 

416 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

ts'ek (=zig) in Shanghai, just like the Accadian dug = zib; or that 
yen, "word," is in Cantonese in, in Amoy gian, in Shanghai yi", like 
the Accadian, in, "speech," "charm," "word," GU(n), "to speak," 
gi(n) "to answer" ; or that Jan, old nin, "a man," is ydn, jin, nidng 
in the three dialects, forms equivalent to the Accadian gin, din, nin 
(ni) which all mean "male," "man"; or that juA, "to enter," old 
nip, is in the three dialects yap, jip, zeh C = gib, dib, zib), with which 
we may compare the Accadian ffij dib aldkn, bcCu, " to come," 
"to come in " ; or, again, as when we find that man, "the eye," "to 
look at," answers to bb ( = ba) in Amoy, and ma, "linen," to Amoy 
ha, just as Accadian mas answer to bar, and so in many other 
instances ; or that mu, "wood," has its counterpart \Vl yeh, "a post," 
yeh, " the stock of a tree " (old yet, git), just as Accadian mu 
answers to gis (=git) " tree," " wood " ; or, finally, that shing, " dish," 
is seng, sang in Amoy and Shanghai, so that we have the sequence 
shig, sig, zig, just as in Accadian we have shi and zi, " spirit," sang 
and zang, " head," sidi and zida, " right." 

III. What may perhaps be called a Law of the Correlation or 
Equivalence of Forms, which has played a great part in the evolu- 
tion of words in both languages. 

As an instance take the Chinese series : — 

yen, "a night-watch," "a guard"; yen, ngan, nge", "eye," "to 
see"; yen, im, yam, ye", "to flame," "brilliant"; yang, "to look up"; 
kin, "brilliance"; kin, "to see"; k'in, "to long for"; kien, "to see"; 
k'ien, "a firefly"; kan (Amoy), "to spy"; cA'an (din), "to glare at"; 
chdng (ding), "to burnish"; dfen, also read tien, "to spy"; Hen 
(tin), " to glance at " ; ti, " to gaze at " ; ts'e" (Shanghai), " to 
look at with awe"; ts'e' 1 (Shanghai), "to spy"; ts'iien, "to clear,"' 
" explain ; " tsing, " brightness " ; tsing, " ghost " ; s/ien, shan, shim, 
se", "to glance at," "flash"; shi, "to be"; shing, "bright," "pure"; 
lin (lim), " to behold " ; lien, " to discriminate " ; Ian, lam, lc K , 
"to inspect"; mien, "to look towards"; min, "white alabaster"; 
ming, "bright"; ming, "to look at"; man, "a fiat eye"; mang 
(mung), " dazzling," etc., etc. 

And the Accadian : — 
en, "to watch," gan, gin, " to desire " (strictly, "to gaze at"), 
gan, "to shine," gan, "to see" (igi-gan), g'un, "to look up," kin, 
"to look for." kin, "to watch" (ki-en-nun), kin, "to desire" (kin- 
gad), tin (din), "to see," tin, "to want" (aS-tin), di, "to look 

4i7 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

at," di, "to want" (as-di), (shin-di), zin, "bright" (zim-b r) s zi, 
"see," "live," shin, shi, "see," "become/' "be," sin, " oright," 
si "bright" (si-lag), shing, "bright," lim, "eye," "see," lam, 
"brightness" (me-lam), man, "sun," men, "pure," mul (=mun), 
"to shine," etc., etc. Other members of both series will readily 
occur. I conclude with : — 

The Ideogram T]£r<T>->^y. 

This sign, with the value gidim, meaning an evil spirit of the 
desert, is familiar enough to readers of Accadian religious documents. 
As it has never yet been analysed, its analysis will perhaps be 
admitted to afford some proof of the value of Chinese for the 
illustration of Accadian. It answers to a Chinese group read hiai- 
chai, or hiai-chi* denoting " a fabulous animal, half-deer, half unicorn, 
which dwells in the desert, and gores wicked men when it sees them." 
The older sound of the name was kai-dai, or kai-di, as the phonetic 
(kiai, kai) of Mai shows ; cp. Amoy hai-ti, and Shanghai ye-za. 
Now the character for hiai is compounded of the signs for dog -f- 
horn + knife + ox (kin, kak, tar, ngu). Writing this in Accadian 
characters, Jjy + ^Z + *>^r + £f^ (kin + kak + tar + gu), we 
see at once that it is the solution of the above ideogram. 

The Shanghai ye-za suggests Azazel f (Lev. xvi, 8), and points 
also to an initial g, as in the Accadian term. For the change 
from g to k, cp. the Accadian gi and ki, "fire." kin, "dog," 
will be treated of at length in a future paper. 

* The only other meaning assigned to the character chat or chi is "to dis- 
criminate"; which agrees perfectly with the Accadian di, "to judge." 

t Cp. also the other name of the Chinese demon, shin-yang, " the spirit-goat." 



Errata. — The Chinese characters, t'ien, p. 404, middle, and 
h l iung, p. 411, fifth line, are not correctly given; but both will be 
easily identified. 



41S 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 



SUR LES DYNASTIES DIVINES DE L'ANCIENNE 
EGYPTE. 

Par G. Maspero. 

L'origine, la constitution, et la repartition des dynasties divines 

qui, selon la tradition, avaient precede les dynasties humaines en 

Egypte, ont fourni matiere a hypotheses variees, de la part des savants 

qui se sont occupes de l'histoire et de la chronologie egyptiennes. 

Les dernieres decouvertes accomplies dans le domaine de la mytho- 

logie montrent que la solution proposee, il y a plus de trente ans, 

par Lepsius, dans son Memoire sur le premier cycle des dieux Egyptiens, 

etait vraie dans l'ensemble ; elles m'obligent toutefois a modifier 

grandement le detail, et a proposer plusieurs explications nouvelles 

auxquelles Lepsius ne pouvait songer, faute d'avoir a sa disposition 

un nombre suffisant de documents. 

Le Syncelle* nous a conserve, dans le tableau suivant, une 
version de l'histoire fabuleuse qu'on rencontrait chez Manethon : — 

" Sur les Egyptiens, en premier, regno. Hephcestos. 724 ans f 
" Premiere Dynastie. 

"2 Helios, fils tTHephcBstos 8oi 

" 3 Agathodemon 56^ 

" 4 Kronos 40^ 

" 5 Osiris et Isis 35 

"6° Typhon 29." 

Viennent ensuite des demi-dieux, au nombre de neuf, qui form en t 
une seconde dynastie, dont le premier roi est Harsiisit T n/Jov ^ut'Beoi, 
Horos le demi-dieu, fils d'Isis et d'Osiris. Je prefere cette redaction 
aux autres, a cause d'un detail dont on ne me parait pas avoir tenu 
un compte suffisant, bien qu'il ait une valeur extreme. Hephaestos 
n'y est pas confondu avec les dieux qui suivent ; il demeure en 
vedette, isole au debut de l'histoire, et la premiere dynastie ne 
commence qu'apres lui, avec Helios, fils d'Hephrestos. Manethon 
placait done en tete de son livre un dieu hors cadre, H(^ph?estos, puis 
introduisait derriere lui une premiere dynastie de cinq dieux, et une 

* Dans Muller, Ftagtn. Hist. Gracorum de Didot, t. II, p, 53°^~53 Ia< 

419 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1890. 

seconde de neuf demi-dieux. Je laisse les neuf demi-dieux de cote" 
pour le moment et je m'occuperai d'abord des cinq dieux, et 
d'Hephasstos. Si je place leurs noras indigenes a cote de leurs noms 
hellenises, j'obtiens la double liste que voici : — 

i° E'ephcestos Phtah 

Premiere Dynastie. 

2 Helios Rd 

3 Sosos\Agathodemon~\* Shou-[Shai] 

4 Kronos Sibou 

5 Osiris et Isis Ouosiri, Osiri, et Is it 

6° Typhon S/t, Souti. 

La mention d'Isis avec Osiris, dans le Syncelle, montre que les 
documents originaux placaient les deesses reines et meres a cote des 
dieux. Je les retablirai chacune avec le dieu dont elle est l'epouse, 
et je completerai ainsi la double liste : — 

i° Hephcestos Phtah 

Premiere Dynastie. 

2 Helios Ra-\Atoumoii\ 

3 Sosos-\_ ] Shou-Tafnoiiit 

4 Kronos\Rhea\ Sibou-Nouit 

5 Osiris- 1 sis Osiri-Isit 

6° Typhon-[Nephthys] SU-Nebthait. 

Si nous ecartons Hephaestos, il nous reste pour le premiere dynastie, 
du cote egyptien, la Grande Enneade dHeliopolis, Ra-[Toumou], 

* Le nom de Sosos est introduit ici par les autres listes a. la place de celui 
d'Agathodemon. Agathodemon est a proprement parler le dieu Kneph, le 
serpent joufflu qui pond l'oeuf du monde, ou le serpent protecteur, la destinee 
Jq J ^T M^ MJl Shai. La substitution d'Agathodemon a Shou, ou plutot l'identi- 
fication de l'un avec l'autre, me parait etre amenee, i° par la presence de 2<Z<tos, 
dans la liste des rois demi-dieux que nous verrons plus tard : Manethon, ou 
l'auteur qu'il suivait, aura voulu eviter ce doid)le emploi du meme nom divin ; 
2° par le desir d'introduire a une place relevee un dieu, Khnoumou, Kneph, qui 
commencait a jouer un grand role dans la pensee religieuse de 1'Egypte ; 3" cette 
substitution a ete favorisee par l'assonance sufri.-%ante du nom S/ion-Sosos, avec le 
nom Shai- Agathodemon. Je retablis done le nom de Shou-S6sos a cote de celui 
d'Agathodemon-Shai dans la liste, pour la plus grande clarte de l'exposition, et 
je conclus de la presence du nom d'Agathodemon, que la redaction de notre liste 
que Syncelle nous a conservee ne sauiait etre anterieure au moment ou le cultc 
<le Khnoumou-Kneph se d^veloppa, e'est-a-dire a la tin de l'epoque persane. 

420 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

Shou Tafnouit, Sibou-Nouit, Osiri-Isit, Sit-Nebthait,* du cote grec, 
la traduction, Helios, du nom Egyptien de Ra. et la forme hellenisee 
des noms des quatre dieux males qui entrent a la suite de Toumou 
dans la Grande Enneade, Sosos (Agathodemon), Kronos, Osiris, 
Typhon. J'en conclus que la premiere dynastie divine de Mane'thon 
n'est autre que la Grande Enneade d'Heliopolis, ® ^ 1 < ^ => -|- ^ 
a I Q rnais a la condition d'expliquer pourquoi le premier membre 
de la dynastie ne s'appelle pas Toumou, comme le premier membre 
de l'Enneade, et pourquoi Hephsestos-Phtah se trouve iso!6 en tete 
des dynasties. 

Et de fait, le dieu feodal d'Heliopolis ne s'appelle pas Toumou 
primitivement ; son nom reel est Ra, dont nous ne savons ni la 
signification, ni l'origine. Ra est pour le peuple le soleil materiel 
qui se leve chaque jour a l'Orient, Ra est le createur qui a mis les 
elements dans l'ordre oil nous les voyons, Ra. est enfin le plus 
ancien roi de l'Egypte. Manethon et ses auteurs etaient done par- 
faitement autorises a dire que Ra. etait le chef de la premiere 
dynastie divine, Ra. et non Toumou, Helios et non Tomos. Toumou 
est, avant tout, un dieu de theologien, ne dans le sanctuaire. Le 
Soleil en effet, en tant que demiurge, n'avait pas une existence une et 
homogene. L'acte de la creation partageait son existence en deux 
moments entierement distincts : le moment passe oil notre monde 
n'etait pas encore et oil lui-meme se trouvait mele au chaos 
primordial, le moment present oil notre monde est et oil lui-meme 
nous eclaire de sa lumiere sans cesse renaissante. Les fideles ne 
separaient pas tres nettement ces deux epoques de la vie du dieu ; 
avant comme apres la creation, il etait pour eux Ra. et rien de plus. 
Mais les theologiens avaient ete conduits par la reflexion a les 
distinguer par des noms differcnts. Le mot Ra etait attache de 
fac,on si indissoluble a Pidee du personnage lumineux dont le 
disque parcourt notre ciel, qu'ils le conserverent pour designer la 
periode ou la personne actuelle de leur divinite supreme. La 
periode ou la personne anterieure a la creation, dont le peuple 
ne se souciait gueres, regut d'eux un nom factice Toumou, Atounwu, 
qui parait signifier soit le tout, la totalite, soit la creation. Au Ea 
primitif de la religion courante oorrespondaient dans la theologie 
deux noms Atoumou et Ra, qu'on isolait parfois pour marquer la 

* C'est ainsi, en efFet, que nous la donnent les monuments de toutes lr> 
epoques, depuis les Pyramedes {cf. Maspero, la Myt/wlogie Egyptiemta, p. 43 sqq. ). 

421 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

difference entre les deux moments de la vie du soleil auxquels ils 
repondaient, et que parfois on reunissait en une seule expression 
complexe Ra-toumou, Atoumou-ra, pour bien montrer qu'ils ne 
couvraient qu'un seul etre. Si l'Enneade avait ete a Heliopolis une 
conception populaire, le nom de Ra. y aurait figure comme premier 
terme, et Ton aurait eu la serie, RA, Shou-Tafnouit, Sibou-Nouit, etc. 
Mais l'Enneade etait, comme j'ai eu souvent l'occasion de le dire, un 
systeme combine par les theologiens d'Heliopolis afin d'expliquer la 
creation et d'en preciser les instants successifs. Les pretres y 
plagerent naturellement au lieu de Ra leur Atoumou, et firent la 
serie Atoumou, Shou-Tafnouit, Sibou-Nouit, etc. Ils n'avaient 
point du reste la pretention d'exiler Ra de l'Enneade : ils l'y com- 
prenaient tacitement sous Atoumou, et le second couple Shou- 
Tafnouit, conserva toujours chez eux le titre de Si ou Sit Ra, fils 
on file de Ra, quand raerae son per e Atoumou le precede immediate- 
ment et que son pere Ra n'est pas explicitement nomme. En 
resume leur cosmologie, telle qu'elle est resumee dans la Grande 
Enneade, supposait qu'au debut, " quand il n'y avait pas encore 
de ciel, qu'il n'y avait pas encore de terre, qu'il n'y avait pas encore 
d'hommes, que les dieux n'etaient pas encore nes, qu'il n'y avait pas 
encore de mort,"* Toumou etait seul dans le Nou, l'Ocean primordial. 
Au jour qu'il avait fixe pour la creation, il sortit du lotus sous forme 
de disque lumineux et fut Ra. Au bout d'un certain temps, Shou 
arracha Nouit des bras de Sibou, la souleva pour en faire le ciel, et 
Ra montant sur elle commenca a circuler autour de notre terre. Si 
nous mettons ce recit en tableau, nous avons une liste de noms. 

Atoumou avant la creation. 
La Creation. 

Ra. 

Shou- Taf nouit. 

Sibou-Nouit, etc. 
qui repond comme disposition a. celle des dynasties de Manethon : — 
"Sur les Egyptiens, en premier, re'gna Hephcestos. 
Premiere Dynastie. 

Helios, fils d'Hephrestos. 

Agathodhnon (Sosos). 

Kronos, etc. 

* Pyramide de Pepi I, 1. 664, dans le Recueil, T. viii, pp. 103, 104, Toumou 
donne, dans ce passage, naissance a Pepi, qui est identifie a Ra. 

422 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

et ne differe d'elle que par le nom du dieu anterieur, a la creation 
d'une part, a la premiere dynastie de l'autre, Atoumou au lieu 
d'Hephoestos. 

La raison de cette difference est connue de longue date. 
L'Enneade heliopolitaine parut si ingenieuse et si complete aux 
colleges sacerdotaux des autres principautes egyptiennes, que la 
plupart d'entre eux l'adopterent entierement depuis Atoumou jusqu'a 
Nephthys. Si nous prenons par exemple l'Enneade thebaine, nous 
verrons qu'elle se compose de Montou que suivent Toumoit, Shou- 
Tafnouit, Sibou-Nouit, etc.* On saisit, sans que j'aie besoin d'y 
insister, la facon dont les pretres thebains ont procede pour s'appro- 
pner l'Enneade heliopolitaine. lis ont profite de la personnalite 
double que la theologie pretait au premier membre de l'Enneade, 
Atoumou-Ra, pour mettre en tete, comme dieu primordial et comme 
demiurge, le dieu feodal de leur pays, Montou. f Montou fut done 
dans le systeme thebain le dieu qui existait avant la creation : 
Atoumou degrade de ce rang supreme, n'y fut plus que l'equivalent 
de Ra, le soleil qui eclaire le monde apres la creation. J Nous avons 

* Voir les exemples que Lepsius en a reunis dans son memoire Ueber den 
erst en ALgyptiscIien Gottcrkreis. 

t Montou etait le dieu feodal de toute la plaine thebaine : on le trouve 
souverain a Ennent, a Taoud, a Medamot. Anion ne devait etre au debut que 
le dieu local du bourg insignifiant de Karnak, et ne prit son importance qu'a 
partir du moment 011 les dynasties thebaines regnerent sur l'Egypte, encore ne 
reussit-il pas a chasser Montou de ses positions, et apres la chute de Thebes, vers 
l'epoque romaine, celui-ci reprit la situation preponderante qu'il avait eu clans les 
commencements. La presence de Montou a la tete de l'Enneade thebaine nous 
donne une date a minima pour l'introductiorj de l'Enneade heliopolitaine dans 
cette region : elle se fit avant la xi e dynastie au plus tard, e'est-a-dire avant le 
moment oil les evenements politiques assirent la suprematie thebaine sur l'Egypte. 
Am on ne me parait d'ailleurs, comme Atoumou, etre qu'un dieu de sanctuaire 
resultant d'une combination artificielle entre les deux divinites qui regnaient dans 
cette contree, Minou de Coptos et Montou. 

\ Cette interversion etait d'autant plus indiquee que Montou, maiire d'Onou 
du midi, est le soleil materiel comme Ra, maitre d'Onou du Nord. En adoptani 
la serie Montou, Ra, Shou-Tafnouit, etc., c'aurait done ete le meme personnage 
solaire qu'on aurait eu sous les deux noms de Montou et de Ra, et le type 
du soleil anterieur a Ta creation n'aurait pas ete represente* dans la serie. Au 
contraire, dans l'Enneade Memphite, oil le dieu local Thtah n'avait rien de solaire 
et n'etait qu'un dieu terrestre, la theologie locale a respecte 1'ordre adniis 
a Heliopolis, et a mis apres Phtah, Ra et non Atoumou : la, en eflet, Phtah 
figure naturellement le dieu anterieur a la creation, et il faut introduire dans 
la serie l'equivalent du soleil materiel, en d'autres termes, Ra. 

423 



June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890. 

si peu des monuments a Memphis, que nous ne sommes gueres 
renseignes sur la composition de TEnneade Memphite. Toutefois, 
en combinant quelques documents provenant d'autres localites, on en 
arrive a. voir qu'elle etait constitute de Phtah, pere des dieux, de 
RA, puis de Sliou-Tafnouit, Sibou-A T ouit, et des autres memes dieux 
que l'heliopolitaine. La cosmologie Memphite, mise en tableau, 
comprend done: — 

Phtah avant la creation. 
La Creation. 

Ra. 

Shou-Tafnouit, etc. 

C'est exactement la donnee de Manethon dans le Syncelle : — 
" Sur les Egyptiens, en premier, regna Hiphcestos. 

Premiere Dynastie. 
" Helios, fils d'Hephcestos. 
" Agathodemon (Sosos), etc." 

Le dieu hors cadre et les cinq rois de la premiere dynastie divine de 
Manethon, ne sont autres que la variante Memphite de PEnneade 
heliopolitaine. J'en tirerai deux conclusions egalement importantes 
pour la critique de Manethon et pour celle de l'histoire d'Egypte: — 

i°. Le document dont Manethon s'est servi pour etablir l'histoire 
fabuleuse est un document memphite ; 

2 . L'histoire fabuleuse, a Memphis, a Thebes, ct probablement dans 
toute VEgypte, reposait sur une tradition theologique heliopolitaine, a 
peine modifice an debut par les exigences de la vanite locale. 

Manethon, ou plutot les auteurs qui nous ont transmis ses 
fragments, ne nous ont rien conserve de l'histoire de ces dynastes 
divines. Les monuments egyptiens nous sont plus secourables, et 
nous ont rendu deja plusieurs lambeaux de leurs chroniques fabu- 
leuses. Les uns se rattachent de preference h. la version Memphite ; 
ainsi, dans le morceau oil on raconte comment Sibou termina la 
guerre entre Horus, fils d'Isis, et Typhon, en leur attribuant a l'un 
la Basse, a l'autre la Haute Egypte, et en fixant avec precision 
la limite de leurs domaines, Phtah semble etre le dieu primordial 
qui a precede tous les autres dieux et les a crees. D'autres, 
comme les fragments de la legende Osirienne, semblent nous 
etre parvenus sous une forme originaire du Delta. Partout, le 
recit soi-disant historique qu'on nous fait des actions des dieux 

424 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1S90. 

n'est qu'un arrangement des phenomenes qu'on pensait avoir ete 
accomplis par l'Enneade aux divers instants de la creation. Je 
me bornerai a citer a l'appui de cette opinion un seul de ces 
fragments, celui que Naville a publie et interprete le premier, et qui 
nous raconte la fin du regne de Ra, Helios.* L'univers sur lequel 
Ra exerc,ait son autorite n'etait que Pebauche du notre ; Shou n'y 
avait pas encore separe Sibou de Nouit, et le ciel ne faisait qu'un 
avec la terre. II y avait pourtant des plantes, des animaux, de 
veritables hommes dans ce premier essai de monde. L'Egypte s'y 
trouvait tout entiere avec ses deux montagnes, son Nil, ses rite's, le 
peuple de ses nomes, ses nomes eux-memes. Le dieu-roi residait a 
Heliopolis, et le palais qu'il s'y construisit devint plus tard, sous le 
nom de Chateau du roi — Halt Sarou, — un des sanctuaires les plus 
veneres du pays. Lorsqu'il en ouvrait les portes et qu'il apparaissait 
sur le seuil, la lumiere apparaissait avec lui et le jour se levait. II 
sortait alors avec sa troupe de dieux et s'embarquait aux acclamations 
de la foule pour fournir sa course habituelle autour de la vallee. 
Les provinces recevaient tour a tour sa visite, et il sejournait une 
heure dans chacune d'elles pour regler en dernier ressort les affaires 
pendantes. Sa journee faite, il rentrait dans son palais, en fermait 
les portes sur lui et la nuit tombait aussitot. Cependant la vieillesse 
arrivait et les infirmites avec elle ; le corps de Ra se courbait, " la 
"bouche lui grelottait, la bave lui ruisselait vers la terre, la salive lui 
" degouttait sur le sol." t Le temps vint oil les hommes eux-m€mes 
s'apercurent de sa decrepitude, et tinrent des propos contre lui : 
" Voici Sa Majeste vieillit, ses os sont d'argent, ses chairs sont d'or, 
"ses cheveux sont de lapis-lazuli." Ce n'est pas ici le lieu de 
raconter en detail comment il convoqua le conseil des dieux dans 
Heliopolis, comment ceux-ci lui conseillerent de chatier les hommes, 
comment Sokhit, la lionne, fut chargee de l'execution du chatiment, 
ni comment Ra. empecha la deesse de detruire entitlement la race 
humaine. La partie du recit qui interesse specialement la question 
que je traite, commence a l'instant oil Ra vainqueur, mais degout£ de 
sa propre victoire, songe a terminer son regne. II veut se retirer du 
monde, mais ne sait ou trouver un endroit oil il soit a l'abri des 
hommes. Impuissant a rien creer de nouveau en tant que Ra, il 
s'adresse a sa forme primordiale, celle qui etait dans l'eau primitive et 

* Naville, La destruction des hommes par les dieux, dans les Transactions of 
the Society of Biblical Archaology, T. EV, p. 1-19, et T. VIII, p. 412-420. 
t Pleyte et Rossi : Les Papyrus de Turin, pi. exxxii, lignes 1 et 2. 

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June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [i?go. 

qui se confond avec elle en son nora de Nou. Nou (Atoumou) se 
remet done a l'ceuvre et acheve la creation qu'il avait laissee im- 
parfaite a l'avenement de Ra. La legende cosmogonique presentait 
la separation du ciel et de la terre comrae un acte de violence exerce 
par Shou sur Sibou et sur Nouit. L'histoire fabuleuse interpreta la 
legende et la traduisit de fa^on moins brutale. Shou y devint un fils 
vertueux qui consacra son temps et ses forces a porter Nouit pour 
rendre service a, son pere. Nouit de son cote est. une enfant bien 
elevee qu'il n'est point necessaire de rudoyer pour lui enseigner ses 
devoirs ; elle consent de bonne grace a quitter son mari pour mettre 
son ai'eul Ra a l'abri de toute attaque. " La Majeste de Nou dit : 
" ' Fils Shou, agis pour ton pere Ra. selon ses commandements, et toi, 
" fille Nouit, place-le sur ton dos, et tiens-le suspendu au-dessus de 
"la terre.' Nouit dit: ' Et comment cela, mon pere Nou?' Ainsi 
"parla Nouit et elle fit ce que Nou lui ordonnait ; elle se transforma 
"en vache et plaga la Majeste de Ra sur son dos. Quand ceux des 
" homines qui n'avaient pas ete tues vinrent rendre graces a Ra, voici 
" qu'ils ne le trouverent plus dans son palais, mais une vache £tait 
" debout. et ils Papercurent sur le dos de la vache." lis n'essayerent 
pas de le faire revenir sur sa resolution, tant ils le virent decide" au 
depart ; du moins voulurent-ils lui donner une preuve de repentir qui 
leur assurat le pardon complet de leur crime. " Ils lui dirent : Attends 
"jusqu'a demain, 6 Ra notre maitre, et nous renverserons tes ennemis 
"quionttenu des propos contre toi." "Sa Majeste revint done a 
" son chateau, descendit de la vache, entra avec eux, et la terre fut 
" plongee dans les tene'bres. Mais quand la terre s'eclaira au matin 
" nouveau, les hommes sortirent avec leurs arcs et leurs fleches, et ils 
" commencerent a tirer contre les ennemis. Sur quoi la Majeste" de 
" ce dieu leur dit: ' Vos peches vous sont remis, car le sacrifice 
" ' e'earte l'execution du coupable.' Et ce fut l'origine des sacrifices 
" sanglants sur terre." C'est ainsi qu'au moment de se separer pour 
toujours le dieu et les hommes s'entendirent pour regler les rapports 
qu'ils auraient a l'avenir. Les hommes offraient au dieu la vie de 
ceux qui l'avaient offense. Le sacrifice humain etait done a leurs 
yeux le sacrifice obligatoire, le seul qui put racheter les fautes com- 
mises contre la divinite ; un homme seul avait qualite pour laver 
dans son sang les peches des hommes. Le dieu consentit pour la 
premiere fois a accepter l'expiation telle qu'elle lui dtait presentee, 
puis la repugnance qu'il eprouvait a. tuer ses enfants l'emporta : il 
substitua la bete a l'homme, et decida que le bceuf, la gazelle, les 

426 



June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890. 

oiseaux seraient desormais la matiere clu sacrifice. Ce point regie, il 
remonte sur la vache. Celle-ci se leve, s'arcboute sur ses quatre 
jambes, comme sur autant de piliers ; son ventre, allonge comme un 
plafond au-dessus de la terre, forme le ciel. Ra cependant s'occupe 
d'organiser le royaume nouveau qu'il decouvre sur le dos de Nouit ; 
il le peuple d'etres nombreux, y choisit deux cantons pour lui-meme, 
le Champ a* Asp ho dele (ou des Feves) — Sokhit iarou — et le Champ 
de paix (ou des offrandes) — Sokhit hotpit — suspend les lampes qui 
doivent desormais eclairer les nuits, le tout avec force jeux de mots, 
destines selon l'usage oriental a expliquer les noms que la legende 
assignait aux diverses parties du ciel. Tandis qu'il se livrait a ce 
passe-temps philologique, Nouit, transported soudain a une hauteur 
inaccoutumee, prit peur et cria au secours vers Nou : " Donne-moi 
"par grace des etais pour me soutenir ! " Ce fut le commencement 
des dieux-etais, les dieux des quatre points cardinaux, ou plutot des 
quatre maisons du monde. lis vinrent se placer chacun aupres 
d'une des jambes de la vache qu'ils assurerent de leurs mains et pres 
de laquelle ils ne cesserent plus de monter bonne garde. " Ra dit : 
" ' Mon fils Shou, place-toi sous ma fille Nouit, et, veillant pour 
"moi sur ces etais-ci et sur ces etais-la qui sont dans le crepuscule, 
" aies la au-dessus de la tete et sois son pasteur.'" Shou obeit, 
vint se ranger sous le ventre de Nouit, les bras leves ; la deesse 
reprit courage, et le monde, pourvu du ciel qui lui avait manque 
jusqu'alors, regut la forme que nous lui connaissons. 

L'histoire de la premiere dynastie divine avait done pour cadre 
les principaux faits de la cosmogonie, et ses membres e'taient iden- 
tiques aux membres de la Grande Enneade d'Heliopolis. Si Ton 
passeal'examen dela seconde dynastie, celle qui, d'apres Manethon, 
etait composee de demi-dieux, on sera frappe d'y voir reparattre 
ce nombre neuf, caracteristique des doctrines heliopolitaines. La 
succession s'en presente comme il suit : — ■ 

7 Horos, demi-dieu 25 a /is. 

8° Ares, demi-dieu .... . . 23 ,, 

9 Anoubis, demi-dieu 17 ,, 

io° Heracles, demi-dieu 15 „ 

n° Apollo, demi-dieu 25 ,, 

12 Ammon, demi-dieu 30 ,, 

1 3 Tit hoes, demi-dieu 27 ,, 

1 4 Sosos, demi-dieu 32 ,, 

15° Zeus, demi-dieu 20 ,, 

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June 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1890. 

Tous ces noms ne sont pas egalement faciles a identifier a des 

prototypes egyptiens. Je crois pourtant que la liste suivante est 
au moins vraisemblable : — 

Horos Harsiisit, Hor fits d'Isis. 

Ares Anhouri, Onouris. 

Anoubis Anoupou. 

Heracles Khonsou. 

Apollo Har-houditi, Hor d'Edfou. 

Amnion Anion. 

Tithoes Thouti, Thot. 

Sosos SJwu. 

Zeus Amon-rd. 

La distinction entre Horos et Apollo se retrouve au Papyrus royal 

de Turin, qui compte au moins deux j^ Horou parmi les dynastes 
divins : qu'Apollo soit Har-houditi, la traduction Apollonopolis que 
les Grecs firent du nom de la ville d'Edfou ne permet aucun doute 
a cet egard. Tithoes me parait cacher le nom de Thot et Heracles 
celui de Khonsou ; Zeus est Amonra de Thebes. Ces repetitions 
Horou et Har-houditi, Anion et Amonra, ainsi que la reapparition 
de Shou, sont justifiees par le peu que nous savons des monuments 
egyptiens. La petite Enneade thebaine, par exemple, renferme 
a Karnak deux Ouapouaitou.* La dynastie des demi-dieux est 
done, elle aussi, dans cet extrait de Manethon, une Enneade, 
mais une Enneade dont tous les membres sont des dieux non 
accouples. Or le peu que nous savons de la seconde Enneade 
heliopolitaine, la petite Enneade, presente la meme particularity. 
Les divinite's dont elle se compose n'ont pas de mari ou de femme, 
ou s'ils une femme ou un mari l'absorbent pour ainsi dire en 
elles-memes et ne comptent a deux que pour un seul numero. Je 
crois done que le prototype de la deuxieme dynastie divine de 
Manethon etait la seconde Enneade heliopolitaine. Evidemment la 
liste qu'il en donne ne nous a pas conserve la composition premiere 
de cette petite Enneade : des noms comme Anion et Khonsou ne 
peuvent y avoir ete introduits qu'apres la XII e dynastie au plus 
tot, et sont a. eux seuls une preuve de reman iement. Comme la 
version de la premiere Enneade que Mane'thon adopte est la version 
Memphite, il me parait au moins tres probable, sinon entierement 
certain, que sa liste de la seconde dynastie represente une version 

* Lepsius, Ueber den erst en G'dtterkreis, pi. II. 
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June 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1890 

memphite de la petite Enneade, celle ou une de celles qui avaient 
cours au debut de l'epoque grecque. Autant que j'en puis juger, 
les divinites comprises dans la petite Enneade etaient celles qui, le 
monde une fois organise et la vie mise en mouvement sur la terre, 
avaient ete chargees plus specialement de disposer l'Egypte et d'y 
regulariser la vie politique et sociale. Ainsi, le traite conclu entre 
le premier d'entre eux, Harsiisit, et son oncle Sit, avait determine 
la division du pays en deux royaumes distincts, celui de la Haute 
et celui de la Basse Egypte ; Thot avait preside a la repartition en 
nomes et en cites, etc. Quoi que Ton pense de cette interpreta- 
tion, on ne refusera pas, je crois, d'admettre, qu'ici encore, l'histoire 
fabuleuse de Manethon a pour fondement la tradition heliopolitaine, 
plus ou moins modifiee par des elements memphites. 

Or la tradition he'liopolitaine admettait trois Enneades formant 
un total de vingt-sept dieux et deesses. Nous ne connaissons rien 
de la troisieme Enneade, et ce n'est que par conjecture que j'ai ete 
tente d'y ranger les dieux secondaires des morts, surtout les quatre 
enfants d'Horus. Manethon de son cote admet, apres les deux 
dynasties des dieux et des demi-dieux, une troisieme dynastie de 
morts, NeWs, sur laquelle nous n'avons aucun renseignement. Nean- 
moins, etant donnee l'analogie des dynasties precedentes, je crois que 
celle-la aussi etait une Enneade, la troisieme du systeme heliopolitain. 
Les sources Memphites auxquelles la version de Manethon rapportee 
par le Syncelle aurait ete puisee auraient done renferme" un expose 
de l'histoire primitive de l'Egypte, derive de la theologie des pretres 
d'Heliopolis. La triple Enneade, les vingt-sept dieux des Helio- 

politains lliniinmmmmimil, auraient fourni trois 
dynasties, correspondant chacune a une des Enneades. Ce qui 
jusqu'a